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GREEK SERIES FOR COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS 

EDITED 
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

HERBERT WEIR SMYTH, Ph.D. 

ELIOT PROFESSOR OF GREEK LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



■sp 



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Herodotus 

{From i be double Hermes at Naples) 



HERODOTUS 

BOOKS VII AND VIII 



EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 
BY 

CHARLES FORSTER SMITH 

PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 

AND 

ARTHUR GORDON LAIRD 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY 
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 



NEW YORK •:• CINCINNATI •:• CHICAGO 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 






/TlARVARcTN 
[UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 
I OCT 1 1940 / 



/;-, w^ «./ 1. 



Copyright, 1908, by 
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 

herodotus. 
W- P. I 



PREFACE 

The basis of this edition of Books VII and VIII of Herodotus 
is the Teubner (Kallenberg) text, the few variations being 
mainly restorations of Mss. readings; in matters of dialect, 
however, we have followed Fritsch, who established the prece- 
dent of making the Ipnic inscriptions the basis for determining 
Herodotean forms. The chief variations from Fritsch have been 
the use of co for cv and the retention of the rough breathing. 

The great edition of Stein has been consulted at every point, 
and more has been borrowed from him than from any other 
source. Much indebtedness is due also to Sitzler's excellent 
common-sense edition, especially as a guide in the effort to be 
brief, to the point, and not over-learned. Kriiger and Abicht 
have also been constantly in hand, and especial mention should 
be made of help derived from Merriam for Book VII. Other 
works of especial interest are mentioned in the Bibliography. 

The notes on Book VII are by Professor Smith, those on 
Book VIII by Professor Laird. The Historical Introduction — 
borrowed substantially, it is frankly acknowledged, from Stein's 
Einleitung — was prepared by the former; the Syntactical 
Introduction, which is an entirely independent study made for 
this edition, is by Professor Laird. 



LIST OF MAPS 

PAGE 

Xerxes' Expedition acainst Greece facing 83 

Xerxes' Passage of the Hellespont 129 

Thermopylae 266 

Salamis 365 



INTRODUCTION 

A. HISTORICAL 
a. LIFE OF HERODOTUS 

Herodotus was the "father of history," as he was styled by 
Cicero. 1 The facts of his life are little known, for no vita has 
come down to us, beyond the article in Suidas. Even the date 
of his birth is not exactly known. Our earliest authority, Diony- 
sius of Halicarnassus, 2 says that he was " born shortly before the 
Persian wars and survived till the Peloponnesian War." More 
definite is the statement of Pamphila, 8 a compiler of the time of 
Nero, who puts his birth fifty-three years before the outbreak of 
the Peloponnesian War, as Thucydides' birth forty years before 
the same, which would give us 484 b.c. as the date of Herodo- 
tus' birth. Eusebius puts his prime at 468 B.C., which would 
throw back the year of Herodotus' birth before 500 B.C. 

Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus, a town of mixed Greek 
population, mainly Dorian, 4 which was the capital of the little 
kingdom of Caria, then, like all the other Greek cities of the 
coast of Asia Minor, subject to the king of Persia. It was 
directly ruled, however, by Artemisia, regent for her minor son 
Pisindelis, and as commander of the Carian contingent in the 
fleet of Xerxes glorified in the history of Herodotus. 

His father's name was Lyxes, his mother's Dryo or Rhoeo, 
and he had a brother named Theodorus. 5 The family was 

1 De Leg. I. I. 2 De Thuc. 5. 

8 See Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. 15. 23. 4 Hdt. 7. 99. 

6 Suidas, s.v.; Luc. irepl rov 0(kov 20; Steph. Byz. j.z/. 6otfpio*, 

7 



8 HERODOTUS 

prominent (cn-i^avifc, Suidas) and probably wealthy, judging from 
Herodotus' extensive travels ; but perhaps not of pure Hellenic 
strain, at least on the father's side, whose name is probably 
Carian, as was also that of his kinsman, Panyasis. Now this 
Panyasis * — whether uncle or cousin — was a seer (Tc/xrrooTcorros) 
and learned poet, who attained conspicuous success and reputa- 
tion in his attempts to revive epic poetry, being the author of 
at least two lengthy epic poems, one on the Labors of Hercules, 
in fourteen books, another on the settlement of Ionic colonies 
in Asia Minor, and he doubtless much influenced the poetical 
and historical taste of his younger kinsman. We know nothing 
definite about Herodotus , early education ; but this consisted 
doubtless, as generally for the youth of the time, mainly in the 
reading of the poets ; and his familiarity with these is made abun- 
dantly evident, not only by the epithet applied to him by Diony- 
sius H., 'Ofx^pov ZrjXuTrisy or that of Longinus, 'OfiripucuraTos, but 
by many references scattered throughout his history, above all to 
Homer, but also to Hesiod, Aristeas, Musaeus, Arion, Alcaeus, 
Sappho, Solon, Pindar, Simonides, Phrynichus, Aeschylus. 

It was a great and stirring period into which he was born. His 
first impression of the great world outside was the noise of the 
preparations Xerxes was making to avenge the defeat of the Per- 
sians at Marathon, with which all Asia was then in commotion, 
and he must have heard often enough the story of the Ionian 
revolt, which had culminated in the burning of Sardis and ended 
with the defeat of the Ionian fleet in the battle of Lade (496). 
That the Greeks of the motherland should have dared to attempt 
to withstand the power of the world-empire of Persia must have 
filled with astonishment the minds of all the men about him, and 
that little Athens alone should have signally defeated a Persian 
army vastly superior in numbers in the first conflict on Greek 

1 Suidas, s.v. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

soil had doubtless filled the boy's mind with enthusiasm immeas- 
urable. And all this must be taken into account as contributing 
to his mental development and as predisposing him to the task 
which he later undertook, of writing the history of the great con- 
flict between the east and the west. 

The Persian empire was then at the height of its power. It 
extended from Thrace and Macedon in the west to the confines 
of India in the east and of Ethiopia in the south. It had been 
consolidated by Darius into a vast unity, operated like a great 
machine from a central point, and articulated by a comprehen- 
sive system of post roads extending to all^ parts of the empire. 
It was divided into twenty satrapies, whose internal administra- 
tion was modeled on that of the empire as a whole. In this 
great Persian empire the development of western Asia, covering 
more than two millenniums, seemed to have reached its climax 
and conclusion. 

In the midst of the vast preparations that were making on the 
part of Darius to take vengeance on Athens for the defeat at 
Marathon came the revolt of Egypt and then the death of Darius. 
But Xerxes, his successor, had first subdued the revolt and then 
led against Greece the largest army ever assembled in the world's 
history up to that time ; and when the news came that this vast 
host also had been defeated, first by sea and then on land, the 
boy Herodotus doubtless heard from the lips of his elders words 
like these, " It is not our work, but the gods and heroes have 
wrought it." 1 

According to Suidas, Artemisia, queen of Caria, was succeeded 
by her son Pisindelis, and he by his son — more probably brother 
or more distant relative — Lygdamis. And this Lygdamis, third 
in succession after Artemisia, seems to have come into conflict 
with a portion of the citizens of Halicarnassus over a claim of 

1 8. 109. 



12 HERODOTUS 

The date of his death can be reached only approximately by com- 
bination. It used to be assumed from the mention of the Propy- 
laea at Athens, 1 which was completed in 431 b.c, that we had here 
a reliable date for a second sojourn of Herodotus at Athens. But 
Wachsmuth 2 has shown that for the four-horse chariot there men- 
tioned the space did not suffice inside of the Propylaea, and so 
Herodotus must have meant not the portico of the Propylaea, but 
the inclosed place in front of the old entrance to the Acropolis, 
where later the great gateway was built ; consequently the four- 
horse chariot could not have stood after 437 where Herodotus saw 
it. With this agrees Herodotus' omission 3 of mention of the 
completed Parthenon (438 B.C.) and the fact that Amphipolis, 
planted as a colony in 437 B.C., is still called in Herodotus by its 
old name 'Ewea 'O&k. But if the reference to the four-horse char- 
iot does not prove that Herodotus saw the Propylaea in 431, the 
mention of the surprise of Plataea 4 does show that he was alive in 
that year, and the execution of Spartan envoys referred to at an- 
other place 5 occurred in 430 b.c. On the other hand, the mention 
of Darius Hystaspes in 1. 130 6 simply as Darius, without distinction 
from Darius Nothus, indicates that Herodotus was not alive at the 
time of the accession of the latter (424 b.c). The refounding 
of Trachis in 426 b.c. is not mentioned in 7. 199, and hence 
Herodotus probably did not survive till that time. Indeed, as Stein 
shows, none of the references to contemporary events necessitates 
assuming a date later than 428 b.c. The unhappy Athenian 
expedition against Sicily he could not have survived ; otherwise he 
would not have called the defeat of the Tarentines and Rhegines 
in 473 b.c. the bloodiest of all Hellenic disasters that he knew. 7 

Marcellinus 17 there was a monument to Herodotus by the side of that to 
Thucydides in the sepulcher of Cimon at Athens. 

1 5- 77- " 2 Die S tadt A then 150 and N. Jhbb, cxix. p. 18 f. 

8 2. 148. 4 7. 233. 6 7. 137. • Cp. 6. 98. 7 7. 170. 



INTRODUCTION 13 

TRAVELS OF HERODOTUS 

The travels of the historian are important to us for determining 
his sources. Nowadays a historian, unless he is writing memoirs 
of his own experiences, collects his material from archives and 
libraries. But Herodotus had little to learn from his forerunners, 
though at points he may have borrowed much from the logog- 
rapher Hecataeus, and possibly from Xanthus. He had, in the 
nature of the case, to depend mainly upon inquiries made by 
himself of men of the older generation and upon visits to the 
countries and among the peoples whose history he was to write. 
That meant extensive travels and lengthy sojourns in the chief 
centers of the ancient world. Ancient tradition is silent about 
his travels, and we are left entirely to hints given by Herodotus 
himself or to inferences from historical statements of his. But 
unquestionably he had given the best period and powers of his 
life to his travels in search of historical material, and the result 
was a condition of mind like soil carefully prepared in which 
history might grow up and come to fruit. The extent of his 
travels was very remarkable for the time and has been estimated 
at from ten to fifteen thousand miles. Events in his career as 
described above brought him to various points in Asia Minor, to 
Athens and elsewhere in Hellas, and to southern Italy. Further- 
more, he undertook longer journeys by land or sea to more 
distant countries : on the Euxine as far as the Cimmerian Bos- 
phorus, to Cyprus, Egypt (from the Delta to Elephantine), to 
Cyrene, and through Persia, visiting Babylon, Ecbatana, and the 
ruins of Nineveh. The last-named journey, which was the most 
important of all, and made, doubtless, while he was still a Persian 
subject, he made either by the royal post road from Ephesus via 
Sardis to Susa or by the shorter way from the Syro-Phoenician 
coast. The times and order of his journeys can be only in part 



14 HERODOTUS 

determined. Egypt he saw in undisturbed possession of the 
Persians, 1 and he saw the skulls of those who fell in the battle 
of the Papremis ; 2 he must have visited Egypt, then, after 455 B.C. 
Already before this he had been in Assyria, 3 and probably still 
earlier, while a Persian subject, in Pontus and the interior of Asia 
Minor. The longer journeys had to do mainly of course with the 
first or preliminary part of his History, i.e. the first five books ; 
for the more immediate and important subject, the Persian wars, 
as described in Books 6-9, he had to depend on inquiries and 
investigations made in the cities throughout Greece, and here he 
was no doubt chiefly indebted to the Periclean circle at Athens. 

b. THE HISTORY OF HERODOTUS 

The work of Herodotus was called by himself an " Exposition of 
History" (lo-Topirjs awofefa*). The division into nine books, not 
made by the historian, as is plain from his manner of reference, 
and most probably due to the Alexandrine grammarians, is first 
mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. 5 The central theme was the con- 
flicts between the Greeks and the Persians in the times of Darius 
and Xerxes. This heroic struggle of the little Greek people 
against the great Persian world-power was the most brilliant 
period of Greek history, and has always been of universal inter- 
est as the first great contest of liberty against despotism, of free 
spirit against servility. The story of *the actual war does not 
begin till the fifth book, from which point it proceeds consecu- 
tively to the end ; in the preceding books the way is prepared 
by an account of the Persian empire and its preceding history, 
including the nations that had been absorbed by it, or at least 
had come in conflict with it ; that is, a sort of general history of 
the world leading up to the special theme. 

The starting point is the attack of Croesus upon the Greeks of 
* Cp. 2. 30, 99, 149. 2 3 . lz% 9 2 . I50t 4 1, i. 6 2 . 37« 



INTRODUCTION 15 

Asia Minor, and this leads to the history of the Lydians. Croesus 
and the Lydians were conquered by Cyrus, the founder of the 
Persian empire, and we have next the history and growth of the 
Persian realm, with that of the Median empire, which had given 
way to the Persian. Then follow accounts of the principal nations 
that had been subdued or invaded by the Persians, namely, the 
Babylonians, the Egyptians, — with digressions upon Polycrates of 
Samos, the Indians, Arabians, Ethiopians, — the Scythians, and 
Libyans. These various accounts may have been originally in- 
tended to be independent narratives, and it is a loose tie which 
binds the whole together. 

In the use of the Ionic dialect Herodotus simply followed the 
precedent of the logographers, but it is not likely that he first 
learned Ionic, as Suidas intimates, during his exile in the island 
of Samos; for this dialect seems to have been spoken by part 
of the population of Halicarnassus, and inscriptions from there 
indicate that public documents were sometimes composed in 
Ionic. For us Herodotus is, with Hippocrates, the chief repre- 
sentative of literary Ionic, and in perfect harmony with the soft- 
ness and fluidity of the dialect is the historian's simplicity of 
style and naivete' of narration. Aristotle 1 makes him the chief 
representative of the running style (elpoficvrj Aifis), i.e. not anti- 
thetic or of balanced periods, but with clause tacked on to clause 
by means of ri and 8c. 

He displays remarkable art of composition in the general 
arrangement of his material, the grouping and disposition of his 
subjects, bringing together narrative and description, things far 
and near, past and present, small and great, into one vast world- 
picture that unrolls leisurely before the reader. Uniting "the 
curiosity of the Ionian with the open eye of the impartial ob- 
server," he weaves about his central theme, in episodes or digres- 

1 Rhet. 3. 9. 



1 6 HERODOTUS 

sions, after the manner of the epic poets, an inexhaustible store 
of information about places, peoples, customs, monuments which 
he had collected in his travels, thus securing endless variety and 
interest. And with scarcely less art does he attain vivacity by 
means of speeches put into the mouths of the chief actors in his 
drama, making deeds speak, as it were ; here, too, following the 
precedent of the epic poets. Art and skill in narration Herodotus 
certainly had, charm of style and gift of phrase, curiosity and zeal 
in the search for information, an open mind and impartial judg- 
ment. He is, moreover, without race prejudice or national vanity, 
and recognizes high qualities and noble deeds on the part of bar- 
barians as readily as in his own countrymen. He is often misled 
and makes mistakes, but never intentionally deceives. When he 
cannot decide between conflicting accounts, he is apt to give both, 
and leave the matter to the reader. He was a true Greek in that 
he knew no foreign languages, and hence was often at the mercy 
of his guides and interpreters. Having recourse by preference, 
in Greek matters as well as in Egyptian and Assyrian, to priests, 
he often unwittingly imbibed views that were superstitious or 
meant to deceive. Indeed, his religious views and his ethical bias 
were in many respects a handicap to his judgment. Sharing with 
most of his contemporaries a belief in signs and wonders, he had 
a peculiar view of the jealousy of the gods and was prone to see 
everywhere in history evidences of an overruling and directing 
providence, and especially in the Persian wars was fain to recog- 
nize direct judgments of the gods on human crime and arrogance. 
Possessed by such a theory, he was easily taken in by priests, and 
failed to see that oracles brought to his notice were vaticinia ex 
eventUy and he allowed himself at times to alter chronological 
data in order to bring together striking natural phenomena and 
human events. 

In all antiquity he was too often regarded as over-credulous or 



INTRODUCTION 17 

as a romancer. This term was applied to him by Aristotle 
(fxvOoXoyos), 1 though he extracts not a little from him, and in the 
Poetics 2 treats him as the representative of history. Aristophanes 
early parodied some statements of his as extravagant or incredible ; 
Ctesias maligned him, as is well known ; Manetho ^ criticised many 
things in his Egyptian narrative as falsified through ignorance ; 
and Plutarch 4 attacked him for conscious misrepresentation and 
malicious depreciation. 

But if the historical value of his work did not find just recog- 
nition in antiquity, so much the more did it receive praise for style 
and language. Dionysius of Halicarnassus calls him the best 
model of Ionic (t^s 'IaSos apioros kovw) and put his prose as a 
form of art on an equality with poetry ; Dio Chrysostom com- 
mends his "free and leisurely movement and sweetness" (to 
aveifievov kol to y\vKv) ; Plutarch finds him "artless and unla- 
bored, moving lightly over matters " (d^eAiys kcu Sl\o- ttovw kolI 
paBiws iiriTpi\ova-a tois wpdyfiaaiv) ; Cicero compares his style to 
the " peaceful flow of a quiet river " (sedatus amnis) ; Quintilian 
characterizes him as "sweet and clear and diffuse" (dulcis et 
candidus et fusus). On the whole his style has the character of 
oral discourse and is well adapted for the public readings with 
which he is credited, a quality which Thucydides seems to have 
had in mind in his famous remark, aimed evidently at Herodotus, 
describing his own work as "composed for an everlasting pos- 
session and not a showpiece to be heard for the moment." 5 

EPITOME OF HERODOTUS 
Book i. After briefly mentioning the myths concerning the 
first disputes between Europe and Asia, namely the abduction of 

1 G. A. 3. 5. 16. Cp. fxv6oypd<pos of Themistius (Or. xxxiii. p. 367) and 
homo fabulator of Gellius (3. 10). 

2 Poet 9. 8 apud Jos. c. Ap. I. 14. *De Herod. MaL 5 1. 22. 

HERODOTUS — 2 



18 HERODOTUS 

Io, Europa, Medea, Helen, Herodotus finds the real source of 
antagonism in the subjugation by Croesus, king of Lydia, of all 
Hellenic cities on the coast of Asia Minor. Hence the history of 
Lydia is given (chs. 6-94), and, as Croesus in his contest with 
Cyrus appeals to the Athenians and Spartans for help, the most 
important facts of earlier Athenian and Spartan history are worked 
in (especially chs. 56-70). As Croesus and the Lydians were 
subdued by Cyrus, an account follows of the origin of Cyrus and 
of the early history of the Medes and Persians, including their 
customs (chs. 95-140); then comes the story of the conquests of 
Cyrus in Asia Minor (chs. 141-176) and in Central Asia (chs. 
177-200), and of his expedition against the Massagetae and his 
death (chs. 201-216). 

Book ii. Cambyses, son of Cyrus, succeeds to the throne and 
prepares to invade Egypt, which gives occasion for a digression 
concerning the land of Egypt (chs. 5-34), the people and their 
customs (chs. 35-98), Egyptian history (chs. 99-182). 

Book iii. Expedition of Cambyses against Egypt (chs. 1-38) ; 
digression upon the tyranny of Polycrates of Samos (chs. 39-60) ; 
usurpation of the Pseudo-Smerdis, death of Cambyses, accession of 
Darius, division of the kingdom into twenty satrapies (chs. 61-97) > 
digression upon the Indians, Arabians, Ethiopians (chs. 98-117) ; 
reign of Darius to the capture of Babylon (chs. 11 8-1 60). 

Book iv. The Scythian and Libyan expeditions of Darius : 
the land, nations, climate, customs, religion of Scythia (chs. 1-82) ; 
invasion of Scythia by Darius (chs. 83-144) ; expedition against 
Libya, including the story of the founding of Cyrene and the 
history of its kings, with some account of Carthage and Barca 
(chs. 145-205). 

Book v. Persian conquests in Thrace and Macedonia and the 
Ionian revolt : peoples, customs, religion of Thrace, people beyond 
the Ister (chs. 1-27); causes leading to the Ionian revolt (chs. 



INTRODUCTION 19 

28-54) ; digression upon affairs at Athens, especially the history 
of the Pisistratidae (chs. 55-96) ; Ionian revolt to the death of 
Aristagoras (chs. 97-126). 

Book vi. Suppression of the Ionian revolt (chs. 1-42) ; expe- 
dition of Mardonius and disaster to the Persian fleet at Athos, her- 
alds sent to Greece to demand " earth and water " (chs. 43-47) ; 
digression upon the kings of Sparta, with the history of Cleomenes 
and Demaratus, and hostilities between Athens and Aegina (chs. 
51-93); expedition of Datis and Artaphernes and the battle of 
Marathon (chs. 94-120) ; story of the Alcmaeonidae, of the wooing 
of Agarista, of Miltiades' expedition against Paros (chs. 121-140). 

Book vii. Darius' preparations to renew the invasion of 
Greece and his death (chs. 1-4) ; Xerxes' accession to the throne, 
military preparations of unparalleled magnitude, advance across 
the Hellespont and as far as the vale of Tempe (chs. 5-130). 
Condition of affairs in Greece: medism of the Thessalians and 
Boeotians, Athens savior of Hellas, congress of deputies at the 
Isthmus, ineffectual appeal to Gelon of Sicily, fleet sent to Ar- 
temisium and Leonidas to Thermopylae (chs. 1 3 1-1 78) . Defense 
of Thermopylae, treachery of Epialtes, annihilation of Leonidas 
and his Greeks (chs. 179-239). 

Book viii. Sea-fights off Artemisium, Greek fleet retires to 
Salamis, Athens abandoned, Attica ravaged, fleet surrounded at 
Salamis, brilliant victory of the Greeks (chs. 1-106). Xerxes, 
leaving Mardonius with 300,000 in Greece, returns to Asia ; divi- 
sion of spoil by the Greeks, honors to Themistocles ; Mardonius' 
proposals, sent through Alexander of Macedon, spurned by the 
Athenians (chs. 107-144). 

Book ix. Defeat and death of Mardonius at Plataea by Pau- 
sanias and the Greeks (chs. 1-89) ; victory of Leotychides and 
the Greek fleet in the land-battle of Mycale ; intrigues in the court 
of Xerxes; capture of Sestos (chs. 90-122). 



20 HERODOTUS 

B. GRAMMATICAL 
a. SUMMARY OF THE DIALECT FORMS 

§ i» Vowels. I. The most striking differences from Attic are 
i. rj for original d in all cases ; Ionic d is due either to contraction 
(in/jud) or compensatory lengthening (iraxra from irdvva). 2. ca 
does not contract to -q (generally, but cp. rjv, yjXtov), nor eo to ov, 
nor €<D to a). We know from poetry that these sounds were in 
general contracted to monosyllables in Ionic, but in writing this 
was not indicated, except that cv occurs parallel to co in inscrip- 
tions after 400 b.c. eca, eeo, eeu> become ca, co f ceo. 3. Com- 
pensatory lengthening of e to ei, and o to ov in ciwxtos, ctW/ca, 
K€tvo?, fcti/os, orcivds, €ipofAM, ctpwTaa), et/oiov (from cvf 9 cp/r), and in 
yovvara, Kovprj, /xovvos, ovpos boundary (from ovp, opp). ovvopua 
and vovo-os are due to Homeric influence; in oVo/ia£a>, ovo/xatVa), 
and voo-io) we have the regular form with o. II. Minor differences 
are 1 . a for Att. e in /Aeyatfos, rd/xvu) ; for o in appmhio) \ for 17 in 
dfX(f)LO-f3aT€(j), Xd&crOcu, fxeaafxfipir]. 2. c for a in -7rA.€#c€ts, rcWcpcs, 
€po~?/i> ; for o in T/0117-, wtmrj-KovTepos ; for 17 in cWov/aoi ; for at in 
ayeofxai ; for ct in Sckw/ai, epya>, Kpccrcrcov, fxe£u)v. 3. The pure 
diphthong ct loses 1 before vowels in ferns, of «-stems, in cW^ocos, 
'H/aaicAcat, MaA.07, 7rXcW, vTrt&pi-t) \ the spurious diphthong « is 
shortened to c in 2<oOa, Id (from caw) ; f3o€os } aiycos etc. are used 
instead of pottos etc. 4. « for e in eLUWa), eipwo. 5. 17c for ct in 
adjectives like av&prjios, dvtfpownjios, fiaatXyios. 6. Ovrj&Kta and 0"<u£o> 
have not iota subscript in the Mss. 7. t for c in larirf; Ipos for 
lepos ; i0us for €vOvs ; 71-0X1171-175 for ttoAi't^s. 8. w by contraction 
of oa in o)vi7/o, of 017 in oySwKorra, forms of /?oaa>, cVcVanro (from 
voco) ; but voijo-as etc., PorjOtw) ; w for av in 0ayia, rpco/xa ; cSp for 
ovv ; contraction of oav to <ov in owtos, ifiewvrov, ccovtov. 9. Oc- 
casional apocope as in ap./?<oo-a?, ap.7ra>Tis. 

§ 2. Consonants, 1. k for ?r in the pronominal stem iro- 



INTRODUCTION 21 

(Lat. quo-) 9 e.g. Kotos, koo-os, kotc, kg>s etc. 2. <nr in OdXaao-a etc. 
for Attic tt (from k*, ;$ generally). Ionic &£ds, Tpi£ds are from 
SixO-kos ($n9d) etc., but Att. Strrds from Sixmos (oYx<x). 3. The 
rough breathing was lost (so-called Psilosis; in the text the rough 
breathings are written). Consequently a preceding tenuis remains 
unaspirated ; cf. oV ov, atnKviopm. 4. Tenuis for aspirate in aims, 
Seico/uu, ovkL ivOavra, ivOwrev, kiOwv for ivravOa, ivrtvOev, ^twv. 
5. iS/xcv for tcr/xcv. (TfXiKpos for fiiicpos. yiVo/xai, yivaxrKO) for yi- 
yvofiai, ytyvaio-KO). 

§ 3. Declension. I. Substantives. 1. The dual is not used. 
2. In the first declension the gen. plur. ends in -ccov, the dat. 
plur. in -yci ; mascs. have -cw in the gen. sing. ; abstract substan- 
tives from ^-sterns have -eiy, instead of -eta, as aXrjOttrj for aXrjOtia ; 
so also -oirj for -oia in irpovoui etc., and ipci'i; for Uptta. 3. In the 
second declension the dat. plur. ends in -o«n. 4. Nouns in -is 
like ttoXis have -10s, -1, -ics, -tW, -io~i, -ias, and -is. 5. The gen. 
of /fturiAcvs etc. is -cos ; -/cAe^s has -kXcos. 6. ycpas, iccpas, and 
rcpas have -cos, -et, -ca, -€<ov. 7. vavs ^/^ is vrfis, vcds, vrji, vea, 
vets, v€o>v, vrjvo~[, veas. 8. 7roAAo5 for 7roXvs. II. Pronouns. I. 
The dat. sing, of the second person is cot or rot. 2. The ace. 
sing, of the third person is plv. 3. kcivos is found occasionally 
for cKctvos. 4. rts has tco, tco> and rtvi, tcW, tcokti. Similarly 
forms in the indefinite and ooris (neut. plur. aao-a). 5. In the 
oblique cases of the relat. pron. os the forms beginning with t are 
generally used unless a preposition capable of elision precedes ; 
but in such temporal expressions as iv <S, cs 6 we have the aspi- 
rated form ; Ik tov is more common than i£ ov. 

§ 4. Conjugation. 1. The syllabic augment is omitted in 
iterative forms. The use of the temporal augment is irregular. 
Most verbs with initial vowel are augmented, some vary, and 
others are never augmented. To the last class belong most verbs 
with initial diphthong, and also o/xci/Jo/acu, d/>pa>3e'a>, c£o/*ai, 6/o/ac'cd, 



22 HERODOTUS 

6<f>t\ov, and others. 6pdo> has ay>a>v ; couca has oIko.. 2. In the 
perfect oXpiui has Apaiprj/uu, and ftcrfy/u /x^ert/nevos. 3. The third 
pers. plur. mid. and pass, ends in -arcu, -aro in the perf. and plupf. 
of labial and palatal verbs (with aspiration, e.g. TeraxaTut, except 
in d7riKarat, -aro) ; of dyuwi^a), (TK€vd£a>, x<d/9i£u> (dycovtSarat etc.) ; 
of -ceo, -oco, and -vci) verbs (with -carat for -rprrai) ; in optatives 
(yevoCa.ro etc.) ; and in the pres. and impf. of -/m verbs (except 
stems in -o), as Swiamu, Tiflcarai, cKearo. 4. The -/u verbs have 
many forms on the analogy of -o> verbs, as &801, -0€-<hto. rt'A/fu 
has 3 plur. riOwn. 5. d/it has 2 sing, cfe, 1 plur. dp.lv, subj. 2o>, com, 
opt. (once) even, partic. i<ov etc., impf. (besides ^v) &, Hare, &r*€, 
«fovcov. 6. otSa has 2 sing. oiSas, 1 plur. otSa/xev and ifybev, 3 plur. otSaai 
and tcrao-i ; fut. £18770-0). 7. The aor. of <f>€p<D is 7/va*a, perf. ivrjvciy- 
pai. 8. Xafxfidvu) has Xafuf/ofjuu, i\dfx<t>0rjv, AcAd/fyKa. 9. 7rAu>ci> 
and (coo) occur beside ttAc'o), (do). 10. Oedofmi and Brjtofuu are 
both used. 

£. SYNTACTICAL USAGE 
§ 1. Agreement 
1. Sing, verb w. plur. subj. fori & . . . cWd ord&ot 1. 26. 6 ; 7. 
34. 4 ; but plur. verb in agreement w. pred. # wepioSos elai ordStoi 
2£ 1. 93. 16; 6. 112. 3 and often. 2. Pred. adj. in neut. plur. 
ota tc ^v airovreipiqaaxrOai 8. 133. 5 ; cp. 5. 124. 5 ; 7. 16 y. 15 ; 
7. 162. 8 ; 7. 185. 2. 3. A participle com. agrees w. the subj. of an 
infin. rather than w. a preceding dat, as toio-l "EXA^o-i So&u 
TTc/i^avTas a7ratTctv i. 3. 6; cp. i. 19. 10; 4. in. 10. 4. A gen. 
absol. is often used instead of agreement w. an unemphatic pro- 
noun; 1. 3. 8; 2. 151. 3; 8. 69. 6. 

§ 2. Accusative Case 
1. Object of Verb*, a. For genitive w. d/ucAetv 7. 163. 7 (cp. 
irapayjwjfrQajL I. 108. 15 ; 8. 20. 2) ; linrpoirtvevv 7. 78. 9 (gen. 7. 
7. 7; 7. 62. 13); KarrfXayelv I. 84. 17; 3. 121. 6; apaprdvciv 



INTRODUCTION 23 

7. 139. 23 ; wepiyivto-Oai 9. 2. 8 ; airoKpaTtiv 4. 75. 6 ; fiefivrjaOca 
2. 20. 4; 7. 18. IO (gen. 9. 45. 18); €TTLfXirq<rOrjvai 8. 66. 16 
(gen. 1. 85. 2); vttc/khkciv 7. it 3. i (gen. 4. 21. 6). b. For 
dative w. avrunkrOai 9. 7. 26 (dat. 7. 9 y. 1) ; XvfmiveaOai 8. 28. 3 
(dat. 8. 15. 2) ; &op€i<rOai riva I. 54. 4; 3. 1 30. 19 (ti tlvi 2. 
126. 8) ; (TTcgvav 7. 104. 6; ca^Atfc 7. 46. 7; 8. 137. 15 (dat. 1. 
86. 14) ; iirifoiTav 7. 16 y. 13 (dat. 7. 16 fi. 3). c. Without 
prep. w. o-tyav 7. 104. 24; diropdv 3. 4. 15; 4. 179. 9; Ikvutojl 
2. 36. 4; 9. 26. 32 (& 6. 57. 22); €&A.0€tv 7. 29. 3; itarXelv 

5. 103. 9; cp. !£a> tov "EAA^otiwtov ttAcW 7. 58. I (c#c 6. 5. 14). 
d. For other unusual instances cp. #cara<^/>ovetv have in mind 8. 10. 
7; fcaraSofcciv 3. 69. 6; 7rapa/3aiVav 0€ov 6. 12. II ; TxnrTtaOau. 
lament 2. 42. 26 ; Ao;(ai^o§pi> 5. 121. 3 ; ydpov cnreuoW 1. 38. 6 ; 
veiv ®rjprp/ 4. 151. 2 (cp. pass. 2. 13. 15) ; i£opKovv to Srvyos v8a>/> 

6. 74. 8. e. For cognate accus. see 7. 10 8. 10; 7. 43. 9; 7. 117. 
11 ; 7. 147. 12 ; 7. 194. 9; 7. 233. 15 with subst. of same stem; 
w. related subst. 7. 50.20; 7. 132. 5; 7. 148. 22; 7. 151. 9; 7. 
192. 7 ; 8. 74. 2 ; 8. 102. 13. For way traversed see 7. 12. 12 ; 7. 
31. 7; 7. 50. 27; 7.58. 10; 7. 121. 13, 15; 7. 122. 6; 7. 128. 
7; 7. 218. 2, 18; cp. KaraOpwcrKCLv alfjuunrjv 6. 1 34. 16; to fieaov 
twv op€(ov pciv 2. 99. 12. f. Inner object; coriy/iei/os Trjv KecfxiXyv 5. 
35. 7 (cp. 2. 63. 16; 3. 33. 7; 6. 5. 8); &7re<rrpd<l>aTO tov? 
ififioXovs 1. 166. II ; ikrjXaTax tovs dyxcova? I. 1 80. 6 ; KaTareTfirp-ax 
68ovs I. 180. IO. 

2. Double Accusative, a. With one ace. cognate — ScwrvoV pav 
Oowrjcrcu I. 129. 5 ; tov ladfibv tog veas $uipv<rax 7. 24. 5; Tavra 
'YSapvca dfict/tarflai 7. 1 36. 1 ; cp. also 2. 2. 9 ; 3. 88. 7 ; 3. 154. 
11 ; 7. 121. 9; 7. 233. 16. b. Noun and verb gov. second noun 
— Owfjua irouUrOax 8. 74* 7 \ irXrjyas iiriK€a0ai fiaxmyi tov 'EAAiycr- 
ttovtov 7» 35* 2 > °wAos wy>ox ucnv to^kt&u 1. 160. 17; ycAxDra 
c/i€ 0€<r0ai 7. 209. IO; f<5a ypd<l>e<rOai f ev$iv 4. 88. 4 (cp. 4. 87. 5). 
c. Freq. w. ask, teach, conceal etc. ; cp. to XiXrjOi o-c to ova^ov 



y 



24 HERODOTUS 

*• 39- 3 > ol^p^v w. ace. and gen. 5. 67. 24 ; 6. 70. 9, elsewhere 
two aces. ; airwrrtptlv w. ace. of thing only 6. 13. 16. 

3. Temporal. At times the idea of extension is not clear ; cp. 
Tavrrjv ttjv rifiipav w. iyevovro ayaOot 7. 181. 3; 8. 86. 8; rbv 
avrov tovtov xpovov TrifXAf/avrw; 7. 151. 6; 6. 27. 7. Tas kvktos 
(rjfiipas) expresses recurring rather than extended action in 1. 
186. 21 ; 3. 18. 4 ; 4. 128. 14 ; 7. 125. 3 ; cp. tyjv co/mjv 2. 2. 12. 
7ra<rav y\p.kpv\v of constant expectation 1. in. 4; 7. 203. 6. Con- 
trast ace. and gen. w. ovk dvieWi, airokciirav in 1. 67. 25 ; 4. 28. 
13; 8. 71. 12; 2. 133. 18; 4. 184. 15. 

4. Respect, a. With verbs — eurvx^v tovs irbktixovs 1. 65. 6; 
o/>ca €5 o£v rat KOpvcf>as a.Tnjyp.£va 2. 28. 7 j C P« 2 « 177- 2 > 4* io 4- 
5 ; 7. 10 f. 1 ; 7. 86. 12. b. With adjs. in 7. 5. 17 ; 7.9 y. 8; 
7. 61. 4; 7. 109. 12; 7. in. 5, etc. c. With nouns — vfipurrr)? 
<t>v<Tiv 1. 89. 5 ; freq. ye'vos, ovvopu 7. 176. 30. 

§ 3. Genitive Case 

1. With Substantives. Appositive Kdvrjs 6po$ 7. 42. 3 ; cp. 7. 
193. 2. Chorographic gen. very freq. 7. 175. 12. For a peculiar 
possess, gen. see 2. 124. 13 : \povov iyyevecrOcu . . . Sc'ko, Irca t^s 6&ov. 
A patronymic in -105 instead of gen. in 7. 106. 5. Partitive 
gen. w. vocatives in 4. 126. 3 ; 7. 48. 2. A peculiar partit. gen. 
occurs in 2. 134. 2 : irvpafAL&a ukocti woSiov KaraSiovaav ku>\ov 
Zkcuttov TpL&v irXiBpuv lacking 2 o feet of $ plethra. For a curious 
example of inverted relation see aradfiol KaTaywycW and Karaymyal 
crraOfA&v 5. 52. 18, 35. 

2. With Verbs. Htffleadai i. 59. 13; 6. 12. 21 etc.; aKovtiv 
w. gen. of thing 1. 45. 7; 1. 141. 18 (ace. 7. 14. 1); cp. 3. 128. 
18, 23 ; the person sometimes w. 7rpds or ck i. 118. 4; 3. 62. 5 ; 
irapaXafitiv 2. 19. 2, 9 ; 3. 157. 7 (w. 7rapa 2. 51. io) ; €K$€K€O'0ai 
I. l6. 3; 2. 112. I J €7T€OTOVai 7. 22. 9; 7. II7. 3 (dat. 7. 35. 

12) ; iyicvpciv 7. 208. 16 (in MSS.) ; tvrvx&v 4. 140. 15 (on avrav, 



INTRODUCTION 25 

krrw etc. see dat.) ; cwwyxwreueii/ 7. 7. 7 ; 7. 62. 13 (see 
accus.) ; Upaadai, Trpo<fyqT€veiv w. gen. of god or temple 2. 35. 19 ; 
(re fi€T€pxofJuai tQv Oewv 6. 68. II as w. \i<T<Te<rdai j3. 68; evAecoy 
l£e£c<rc 4. 205. 4 on analogy oi full ; KaTakvtaOai 1. 104. 10 ; 6. 9. 
11. A peculiar pred. gen. in 8. 130. 6 : Ilc/oacW 8c koI M$W 01 
irAcovcs cVc/Wtcvw /^ #*<?.?/ 0/" /A* marines were Persians etc. 
Double gen. w. Uopm and x/oflf<*> 3- 157- 6 ; 5- 4°- 6 ; 7- 53- 4- 

3. Temporal. Words of time w. a demonstr. or 6 avros reg. 
in gen. when extent is not expressed; cp. 2. 47. 10; 7. 166. 2; 
8. 7. 9 ; an exception is rfj avrrj irav<rc\rjvu> 2. 47. 10. W. Ikootos 
the gen. is reg., but tw cWvto) cKaoro) 3. 57. 9 («v in /?) ; vvkto. 
UaxTT-qv 2. 130. 5 of extent. With ordinals the dat. is reg. but 
rpvrav /iiyvos 4. 180. 25 of repeated cases (cp. 2. 93. 28). For 
interchange of ace. and gen. see 2. 25. 24; 2. 150. 19; 3. 104. 
7; 2. 133. 18; 8. 71. 13 (poss. depend, upon xp° vov ) \ m 2 - 2 S 
and 3. 104 of regularly recurring actions. 

4. Freer Uses. Gen. of place more com. than in Attic 
prose ; cp. coxovrt apiareprj? x €l P°* 2. 169. 17; 5. 77. 22; irpoTtpiwv 
TiJ$ 68ov 9. 66. 14; cs fxeaoyatav rf}<; 68ov rpa<f>OevT€s 4. 12. 12 (cp. 

7. 124. 4; 9. 89. 20). With cv Kpowrov etc. cp. iv rjixerepov 1. 

35. 18; 7. 8 8. 5. 
Among adverbs the use of fiixpi av is very striking, as /xc^oi ot 

okto) irvpyiav 1. 181. 11; cp. 2. 19. 8; 3. 104. 7 and p.*xP l ° T€0 

wXrjOowrrp ayoprjs 2. 1 73. 3. For fte^pt o5 as a conj. and «os ov, cs ov 

see § 20. 3. ocas of time w. xpdVov 8. 144. 27. 

§ 4. Dative Case 

I. Pure Dative. A. With Verbs and Adjectives. With help, 
injure — dp.vv€iv 8. 87. 22; Tip.<op€iv 1. 141. 23 (w. TifiwprjpAi 7. 
169. 7?); Trpocr(M><l>€\eiv 9. 103. 8 (ace. 9. 68. 6); Xv/xouvccrftit 

8. 15. 2 (ace. 8. 28. 3) ; /ti€><£€<r0<u 1. 117. 3 (ace. of thing 
7. 49. 3 ; 8. 106. 19) ; ov€i8#€iv 8. 106. 20 (ace. of thing 8. 84. 



26 HERODOTUS 

13; 8. 143. 4); <t>0ov€lv 7. 236. 5 ; 7. 237. 8; 8. 69. 5 (gen. of 
thing 7. 236. 7 ; ace. inf. 8. 109. 14). Be angry yokov nvl £\eiv 
8. 29. 1 ; 8. 27. 3 (? ivfyeiv as in 1. 118. 3). Dat. varies w. gen. 
after empds. of Kara ; cp. -ycAav 3. 37. 5 ; 7. 9. 5 (gen. in R ; cp. 
5.68. 4) ; -Kpiveiv 7. 146. 6 (ace. inf. 6. 85. 5) ; -vj3/m'£civ i. 212. 
12 ; -8o#ccIv 9. 99. 17 ; -actSeiv 7. 191. 6 ; -o/aviW 6. 65. 12 (gen. in 
£) ; KCLTrjyopeiv w. gen. 7. 205. 15 (in 7. 101/. 9 Mss. vary 
between gen., dat., ace.). Meet — dvTLova-Oai 7. 9 a. 8 ; 7. 9 y. 1 ; 

8. 100. 18 (ace. 9. 7. 26) ; dVri'os 7. 10. 3 etc. (gen. 2. 34. 7; 2. 
121. 3; 2. 154. 3) ; advs. avriov etc. more com. w. gen. (7. 209. 
11 ; 8. 52. 2), but dat. 7. 33. 5 ; cWrt'os (for-) 7. 39. 9 ; 7. 50. 
10; 8. 108. n (ra €vavria w. gen. 7. 153. 21; 8. 102. 9; adv. 
ivavTiov w. gen. 6. 57. 25 etc., but dat. 6. 32. 4) ; efiiraXiv 2. 
35. 8 (ra c/iTT. w. gen. 7. 58. 2); w. rj 9. 56. 8 ; dyx*™ *• 134- ^5 ; 
7. 91. 5 (com. w. gen.). Order, obey — (WeAcvco-flai, 7. 16 y. 4 
(in 9. in. 13 most Mss. have dat. w. Kikvkiv) ; irpoeiirelv 1. 126. 
5 etc. (ace. inf. 7: 12. 9?) ; 7rapayyc\A.€iv 9. 53. 3 (ace. inf. 

9. 66. 11) ; farayopcvciv 4. 125. 15 (ace. inf. 6. 81. 5) ; iraprfyopuv 
w. ace. 9. 54. 1 ; 7rci0c<r0(u freq. w. dat., but gen. 1. 126. 20 etc. ; 
empds. of aKovcLv = obey as cV- 4. 141. 5; h- 6. 87. 2; #cara- 
3. 88. 4 (Karroos 3. 88. 2 ; 1. 141. 4 ; w. gen. 1. 72. 3 etc.). 
Say, tell — Aeyciv, thruv w. dat. or trpos w. ace. pers. ; Qdvai has 
irpos 3. 155. 18; viroKpiveo-Oai 7. 168. 2 (717005 8. 143. 1); cu^co-^at 
7. 178. 4 (717005 7. 54. 6). B. Dative of Interest. 1. Possession 
is very com. expressed by dat. of pers. prons., esp. ot, o-fa, the 
pron. being usually placed before the art., after the noun, or 
between art. and noun; cp. 7. 27. 8; 7. 38. 12; 7. 149. 5; 

7. 171. 2; 8. 100. 10; 8. 108. 17. When the pron. is between 
art. and noun it is usually attached to yap, 8c, tc. For striking 
variations between gen. and dat. cp. 6. 109. 1 w. 6. 109. 20; 

8. 89. 5 w. 8. 90. 3 ; 7. 146. 11 w. 5. 13. 2 ; 5. 118. 9 w. 8. 100. 
10; note 7. 200. 11 ; 7. 144. 1. Words of relationship w. cfvai, 



INTRODUCTION 27 

yiW&u vary between gen. and dat; cp. 7. 5. 6; 7. 10. 4; 

7. 82. 5. 2. Dativus Commodi. a. Dat. for vwo w. gen. after 
perf. pass. 7. 55. 1. etc.; w. aor. pass, the dat. is com. a pron. 

8. 56. 6 etc.; w. other tenses 1. 31. 12; 1. 72. 12; 3. 24. 6. 
b. With (rrpaTTjyeiv 6. 72. 3 (com. the gen.), c. With iroulv do 
for 7. 119. 13 etc. ; cp. dat. w. kclkov wouiv 4. 165. 2 for reg. ace. 
d. With/ear /or 8. 72. 5; com. irtpL w. dat. 7. 212. 3; 8. 74. 5. 
Cf. KivSwcvav tcw 7. 209. 14 ; 8. 60. 17 (to/h 8. 74. 10). e. With 
€\€i and adv. 7. 11. 16; 7. 161. 12; 8. 20. 5 (ace. inf. 8. 144. 
I2 > x 7)- 3- Dative of Reference, a. Dat. of partic. without 
noun or pron. of local standpoint 6. 33. 2 ; 7. 198. 8 (plur. 

1. 104. 5; 5. 53. 9). b. Dat. of partic. w. noun or pron. after 
cfwu in expressions of time 1. 84. 4 ; 8. 129. 1. c. Dat. of partic. 
of verbs of estimating 7. 143. 10; 7. 184. 7. d. For other dats. 
of pron. and partic., resembling gens, absol. see 7. 13. 8; 7. 
17. 5; 7. i2$. 1. e. With adjs. 7. 8 y. 12; 8. 100. 25, 30; 8. 
101. 10. f. Dat. for gen. of separation 2. 16. 10; 4. 28. 11; 
7. 70. 5. 4. Ethical Dative. Com. /juh, to! i. 141. 10; 7. 15. 7; 

7. 141. 10; 7. 152. 12; 8. 68. 4; 8. 88. 14; 8. 100. 26; jfiiv 

8. 22. 9; tS/uv 1. 212. 6; 4. 98. 8; 4. 136. 14; 5. 30. 20. 

II. Instrumental Dative. A. Dative of Association. 1. With 
verbs and adjs. of likeness etc. Note irpovfAtayeiv land 7. 168. n ; 
8. 130. 2 ; 6/uAciv w. countries 7. 26. 9 ; 7. 214. 12. oyuows freq. 
w. dat. ; w. km 7. 50. 17 ; 6 avros w. dat. 7. 72. 7 ; 8. 22. 10; w. 
koi 7. 84. 3 ; 7. 86. 4, 1 1 ; w. relat. and kqI (?) 7. 6. 10 ; 8. 43. 4 ; 
8. "45. 1 ; 8. 46. 16; oKravTcos w. dat. 2. 67. 5 ; w. ko! 7. 86. 7. 

2. yuayivQax dat. more com. than 117005 w. ace. (7. 9 /}. 11 ; 8. 24. 
*3)- 3* With empds. of ow the prep, is not repeated (8. 1. 4; 
8. 74. 1). 4. With afm freq., often w. partic. in expressions of 
time 8. 23. 6; 8. 64. 3; w. fytov 3. 134. 29; 5. 113. 2; 7. 121. 
11. 5. Dat. of military accomp. 7. 20. 4; 7. 170. 6; 8. 17. 7 ; 
cp. rravotKirj 8. 106. 11. <rw is rare, 8. 101. 16; afm 6. 118. 1. 



28 HERODOTUS 

6. Dat. w. avrds, as avrola-t avhpavi 3. 126. 14; 4. 64. 15 ; 6. 93. 
3 (a has art.) ; 7. 39. 6 (a has art.); 8. 17. 3. The art. is used 
only if the subst. requires it, as toivi ipoivi 6. 32. 7 ; roiai veaxrot- 
Kot<rt 3. 45. 21 ; tokti IfmTLOuri (a class word) 2. 47. 2 ; rr} koXvkl 
(w. reference back) 3. 100. 6. aw or afia with avros 2. m. 20; 
without 7. 70. 9; 8. 92. 7 etc. B. Dative of Means, Cause, 
Manner, Degree. 1. Means, a. With furnish 7. 66. 1 ; 8. 33. 7 
(cp. ace. w. pass. 7. 62. 1 ; 7. 84. 2) ; hup&aBax gen. w. riva w 7. 
27. 8; 8. 118. 20; but tw' ti 2. 126. 7 ; 5. 37. 4 (? 8. 85. 12). 
b. W. say A.oya> 8. 61. 8. Very com. dju.ctj3c<r0ai w. dat. plur. of 
08c, outos, toiovtos ; ravra as freq. as tovtois, but toSc rare and 
with Mss. variation, c. xpW^ ai °pyd 7- IQI - *5 j 8. 87. 18. ^p. 
<rvficf>opfj be unfortunate 8. 20. n; but consider a misfortune 7. 
134. 8; 7. 141. 2. ^prjaOcu 0€<o, xPV aT VP^f or aDS °l« freq. = ques- 
tion an oracle 7. 141. 5 ; 8. 134. 5. xprjaOax w. twodats. 1. 179. 
7; 1. 202. 21 ; w. <S)5 7. 209. 22. Staxprjo-Oai use w. dat. 7. 102. 
7; 8. 118. 3, but &a — and Kara — kill w. ace. 6. 135. 8 etc.; 
7rapa — despise w. ace. 8. 20. 2 ;"w. gen. 2. 141. 3; absol. 7. 223. 
21 (w. cs 5. 92 a. 12) ; faro — be content with 1. 37. 1 ; impers. = 
satisfy 8. 14. 4. vopLi&iv use com. w. ace. 7. 193. 2, but dat. 2. 
50. 14; 4. 63. 2; 4. 117. 2. d. W. verbs of motion as ir\tiv 
wkoioitn 7. 36. 15 ; 8. 117. 4 (ev 7. no. 6; 7. 195. 1). e. W. sur- 
pass etc. 7. 39. n ; 8. 74. 3 ; not used w. Sia^cpctv (ace. 4. 183. 
12) ; XeiirtadaLt. w. cs 1. 99. n ; 3. 102. 19 (in 7. 86. 12 dat. in /?, 
ace. in a) ; yv<ofirj t /xax?y vi#cav 8. 75. 2 ; 9. 102. 8. f. W. adjs. of 
quality 7. 211. 14 (ace. 8. 113. 18) ; 7. 117. 4 (ace. 7. 103. 12) ; 
ace. and dat. 8. 113. 18 ; yvwfirj w. ^cvo^mt 7. 9 y. 5 but gen. 8. 
40. 7. g. W. TtKfjuaupeaOai 7. 16 y. IO ; fy* ^ 9- 9^- 2 (* v &• I35» 
n); 8eW0cu 3. 51. n; v«v w. dat. 1. 87. 9 (ace. 4. 28. 12). 
2. Dat. of Cause, a. W. rejoice etc. 7. 29. 1 ; 8. 69. 6 ; €Kir\iqT- 
T€<r$ai 7. 226. 8 (ace. 9. 82. n) ; cp. iwi 3. 40. 14; irtpl 8. 99. 9. 
b. Freer use w. abstracts 7. 107. 9; 7. 239. 8; 8. 124. 1 (more 



INTRODUCTION 29 

freq. xnro w. gen. 8. 1. 3; cp. Kara 8. 30. 3 ; &a 7. 154. 9). 
3. Manner. Cp. 7. 237. 7 ; 8. 74. 6 ; 7. 211. 13 (cp. Kara 7. r4. 9 ; 
<rw 8. 86. 5). T/o<Mrw freq., rpowov rare, but reg. w. o8e (7. 60. 5), 
and w. foil. gen. (Kara 7. 103. 20). Koapta : Kovfwv 8. 60. 30; 8. 
117. 7. trj akkrj 7roXXaxJ 6. 21. 8. Modal ravr^ 7. 48. 7 ; t# 8. 
41. 4; t 178c 8. 34. 8; icy 8. 67. 3; 0K7 8. 130. 20. 4. Degree. 
ttoXXw more com. than ace. w. compare. ; w. verbs the ace. (7. 196. 
8; but cp. 8. 130. 18); jneya 8. 144. 7. W. superls. ace. or dat. 
oAtyw w. compare., but ace. w. words of compar. idea 7. 9 a. 9. 
too-ovto) . . . oo-o) 7. 49. 15 ; too-ovto w. verbs 7. 172. 14 (but o<ra> 5. 
49. 10), w. compar. 8. 68 a. 8. 

III. Locative Dative. A. Temporal. Words of time reg. in 
dat., if extent is not implied, w. ordinals, vorcpos etc. (7. 31. 9; 
8. 22. 4), but gen. w. demonstrs. and 6 avros ; w. imwv 3. 85. 14. 
W. ckolotos dat. only in 3. 57. 9 ({$ has iv). Unmodified nouns 
reg. in gen. (wkti 7. 12. 3 depends on StSovs ; cp. Plut. Them. 26. 
1) ; Ty /uLeaafifipiy 3. 104. 9 is strange after the gen. in 1. 7 (jShas 
nom. ; cp. fietrovou rj i\p.ipi\ kolUi below). XP° V< P &• io 7* TI * s m " 
strum., but varipy XP° V< ? 5- 3 2 * TI etc * * s l° c - Dat. 0I " P^ ur - nou ns 
only 9. 57. 17. Dat. of other than purely temporal words 1. 51. 
10 ; 2. 48. 1 ; 3. 46. 4 ; 4. 180. 5 ; 6. 24. 8 ; 6. 92. 9. 

§ 5. Prepositions 

dji+C: a. Gen. Local 8. 104.6 (?) ; causal 6. 131. 1 (?; dat. in 
ft), b. Dat. Local and Causal 7. 143. 9. W. fear, strive 6. 62. 
6; 6. 129. 7. W. jdry =7r€/>t 3. 32. 1 ; 4. 127. 15. W. fyc"' 1. 
140. 14 ; 5. 52. 1 = in regard to. c. Ace. Local 7. 142. 19 ; 8. 76. 
7. Freq. ol dp.<f>i nva 8. 15. 9 (21 times : 2 TrtpL : 5 <rvV : 12 fiera); 
cp. w. proper name 7. 218. 16 ; 7. 223. 7. 

AvA : Local = up t. 194. 22; throughout 7. 150. 2; 8. 10. 16; 
freq. Temporal 7. 153. 7 ; 7. 106. 4 (w. plur. 2. 132. 7 ; 8. 65. 21), 
Distrib, w, nqs. 7. 184. 7 etc. Note dva irp^rov% 9. 86. 5 = h K 



3 o HERODOTUS 

AvtC : In return for 7. 54. 14 ; of price 3. 59. 1 ; 4. 196. 7. 
Instead of '7. 41. 8 freq. Five times w. subst. infin., without art. 1. 
210. 8 ; 6. 32. 6 ; 7. 170. 14 ; with art. 1. 134. 3 ; 2. 80. 6. 

Air6 : Local = beyond freq. in geographical sections ; cp. 4. 1 7. 
1 ; 4. 18. 4; peculiarly Herodotean are phrases like to Sk diro 
*Iorpav 4. 99. 4. irtWv, Aovecr&u, vSpcveo'dai cbrd 2. 18. 15 ; 4. 66. 
3 > 3* 2 3* 7 > 9* 49* 9* Down from 7. 192. 2 etc. ; w. wco-ctv 8. 
39. 6 ; metaph. fab rrjs 80&7S 7. 203. 13. Temporal of the start- 
ing point 8. 23. 9 etc. ; (Mr' ov only 2. 44. 12 ; airo Sevirvov clvoi A? 
be through dinner 1. 126. 13 etc. (cp. c#c i. 50. 8) ; metaph. 7. 
233. 17 etc. Note O7ro 8c AiyinrriW 'A/a/iwvioi (Kpunrpoaunrov rov 
Atos wWovo-i) 2. 42. 16. Causalvt. cvSoKt/xctv etc. 8. 87. 4 ; like cVt 
w. name 7. 74. 7(21 diro : 30 cVt) . Of descent, source of income, 
material 8. 45. 4; 8. 106. 13; 7. 65. 2 etc. Almost like vno w. 
verbs of pass, meaning 7. 102. 5 ; esp. w. elvai, yivecr&u 8. 22. 14 ; 
8. 106. 19 etc. ; cp. to otto <rco 7. 101. 13 ; 8. 15. 3. Instrumental 
and modal auro irtlpr)* 7. 9 y. 8 ; a7ro yAaio-cnys 1. 123. 20. Partitive 
3. 98. 2 ; 6. 27. 9. Almost = irtpi in phrases like ravro /icv toi dwo 
tovtwv twv woTo/iwv 4. 54. i ; 7. 1 68. i ; 8. 94. 8 etc., but with 
clear marks of the local meaning. 

Si£ : a. Gen. Local = through to end of often with verbs of 
motion 8. 8. 14 ; cp. Tao-aca&u 8ta oy^mv 9. 25. 19 ; 8. 50. 4 etc. ; 
Sta oraSiW ttcVtc after five stades 7. 30. 6 ; .cp. 4. 181-185. 7>w- 
poral =■ throughout 7. 210. 12 etc. ; after joo years 2. 73. 3 etc. 
Metaph. o\* dp7rayi/s ycvc'cr&u 1. 3. 3; cp. 1. 206. 8; 2. 91. 16; 

6. 9. 21. Instrumental chiefly w. say; cp. 7. 30. 10 ; 8. 134. 11. 
Of personal agents w. kpfxrjvtxs, ayycAos and pronouns 3. 38. 18 ; 

7. 203. 4 ; 1. 109. 14 etc. Of prominent position 8wt toktwv o&os 

8. 37. 12 etc. b. ACC. Causalvt. alTL-qv, irprjypui, ravra etc. 8. 11. 
16 ; 8. 116. 10 etc. With persons =propter 8. 125. 5 etc.; =per 
8. 90. 3 ; 8. 106. 7 etc. 

ck: Local very common; 7rtctv, dpiWctv etc 5. 8§, 10; 6, 119, 



INTRODUCTION 31 

13 ; metaph. cK7rAaW oc tov voov 6. 12. 13 (without c#c 3. 155. 13). 
W. fasten 4. 64. 10 etc. For !£o> in i( 6<j>$a\fiu>v ytvtvOai 5. 24. 14 ; 
cp. 8. 22. 10. i£ 'Aptrdyovfrom the house of 1. 112. 6. ck tiJs 6&w 
00 the way 1. 157. 1 ; cp. 6. 18. 2; 7. 115. 5; 8. 8. 11 etc. 
Temporal = after 7. 119. 4 ; 7. 188. 8; 8. 12. 9 etc. Partitive 
esp. €#c toitwv w. numerals, superls. etc. 7. 52. 13; 8. 83. 4. 
Often w. agent after pass. esp. //<?, say (usually participle w. art.) 
7. 11. 13 ; 8. 114. 4 etc. ; cp. toi i( 'EXXrjvwv rtfe* 2. 148. 5 and 
3. 16. 30 ; 5. 11. 2 ; 9. 44. 2. Freer vewrepa irprjaativ ck Aapctov 
6. 2. 9 ; cp. 8. 80. 3. Often causal Ik irpovovq^; etc. 6. 66. 4; 7. 
197. 18; 8. 126. 2; note in imitation of 4. 189. 2. Of descent, 
source of income, material more freq. than cbrd; cp. 7. 70. 6 ; 7. 
144. 4; 7. 31. 6. €hrtlv ck twv i/mop 7. 221. 5 ; cp. 8. 140 0. 3. 
With receive, learn etc. 5. 13. 1 ; 7. 122. 5 etc. In adv. phrases 
freq. ; cp. c£ ivavrirp 8. 6. 7 ; c#c 7ravros voov 8. 97. 1 1 heartily. 

4v: Local oh. repeated w. cmpds. of iv 7. 107. 11 ; 8. 140 /?. 5, 
6. Adv. cv /i€/>€t etc. 7. 212. 9. iv Kpotaov 1. 35. 20 etc.; note 
iv fjfi£T€pov 1. 35. 18; 7. 8 8. 6. Seldom on of geogr. position 4. 
78. 29; 5. 117. 1 ; 7. 137. 18. Amongw. persons freq.; iv rolxn 
w. superl. only in 7. 137. 6; partitive idea in 8. 119. 5. Instru- 
mental 4. 36. 9; 4. 71. 8; 8. 135. 11 etc. Periphrases w. €?vat 
like iv \6youn 7. 172. 10 ; 8. 59. 4 ; 8. 99. 4 etc. Temporal iv is 
used w. rifiiprj etc. before ovtos, 6 avrds, cardinal nos., was, 7ro\vs 
(cf. 7. 14. 8 ; 7. 56. 3 ; 8. 8. 1) or when ^fiiprj etc. have no attri- 
bute (7. 12. 5 ; 7. 162. 8) ; also iv t<£ tt/>o tou xp<W * s regular 
(8. 41. 12) ; iv ttWy ^fiiprj 2. 47. 20; but iv is omitted w. words 
of time qualified by ordinals and wporepos etc. (yet cv rfj wporiprj 

WKTl 5- 56 # 2 ; Cf. I. 2O9. I7). Ttt ivULVTW CKaOTO) 3. 57. 9. 

t*C: a. Gen. Local gen. = #/0« 8. 118. 8 ; much rarer at, by 7. 
44. 5 ; 8. 122. 7. Of direction w. verbs of motion 8. 65. 32 etc. ; 
cp. ace. and gen. 4. 20. 6; iir* oXkov only 2. 121 £. 18, 8. 31. 
Temporal ' = #/ AW <?/" freq. w. pers. 7. 33. 7 ; w. added partic. 



32 HERODOTUS 

8. 44. 10; cf. also 4. 159. 1 ; 6. 56. 8. Freq. w. name 8. 44. 12. 
VV. reflex, pron. by one's self 7. 10 8. 4 ; 8. 32. 6. Modal only €7rt 
7rpo<f>d(TLOs 7. 150. 18 ; cV' opKov 9. 11. 14. €7r' ov irdx^rjfuv 5. 109. 
16 ; cp. 4. 84. 7. b. Dat. Local = 7//0« much rarer than gen. 2. 
176. 5 ; cp. gen. and dat. 3. 28. 11 ; 5. 12. 11, 21 ; dat. of head- 
covering 7. 70-84. W. €7rt = by, near dat. more freq. than gen. 
7« 235. 5, esp. w. rivers and capes. In 7. 55. 11, 7. 188. 5 = 
behind, after in a row. Temporal '= after freq. 8. 94. 18 ; = upon 
w. ocaoTos etc. 4. 162. 16; 7. 50. 4; 7. 187. 11. Causal itf 1 airly 
7. 194. 7 ; cp. 2. 132. 8 ; 3. 40. 15 ; 7. 194. 9. Of purpose 7. 156. 
17; 8. 141. 11 ; in hostile sense against 7. 132. 5 ; 7. 235. 20. 
in i7/ti?v in our power 8. 29. 7. /« addition to 7. 164. 10. Of 
circumstances 8. 19. 9. c. Ace. Local of motion #/0« 7. 183. 9; 
7. 239. 17; over 8. 107. 11 ; 9. 95. 4. Cp. cVt 6kt<o veas 7. 188. 
7. Of motion /<? places ; occas. w. pers., esp. on public service 7. 
172. 8; 8. 79. 5 (w. ace. sing k of pers. 2. 162. 10; 3. 73. 11 ; 7. 15. 
3). Very often = against 7. 10 a. 8, 12 ; 8. 9. 7 ; after a subst. 
7. 16 j3. 2 ; 7. 18. 10; rare w. verbs of rest 5. 44. 14. Temporal 
iiii woXXov xpovov 8. 129. 4 ; iif rjfjLiprjv 1. 32. 26 ; iir fffi. lua/mrpr 
2. 149. 23 ; w. T7/xc/>as etc. and cardinal nos. 7. 119. 8. Purpose 7. 
193. 10; 8. 64. 9. W. nos. = up to 1. 193. 17, 19; 5. 9. 8; cp. 
7. 12. 1. avtifii €7tl 7. 137. 22 ; cp. 7. 139. 23. For c? w. <^epciv 

7. 19. 3 ; w. wepiir£<T€iv J. SS. 4. 

i<s : Local = iVi/0, a^ /b. cs 'Aoruaycos etc. 8. 134. 9; c$ ccovrov 
1. 108. 1759. 108. 14. Freq. w. pers. in plur. ; w. sing, only is 
"Afifiwva 2. 18. 8 ; is Btov 5. 79. 2. In hostile sense freq. w. places, 
less often w. pers. in plur. ; more metaph. w. ttoulv etc. 7. 15. 5 ; 

8. 140 a. 3; 8. 129. 15 ; of friendly action 7. 194. 11 etc. W. 
speak = before, to 7. 142. 3; 8. 26. 12. Purpose 7. 8 y. ti ; 7. 
28. 7 ; 8. 96. 3 ; 8. 97. 8 w. go, give, prepare, use etc. W. i\€w, 
<£cp«v, Aeyciv = in reference to 7. 130. 13 ; w. adjs. 1. 204. 4 ; cp. 5. 
49. 15. Like /icxpi up to 7. 200. 6; cp. 7. 22. 11. Temporal = 



INTRODUCTION 33 

up to 1. 32. 9; freq. cs e/u 8. 121. 6, cs to8c 7. 107. 17, «o; cs 
(rpCrrfv) fjixtprjv esp. w. avafidWccrOai, rjictiv 5. 49. 50; 3. 155. 21; 
cp. 7. 144. 2, 11; 8. 128. 21; more T2ire\y = about in temporal 
sense 4. 113. 1 ; 4. 181. 20. Often about w. nos. Adverb, phrases 
7. 168. 9 ; 8. 144. 13. In periphrases w. iXOelv etc., esp. cs Aoyovs 
8. 36. -e ; 3. 146. 2 ; 8. 19. 7 ; 8. 107. 5. 

KaTd: a. Gen. Local = down from 8. 53. 10; down into 7. 6. 
17 ; 8. 36. 4. Kara vwtov l^civ /« rear 5. 118. 10, 14. Transferred 
mean, only in ovk lirirrfiw. KaTayvovrcs Kar' ctw'o 6. 97. 7* b« ^CC. 
Z^tf/ = dfoa//* along w. TroTap,6v etc. 1. 194. 3; 7. 36. 8; = ^zw 
a surface freq. 7-1-7; 8. 115. 14; = «/^ 9- 53- 4; 9- 8 9- J 5; = 
in direction o/w. TpiwecrOai etc. 5. 12. 1 ; 6. 10 1. 3. Often w. verbs 
of rest = at, near, opposite 8. 13. 7 ; 8. 85. 1 ; 8. n. 4; 8. 78. 4. 
Temporal Kara ypovov, Kara^Afiaaiv jSaoxXciWra, kot' c/ac etc. 2. 134. 
9 ; 7. 170. 7 ; 8. 17. 4. Purpose 7. 170. 1 ; 8. 83. 10. Causal']. 
165. 10 ; 8. 30. 4 ; esp. Kara rovro etc. 8. 30. 3. Often according 
to 8. 51. 14. Manner Kara twvto etc.; freq. Kardirep; Kara = 
Ka0a (for which Mss. often have kcito, rd ; cp. 4. 162 ; 5. 89 ; 6. 54) 
occurs n times. W. ttoulv, kiyew, ytvecrOai etc. = with reference 
to 8. 87. I, 3 ; cp. tS>v Kara vrfivv larpoi, 2. 84. 5 > *aTa tov Kara 
Kpourov xpovov 1. 67. 2. Distributive, often w. eKaoTos 8. 113. 14 ; 
rare in temporal use 2. 109. 5. W. nos. = about 2. 145. 14, 15, 
18; 7. 173. 10. 

jutA: a. Gen. 66 examples ( : 73 ow), one third in ninth book. 
Twice w. gen. of thing 2. 25. 24; 8. 105. 13 ; w. verbs of rest 7. 
171. 10, of motion 7. 151. 5. ol /xera twos 8. 137. 29. b. Ace. 
Local = d^fcr freq. 7. 40. 3 ; 8. 46. 6 (once lx ctv i"- 6 ™ X c 'P a5 7- *6 
)3. 10). Temporal = after often ; esp. jura Tavra. In 2. 150. 19, 
4. 146. 6 /xct' fip.£pr)v in contrast to wktos. Phrases like /act' c/xc 
c<7eA.0ovra 1. 9. 8 ; 1. 34. 1 ; 7. 171. 5. 

«apd: a. Gen. Local w. pers. after IXOtiv, irip.iruv, 8. 141. 10. 
In transferred mean. w. receive, take, learn etc. 8. 10. 15 ; 7. 191. 

HERODOTUS — 3 



34 HERODOTUS 

10 (irapa 7rvp<ro)v 7. 183. 2 only case of thing). Twice w. say 3. 
72. 16; 8. 55. 4. Of agent w. pass, in 6. 4. 8 ; 7. 103. 11 ; 7. 106. 
13. After substs. 6. 4. 7; 6. 54. 2; cp. 9. 1. 2. b. Dat. Usually 
w. pers., but cp. 4. 15. 18 ; 4. 90. 7. W. verbs of rest in pure local 
sense freq. 7. 235. 6 ; cp. 8. 88. 4; 8. 105. 9. c. Ace. Very freq. 
after verbs of motion of the goal, gen. w. pers. Often along by 7. 
100. 9 ; cp. 7. 123. 21. Temporal only in 1. 32. 15 ; 2. 78. 8 ; 2. 
121 8. 23 ; 2. 123. 2 ; 7. 46. n = during. trapd = in comparison 
with 2. 160. 5 ; 7. 20. 7; = contrary to 8. 4. 3. Note irap' cv 
irdXaicrpa Spapeiv vikov 9. 33. II. 

ircpC : a. Gen. Often = about w. jay, learn, fear etc. 8. 36. 3, 
7 > vt* fight 8. 57. 7 ; cp. /avWeveiv 8. 74. 10. ttc/di 7roAXov iroitlaOai 
7. 119. 4 etc. For freer with regard to cp. 5. 49. 15 ; 6. 16. 9. 
b. Dat. Local w. articles of clothing 7. 61-92. In transferred 
sense w. fear 7. 163. 3; 7. 212. 4; 8. 74. 4; 8. 99. 9. c. Ace. 
Locals, articles of clothing 7. 61. 3; 7. 72. 4; w. TrtpnrX&v 7. 22. 
2 (cp. 8. 7. 4) ; w. irepiwL7TT€iv 8. 16. 9; of protection etc. 8. in. 
7. ot 7r€pt rtva only 2. 163. 5, 6. Local a\so of operations re- 
peated here and there 7. 183. 5; 8. 22. 3 ; = about 7. 131. 1. 
Temporal = about seldom 7. 215. 3; 8. 6. 2; 9. 101. 9. W. 
Tr/oiyo-o-civ, yivtvBai etc. = /« regard to 8. 25. 7 ; 8. 21. 10 ; 8. 86. 1. 
Note fta^iy iyiv€ro mpl t<l yeppa 9. 62. 7. w. local meaning, rot irepi 
rt is much more freq. than gen. 8. 24. 2 ; 8. 56. 2. 

wpd: Ztftt*/ in 15 instances 7. 208. 10; 8. 37. 4. More often 
temporal 5. 50. 12; 7. 149. 20. /« defense of, in favor of (w. 
strong local sense) 7. 172. 14; 8. 49. 8; 8. 56. 6; 7. 134. 11. 
In place of 8. 26. 5 ; w/>o wwiw Xcyctv 1. 152. 3. W. compara- 
tive ideas 1. 62. 6 ; 1. 87. 19 ; 7. 152. 17 ; w. aAAos 7. 3. 11. 

irpds: a. Gen. Local— from, rare, 7. 216. 5; 8. 87. 9; often 
of direction (7. 36. 9), esp. of points of compass, freq. w. ace. in 
same passage (cp. 7. 126. 6, 8; 7. 176. 13, 15 ; 7. 129. 3; **w/- 
ward always ace). w/>os ^cW on our side 8. 22. 8. Of origin 



INTRODUCTION 35 

7. 166. 5 ; w. receive 7. 158. 7. Freq. w. passives esp. of say, 
honor, name 8. 124. 5 ; 7. 10 1/. 12 ; 7. 62. 5. Of source w. /<ftf/7* 
etc. 7. 226. 4 ; 8. 57. 4. w/>05 0cwv only 5. 49. 11. b. Dat. Local 
= at, near 7. 155. 2 ; 8. 33. 10 ; 8. 68 )8. 4 ; 8. 135. 6. /« addi- 
tion to 7. 3. 7, esp. -ny>os rovroto-t. c. Ace. Local of direction 
towards, oft. of points of compass. ovp%et,v wpos 4. 42. 7. Metaph. 
w. Tp€ir€cr$ai, fypovrl&iv 8. 25. 11 ; 8. 100. 6. W. say 8. 101. 2 ; 

8. 143. 1. Of purpose 9. 102. 19. Often in reference to, esp. w. 
say, think, 7. 149. 10; 7. 153. 17. In comparisons 3. 34. 15 ; 8. 
44. 2. Adv. irpo% to. /liyiCTTa 8. 20. 1 1. 

<H»v: Of accompaniment esp. military 7. 10 )8. 6; 7. 57. 11 ; 

8. 101. 16. olavvTivi 7. 225. 6; 7. 233. 5; 8. 11. 14. W. dat. 
of thing 4. 50. 15. <rw 0co> 1. 86. 15. <rvv 8c <r<j>i 7. 10 0. 8; 

9. 11. 19. W. nos. = inclusive of 7. 89. 3; 8. 113. 20; cp. 8. 
82. 6; 1. 24. 23; 7. 70. 10. Of manner 7. 9)8. 5. Adverbial 
8.86. 5, 6; 7. 197. 16. Instrumental 3. 88. 17. 

virfp: a. Gen. Usually in pure local sense = above 8. 138. 14; 
otxctv \nr4p 7. 69. 12; 7. 70. 1 ; cp. 6. 25. 1. More rarely =/tfr 
7. 161. 10; 7. 8)8. 8; w. fight 7. 225. 2 (w. local sense) ; 8. 70. 
8; w. fear 7. 178.3; 8. 100.9. W. Aey«v = wc/ot'4. 8. 1. b. Ace. 
Local only purrtlv virkp rbv S6px>v 4. 188. 2 and raw vttc/o Mc/xc^tv 
7roXiv K€ip.cv<av 2. io. 3 (gen. in Stein). W. nos. = beyond i. 165. 
17 ; 5. 64. 7 ; cp. wrc/o SvOpwirov 8. 140)8. 8. 

vwtf: a. Gen. Local =± from under 4. 8. 14; wr«c away from 
3. 116. 4. Often w. pass, of pers. agent (after perf. 30 times: 
c. 150 dat.); w. perf. of do, find, say reg. the dat. (usually pro- 
nominal). W. pass, also of cause 4. 151. 10; 8. 117. 5 ; 7. 129. 
25; 8. 115. 13 etc.; at times when dat. alone is possible, imo 
paxrrCytw 7. 22. 5 ; 7. 56. 2 ; vvb KTjpvKos irporjyopcvt 9. 98. 13. 
b. Dat. Local in 15 instances 7. 42. 8; 7. 100. 9; 7. 226. 11 ; 
8- 39- 5 \ 8. 90. 19. Of subjection w. elvai etc. 7. 11. 17; 7. 157. 
11 ; 8. 53. 3 ; w. passives 7. 158. 12. c. Ace. Local of extension 



36 HERODOTUS 

beneath 7. 114. 11 ; 7. 36. 4, 6 ; w. vbs. of motion 7. 88. 5 ; w. 
idea of under shelter 6. 44. 8 ; 8. 92. 14. Temporal of extension 
9. 60. 18 ; esp. vv. vvktol, com. w. idea under cover of 5. 101. 19 ; 
8. 70. 11 ; 9.51. 19; 9. 58. 2; 9. 60. 7; 9. 118. 4; cp. 7. 165. 6. 
wo Tovvryov KQ.TaKa.hra i. 51. 6 w. causal idea as well as temporal. 
Of subjection viro jSaatAca Sacr/xo<£dpos 7. 108. 4. 

§ 6. Prepositions as Adverbs 

cv: €1/ 8c 7. 83. 12 ; 7. 176. 5 ; 8. 113. 16 (?) etc. cV 8c 817 1. 
192. 3 ; 2. 79. 8. cV 8c Kat 7. 238. 5 etc. cV ^k 89 icai 7. 224. 9 
etc. cirl 8^ thereon 7. 65. 3 ; 7. 69. 8 ; 7. 75. 2 ; behind 7. 55. 10 ; 

8. 67. 10; next of rank 8. 93. 2, of time 7. 219. 3 ; besides 7. 92. 

4. jicrd 8c", 115 examples, com. temporal, also local (4. 47. 8). 
irpds : 7rpo5 8e besides freq. 7rpos 8c #au 8. 40. 5 etc. 7r/>os 8' cti 

3. 74. 6. 7T/0OS 8*/ (Ol/ I. 58. 7. W. a/ACL flCV 8. 5 1 ' II- Ka * TpOS 

5. 20. 16; 8. 29. 7 etc.; in long combinations of numbers 2. 
142. 12; 7. 184. 7, 12, 20, 27; 7. 187. 12 (7r/>os 8c in nos. only 

9. 30. 6, which is not a long combination ; possibly a later addi- 
tion to correct the error implied by 9. 29. 10). Kat 8^ 7rpos 5. 
67. 29. w6 only in 7. 61. 6. * 

§ 7. Tmesis 

1. The commonest case is that in which <3v is used w. a gnomic 
aor. 1. 194. 20; 2. 39. 10; 2. 40. 6; 2. 47. 3, 17; 2. 70. 9; 
3. 82. 23 ; 7. 10 c. 7 etc. W. a partic. Kar wv K&j/as 2. 172. 10. 

2. tc causes tmesis only in the phrase dvd re cSpa/xov *ai 7. 15. 2 ; 
7- x 56. 5 ; 7. 218. 5 ; ^ only in /xctol 8*; /fovAcvcai 7. 12. 7. For 
jncv ... 8c see 8. 33. 2 ; 8. 89. 1 etc., the verb being omitted w. 8c. 
In 6. 114. 3 fi€v . . . 8ta<£0€fc'p€Tai, d7ro 8* ZOave. 

3. W. enclit. pron., to yuvai, Kara /xc £cf>apfxa£as 2. 181. 10. 

4. Once an adj. and noun come between ; dtrb irdvra r* 
XprjfjuiTa aywv 7. 164. 16. 



INTRODUCTION 37 



§ 8. The Article 

1. Relative Use. See Dialectic Forms, § 3. ii. 5. 

2. Demonstrative Use. Much less limited than in Attic. For 
6 $€ repeating the subj. of the /ac'v clause see § 9. 1. c. For 6 8c in 
the apodosis see § 28. 3. The art. is found as antecedent directly 
before oa-os in 3. 23. 11 ; 3. 131. 6; 3. 133. 9. 6 -yAp in 1. 172. 
6; 2. 124. 16; 2. 148. 12; 7. 137. 14 (0 omits yap), ical ft, in 
other prose writers com. in form #cal tov as subj. of infin., is freq. 
in H. in other cases; cp. t. 24. 17 ; 1. 86. 21, 41 ; 2. 162. 6; 8. 
56. 7 ; 8. 83. 3 ; 8. 87. 7 ; 8. 88. 7, 8. With prepositions, besides 
the com. irpb tov (i. 103. 6) and cv rotai w. superls. (only 7. 137. 
6), occur oifxa roio-t I. 51. 3 ; tt/>os towti 5. 97. 9. 8 -yc 2. 173. 19 
repeats the subj. as in Homer (cp. 7. 10 0. 14). 6 ^cv without 
6 8c and 6 8c without 6 /acV are freq. for Attic ovtos ; cp. 8. 11. 10 ; 
8. 46. 2; 8. 65. 30; 8. 77. 1; cp. the relat. tov 81; w. strong 
demonstr. meaning 8. 32. 7 ; 8. 75. 6; 8. 92. 7. 

3. Omission. Freq. when noun begins a clause for emphasis 
in a contrast 1. 194. 20; 2. 39. 6 ; 3. 29. 11 ; 5. 67. 32 ; 9. 88. 3. 
See also following sections. 

4. With Names. With well-known or repeated names the art. 
is used. With names of cities, rivers etc. greater or less familiar- 
ity is indicated according as we find, for example, 6 NctAos, 6 
'A<r(i>?ro5 7roTa/ios, or "Ayy pos irorafios. Simple NciXos etc. only in 
predicate, in lists, at beginning of clause for emphasis, when de- 
pendent upon a prep, and standing between a noun and its art. 
(7. 25. it ; 5. 1. 5 ; 4. no. 6). Names of countries in -as, -is, 
-iKtj, -rts, -vrj reg. have art., sometimes w. x^PVi VJ > some m 'ty 
vary, as AvSirj, KiXikltj, 'Ao-oruptiy etc. *A<ruq and J&vpwwri reg. have 
art. (without yj}) unless used together or w. Aifivrj; the art. is 
omitted w. Ai/frfy. Countries in partit. gen. omit art. com. only 



38 HERODOTUS 

when before the governing noun; cp. 2. 6. 11 ; 5. 103. 10 with 
2. 8. 12 ; 2. 32. 15 ; exceptions in 2. 43. 3 ; 7. 30. 4 etc. 

5. With iras = 0//. a. In gen. the art. is used if the subst. 
requires it as a class word (8. 69. 6), or when especially defined 
(8. 23. 12). t>. The art. is omitted when 7ras = wavroios (6. 139. 
12), or means complete ', perfect (7. 226. 9 ; 8. 36. 2), or begins a 
clause (or noun begins); cp. 1. in. 14; 5. 106. 16; 6. 57. 7. It 
is reg. omitted w. yrj (7. 19. 6), avOpuwoi wdvres (? 3. 38. 4), and 
w. race-names unless there is a contrast w. the parts (cp. 2. 39. 
16 ; 2. 41. 6, but 7. 20. 14 ; 7. 64. 9 ; 8. 36. 12). c. W. numerals 
ol irdvres in all is freq. (7. 4. 4), reg. after a list of the parts (7. 185. 
13) ; irdvra SeW = ten of everything 1. 50. 2 ; 4. 88. 3 ; 9. 81. 14. 
Peculiar is to. 7roAA.a irdvra = nearly all 1. 203. 12; 2. 35. 8; 5. 
67. 6 (adv.). irdvra \6yov the whole story in 1. 21. 7; 2. 113. 
16 etc., but rbv ir. A. 1. in. 26 ; 6. 2. 9 ; 9. 13. 8 etc.; irdvra 
t.A. of his own history 2. 123. 2 (? 7. 152. 13). tov 7raira ^povov 
is reg. w. cs 9. 73. 3 ; cp. 8. 140 a. 12 ; 8. 140 /?. 5 etc. of the 
whole future or past, but was 6 %p. of a particular space of time 9. 
13. 7 etc. (but cp. 8. 100. 1). We find irav in 7. 50. 3; 7. 176. 
25 etc., but to irav 7. 50. 5 ; 7. 166. 10; 8. 29. 8. 

6. With ovtos. The art. is omitted if the noun is predic. or 
in appos. (7. 41. 7 ; 7. 53. 8; 8. 39. 9), or when the demonstr. 
follows its noun, which is very com. if a rel. clause follows 
(6. 34. 9), esp. in explanatory appos. (7. 9 a. 4 ; 8. 124. 13 ; 3. 
153. 2). The art. is also omitted w. proper names (3. 160. n, 
13), if ovtos = toiovtos (5. 41. 6), when something present is 
indicated (7. 49. 2), and if the noun begins the clause for em- 
phasis (7. 13. 2). For €K€tvo5 see 2. 39. 7 ; 2. 40. 5 ; 4. 124. 10; 
1. 133. 2 ; 6. 91. 12 (ft omits art). With o8c = the following the 
art. is omitted if the noun is predic. (7. 167. 2) or in appos. (7. 5. 
15 ; 7. 8 a. 2 ; 7. 109. 2), but cp. 7. 122. 8 ; w. \6yov considerable 
variation, cp. 7. 147. 1 ; 8. 49. 9 ; 8. 100. n ; w. tiros 7. 135. 2 ; 



INTRODUCTION 39 

7. 226. 3. W. o& referring back the art. is lacking in 1. 9. 4; 
1. 206. 7 ; 4. 118. 17; 8. 140 /?. 7, but used in 1. 137. 2; 7. 5. 
14 etc. ; the noun is predic. in 2. 76. 1 ; 5. 8. 7. When the 
reference is to something present the art. is gen. used ; cp. 7. 8 a. 
5 ; 8. 100. 13, 18, but 7. 35. 7 ; 8. 65. 29. 

7. With Possessive Adjectives. The art. is at times omitted even 
w. a partic. individual in mind ; cp. 1. 42. 8 ; 3. 36. 8 ; 7. 8 a. 8 ; 
7. 10 y. 3 ; 7. 39. 4 (cp. 8. 103. 5) ; 7. 104. 8 (the Mss; vary in 
1. in. 13; 3. 62. 11 ; 7. 11. 21 ; 9. in. 18; 9. 116. 11). The 
examples are nouns of relationship. Emphasis (7. 104), apposi- 
tion (3. $6 ; 3. 62), and being in a list (7. 8 a; 7. 39) may have 
influence. 

8. With Ordinals. The art. is reg. omitted w. words of time in 
expressions like on the fifth day after or before; cp. 7. 7. 2; 7. 
192. 3 ; 8. 54. 5 ; 8. 55. 8. It is used w. wpGnos 1. 108. 3 ; 4. 
172. 13; 7. 168. 8 (except m a list 3. 131. 4-9) and w. Scvrcpos 
(= voTtpos) 4. 75. 14 ; 6. 31. 2 ; 9. 33. 2 ; but omitted in on the 
second after 7. 7. 2 ; 7. 192. 3 ; 8. 54. 4 ; 8. 55. 8 (cp. 6. 46. 1 ; 
7. 80. 5) ; in 1. 82. 25 rjficpQ is emphat. in position. In expres- 
sions like he staid two days, but on the third the art. is used in 
1. 74. 6; 1. 19. 1; 2. 133. 3; 3. 129. 11; 5. 72. 12; 5. 89. 11; 
6. 101. 11; but omitted in 7. 1. 12; 7. 191. 8; 7. 192. 1; 7. 
210. 3 etc. (cp. 9. 41. 2). In 3. 155. 24-31, 3. 157. 8 the art. 
has definite reference back. Phrases like 1% oocdViyv rjfL€prjv do not 
have the art. (1. 77. 18 ; 5. 49. 50 etc.), nor does the ordinal in 
distrib. sense 2. 37. 8; 2. 4. 6 ; 3. 97. 11 ; 4. 180. 25. 

9. rfj &X\fl = els ewhere 2. 36. 2; 2. 63. 3; 4. 28. 13; 4. 192. 
11 ; to other places 1. 1. 11 ; 2. 116. 8 ; 3. 61. 15 ; 7. 32. 6 ; other- 
wise 6. 21. 9. In all these w. art., but cp. 2. 79. 5 (in a list of 
more than two) and 6. 48. 3 (a\Xovs £AAg). 

10. With Superlatives. In Kara tovto yap Icrn rov TLovtov €vpv- 
rarov the superl. is predic; cp. 1. in. 19; 2. 8. 18; 5. 92 S. 5 ; 



4 o HERODOTUS 

7. 25. 6; 7. 121. 6; 7. 128. 9; 7. 199. 3; 7. 200. 4 etc. The 
art. is used in 7. 176. 8, where, however, the gen. riys x^P 7 ? 5 *"}* 
oAAiys depends upon the superl., not upon Kara rovro. In 7. 216. 
8 the art. refers back to 7. 176; further the relat. has here a 
definite anteced. as distinguished from 1. 11 1 ; 7. 25 etc. (on 
this ground rb xwpiov in 1. 84. 16 should be retained). In 2. 158. 
22 the art. refers to 1. 17. 

11. With j^o-ov. The art. is omitted w. predic. ficVov in 1. 170. 
15 ; 4. 17. 2 ; 4. 87. 15 ; also in preposit. phrases 1. 181. 4, 8; 
2. 126. 10; 4. 171. 4; 8. 15. 5; 8. 23. 8. In 1. 186. 3 fi€<rov 
may be adverb, w. %x eLV ' 

12. Position. A partit. gen. in attrib. position gen. occurs in 
contrasts w. pkv ... 8c; cp. 1. 143. 2; 7. 129. 3 ; 7. 156. 11 ; not 
infreq. the gen. depends upon art. w. partic. 1. 146. 10; 7. no. 
6; 7. 138. 4. Without marked contrast in fteV clause in 1. 105. 
l 3 > 5- *• * > 8. 1. 1. In 8. 66. 9 tc . . . kcu connects ; in 8. 4. 1 
and 8. 68 /?. n there is no contrast, but other words intervene 
between art. and partic. In 1. 24. 18; 1. 98. 21 ; 6. 57. 27 the 
gen. depends upon a superl. in the attrib. position; but cp. 1. 

53. 14. 

The possessive gens, in attrib. position in 1. 165. 4; 2. 133. 6; 
6. 30. 7 are also marked off by filv . . . 8c, but cp. 9. 50. 8. For 
reflexives in predic. position see 2. 26. 3; 2. 107. 5; 5. 5. 8; 6. 
23. n ; 9. 33. 26 ; 9. 37. 15 (in 2. 26, 2. 107, 6. 23 the readings 
vary; in 5. 5 rov olK-qiordrov cwvriys the governing word is not a 
subst. ; in 9. 37 airirafjue. rov rapo-bv iwvrov might be compared w. 
rov o/rbs airoTafivovTai 4. 71. 10). 

§ 9. Personal Pronouns 

1. Nominative, a. rv in 4. 157. 7 in oracular verse, erects 
(4. 43. 23; 7. 168. 7; 8. 7. 7; 8. 108. 13 (?) ; 9. 55. 16) is 
always indir. reflexive, b. The nom. is freq. inserted when there is 



INTRODUCTION 41 

no special emphasis, esp. after <fc as; cp. 7. 53. 9; 7. 101. 9; 7. 
184. 3 ; 7. 239. 21 ; 8. 30. 3 ; 8. 35. 10 ; 8. 38. 6 ; 8. 68 0. 9 ; 
8. 80. 13 ; 8. 144. 26 etc. ; the adv. of comparison suggests a con- 
trast ; cp. oaov rffith l&fiev 4. 17. 12 etc. At times the idea of 
contrast is suggested by fUy without following 8* 7. 9 y. 3 ; 7. 
2 39- 7 ; cp. ft>s ftev ifJLol SokcZv 8. 66. 5 etc. More peculiar is the 
writer's use of cyco when he promises to tell something later (2. 38. 
7 ; 2. 51. 2), or declines to tell what he knows (2. 65. 9 ; 2. 123. 
14). c. In clauses balanced by fiev . . . 8c, when the first clause 
contains a negative idea, the strong contrast is emphasized by in- 
troducing the second clause with cyw 8e, <n> 8e, 6 8c etc., although 
there is no change in subj. ; cp. 7. 6. 23; 7. 10 0. 10; 7. 13. 3 ; 

7. 125. 5; 7. 156. 3; 7. 163. 7; 7. 208. 10; 7. 218. 18; 7. 239. 
13; 8. 40. 10 (more than thirty examples) ; in 2. 115. 24 d\A.' 
avrot 6ya> for cya> 8e. In 6. 1 6. 5 there is no negative in the first 
clause, but there is a contrast between vw fxcv and 01 8c (cp. 
avrot 8e in Homer). In 7. 224. 1 the subjects of the two clauses 
differ ; also in 7. 223. 10, where, however, the use of 0! 8c would be 
more in accordance w. the com. usage, and the general sense of 
the passage would be improved by a negative before i^vXaxra-ero 
=/or they did not cling to (cp. Aesch. Eum. 440) the protection of 
the 7va//, but they etc. For the use of the prons. before 8c in the 
apodosis see § 28. d. A Homeric repetition of the subj. by a 
pron. w. yc is found in 2. 173. 19 ; 7. 10 0. 14. e. Here may be 
mentioned H.'s use of the 2 sg. fut. in geographical descriptions 
for the indef. one; cp. 2. 29. 11, 17, 23, 24 ; 2. 30. 2. 

2. Genitive, a. The 3 pers. lo only in 3. 135. 16 as indir. re- 
flexive, b. ifieo and <reo are rare in possessive use ; instead fid, 
croi, and the possess, adjs. ; but cp. 6. 68. 5 ; 9. 89. 16. 

3. Dative, a. <rot is emphatic, rol unemphatic. In the Mss. 
oik is at times enclitic; see 1. 109. 5 ; 1. 120. 32 ; 7. 10 a. 15 ; 

8. 100. 34 ; with 7. 10 a cp. 1. 207. 8 and 3. 1. 24 (a has accent in 



42 HERODOTUS 

both), b. v<j>\v occurs occasionally in some Mss. (2. 81. 5 ; 2. 
82. 5), but has been rejected in favor of <r<£l. c. For the possess, 
dat. see § 4. i. B. 1. 

4. Accusative, a. I only in an oracle 7. 220. 21. b. <r<f>€a is 
rare outside of H., who uses it 22 times, of which 20 are in books 
i-v; cp. 1. 46. 17; 7. 50. 20; 8. 36. 4. It is never nom. and 
never reflex. o-<£c for o-^ea in 3. 52. 18, 3. 53. 13, for ericas in 

7. 170. 4 (s has or^eas) has been rejected by the editors. 

5. Third Person. The pure anaphoric prons. are ol, fdv, o-<£cW, 
a-<t>l, o^cas, <r<j>ta (<rcf>L(TL is reflex. ; in 5. 103. 4 ; 6. 105. 9 ; 8. 68 /?. 

8, where all Mss. have an anaphoric o#m, most editors correct 
to cr$). ol, filv, <r<l>L, <r^ea are never used directly after preps, 
(but avv 8c 61 6. 90. 3 ; 7. 57. 11, <rvv 8c <r<£i 6. 8. 2 ; 7. 10 6. 8 ; 9. 
11. 19), nor are <r<^cW and ericas when anaphoric; cwt$ etc. 
instead, avrov etc. are freq. in other anaphoric uses, often in- 
distinguishable from ot, filv etc. (cp. 7. 10 6. 7, 8 ; 8. 40. 3, 14; 8. 
108. 16, 18), though often more emphatic, ol, /uv etc. rarely 
refer to things of neuter gend., but ot is so used in 1. 183. 3, 4 ; 4. 
34. 8; 6. 119. 14; filv in 1. 93. 7; 1. 178. 12; 3. in. 3 (cp. 
avro in 1. 5) ; 6. 82. 3 ; 7. 143. 6 ; o-^cW in 5. 58. 10; <r<£i in 
3. 128. 7. ol of things not neut. in 1. 156. 8 ; 1. 181. 17 ; fdv in 
1. 51. 11 ; 2. 175. 20; 4. 5. 17. ot is correlative in 2. 135. 10; 2. 
l 7 2 * 3> 7« 8 8. 4 ; o-^eas in 2. 144. 2 ; a^ca in 5. 92 17. 6. For 
a repeated relative, ol in 1. 40. 4 ; cr^t in 1. 146. 7 ; 2. 39. 9. 

§ 10. Reflexive Pronouns 

1. First and Second Person, ifiewvrov, -$, -oV 3. 142. 16 ; 6. 
86 a. 16 ; 3. 155. 8 ; in 3. 142. 19 avr$ tc ftoi in contrast to touti 
6\if ifi€o. aeuvTov, -$, -dv 7. 16 a. 12 ; 7. 38. 15 ; 7. 157. 22; in 
I. 124. 9 o-co tc avrov 7T€pi. rffiimv avT&v etc. 4. 119. 18 ; 8. T09. 
IO, 19 ; avrolcri yffiiv in 5. 91. 12 ; vfiimv avraiv etc. 7. 135. 10; 7. 
150. 1 2 ; 8. 140 a. 18. In the sing, the simple form is never direct 



INTRODUCTION 43 

reflex., apart from the formula cyw fwi 8okcq> 2. 93. 28 ; 5. 80. 2 ; 
the plur. 17/acW in 7. 236. 20. As indirect reflexives the simple 
forms are reg. in plur. and usual in sing., but cp. 3. 142. 16; 3. 

145- «• 

2. Third Person, a. Direct. In sing, cowrov, -i etc. are reg. ; 
avrrjv fuv 2. ioo. 16 (cp. 1. 24. 12). In gen. plur. ccdvtcov most 
com.; cr^eW avrwv freq. ; <7<£eW 7. 62. 8; 9. 54. 7. In dat. plur. 
a<t>i<ri most com. (Mss. have o~<£i 1. 142. 15; 2. 42. 9); <t<j>i<tl 
avroiai and cwvrois are also used. In ace. plur. o-^cas avrovs 
most com.; cwvrovs freq. ; o-^eas 4. 120. 7. b. Indirect. Most 
freq. 01, /uv, o-^cis, <r<f>€0)v, a<j>l and a<f>uTL, o-tfxas. cr^ecov, o-<£wn, 
or^ois occur w. preps, /wv, as subj. of infin. w. ref. to subj. of prin. 
verb 2. 132. 11; possibly also 7. 143. 6; in same construct. 
iojvrov I. 34. 2; 4. 9. 8; 6. 126. 9; in plur. <rcf>ea<; 1. 4. 4, 9 ; 

1. 5. 5 ; 2. 4. 13 ; 4. 7. 2 ; 4. 15. 13, 16 ; 4. 187. 12 ; 5. 9. 13 ; 
5. 86. 17; but €0)vtovs I. 134. 10; I. 171. 24 (avrot cawrovs) ; 

2. 2. 2, 6; 3. 22. 23; 4. 94. 2; 5. 7. 6; 6. 137. 22; and o-^eas 
avrov? 4. 78. 17; 5. 44. 2; 8. 94. 21; and avrovs 2. 107. 12 ; 
5. $6. 17. For ccdvtov, -w etc. as indir. reflex, see 7. 3. 11 ; 7. 147. 
3 ; 7. 209. 23 ; 8. 24. 4 ; 8. 61. 8 ; 8. 134. 12 ; in a gen. absol. clause 
only 9. 4. 8 (as subj. of gen. absol. 3. 27. 6 ; 9. 106. n). <r^cW 
avTuv etc. are less freq. indirect; cp. 5. 57. 10. For avrov, -<5, 
etc. as indir. reflex, see 7. 18. 3 ; 7. 101. 3 ; 7. 156. 12 ; 7. 206. 
3 i 7- 230. 3 ; 8. 40. 6 ; 8. 61. 11 ; 8. 65. 12 ; 8. 98. 9 ; 8. 103. 
5; note 1. 165. 4; 2. 133. 6; 6. in. 14 w. avrov in attrib. 
position. 

3. Pronominal Adjectives, os occurs in 1. 205. 4 (?). v^mpos 
is both direct and indirect ; it is always plur. ; in sing, ivvrov. 
c^tds is more freq. dir. reflex, than cjuiccdvtov, but o-ewvrov more 
freq. than cros. In plur. avrwv is added to adj. (5. 98. 12), but 
simple adj. 4. 133. 9. 

4. To emphasize a pron. without giving reflex, meaning avros 



44 HERODOTUS 

is placed first; cp. 3. 72.26; 1. 117. 12; 8. 102. 4; 7. 8 a. 6. 
In 1 sing, the Mss. vary between emphatic and unemphatic forms ; 
aim} pot 2. 10. 2; 4. 134. 12 ; 7. 28. 11, but c/W 3. 142. 19; 

aVTOV T€ €fJL€0 J, 38. 13 ; OLVTOV 8i fl€ 8. IOI. l6. If CtVTOS folloWS 

the pron. a word stands between 7. 39. 3. 

5. Combinations like avrol cowtw are freq. in 3 pers. ; cp. 7. 
10 a. 5 ; 7. 236. 20; 8. 16. 7; 8. 86. 9; no example in 1 pers., 
in 2 pers. only 9. 16. 17. 

§11. Indefinite tU 

1. tU means every one in exhortations and threats 7. 5. 13 ; 

7. 237. 15; 8. 109. 21. 

2. tIs w. adjs. strengthening their meaning is freq.; it gen. 

follOWS. Cp. €K 7ToWo» T€0 XpOVOV 2. 58. 8 j 7ToAAoi> TiwXijOoS 2. 60. 

3 ; ov iroWw rca> w. compar. i. 181. 2 ; 2. 48. 8 ; w. superl. 5. 92 €. 
14 ; iroXXov tl w. superl. 1. 192. n ; a-fUKpov ti 2. 7. 7 ; 4. 130. 1 ; 
see also 1. 147. 5 ; 2. 129. 15 ; 4. 198. 2 ; 7. 42. 9 ; 7. 192. 8 ; 

8. 15. 1; 8. 93. 9. With o£8ei/ 4. 19. 3; 4. 118. 15. With ttqs 
8. 86. 9. With eh 8. 26. 4. Cp. also outcd 817 ti w. adjs. 1. 163. 
11; 1. 185. 10; 2. 11. 4; TotovTos (toioo-Sc) 817 ns i. 1 78. 6; 
1. 192. 20; 5. 92 €. 12 etc. 

3. Position. tCjv ti? AcA^wv, characteristic of Ionic, is the 
usual order in H. 

§ 12. Demonstrative Pronouns 

1. ovtos, toioutos, ovto) usually refer back, but forward in i. 7. 2 ; 
1. 125. 3; 1. 178. 6; 7. 3. 12; 7. 5. 7; 7. 175. 14; 8. 140 a. 
2 etc. 

2. 08c, toioo-8c, toowSc, <S8c usually look forward, but cp. 1. 137. 
2 ; 1. 141. 17 ; 1. 164. 2 ; 3. 48. 19 ; 4. 8. 1 ; 5. 83. 4 (cp. 6. 
86 0. 13) ; 7. 62. 8 ; 7. 99. 17 ; 7. 230. 2 ; 8. 139. 2. 

3. c£ avriov, iv avroiai therefrom, therein for more usual ovros 



INTRODUCTION 45 

i. 9. 2 ; 1. 89. 7 ; 7. 8 y. 3 ; 7. 10 a. 15 ; 7. 10 v . 11 ; 7- 14- 
8 ; 7-50-9; 8. 60. 19, 25; the sing, in 1. 207. 15; 2. 51. 17 j 7. 
46. 20. 

§ 13. Relative Pronouns 

1. After know, tell a. relat clause often approaches in meaning 
an indirect question, esp. through the omission of the anteced. 
demonstr. (cp. 2. 121 /?. 16; 3. 50, 12; 3. 68. 2 ; 5. 74. 5 ; 6. 
124. 7 ; 6. 129. 3 ; 7. 26. 6), or the transference of the anteced. 
noun to the relat. clause (1. 56. 5 ; 4. 53. 17 ; 6. 132. 5). After 
ask to is used in 3. 51. 2 ; 7. 37. 11 ; 9. 54. 9 (cp. <Ls 7. 148. 10) ; 
after discuss 6. 37. 10; 8. 40. 6 ; 9. 71. 12 (05 ; cp. 2. 134. 17). 

2. ooTis after a definite anteced. instead of 05 is not infreq. ; cp. 

1. 7. 10; 2. 46. 13; 3. 70. 6; 4. 8. 4; 6. 13. 14; 7. 196. 11; 
8. 26. 8. 

3. Attraction. In 69 instances the ace. of os is attracted, in 
42 it is not. Of the 69 examples there are 30 of twv ^/xcis Ihfitv, 
so that, apart from this, attraction is omitted as often as it occurs. 
Subst. relat. clauses permit attraction more freq. than adj. clauses 
(cp. 7. 8 y. 11 ; 8. 100. 22 ; 8. 105. 3 ; 3. 134. 31). The verb in 
clauses w. attracted relat. is reg. indie. The relat. is not attracted 
if an attrib. ace. accompanies it (cp. 2. 42. 5). a. An ace. of time is 
attracted in 1. 107. 2 : /WiXeixra? . . . cVca crvv toicti 2*v0ai rjp(av. 
b. A nom. becomes ace. in 1. 92. 21 ; 2. 8. 7; 2. 22. 7 (?); 5. 
92 8. 5 ; gen. for nom. 1. 78. 15. The four examples of the ace. 
are heut. ; in form, therefore, the same as the nom. c. Attraction 
from dat. occurs only in the stereotyped temporal phrases ait' 175, 
aw' ov, h <5 etc. d. Attraction of noun to relat. occurs in ras 8c 
onyAas (nom. in a), ras Jem/ . . . , at fikv 7rA.cov€s 2. 106. 1; cp. 3. 
147. 2 ; 9. 88. 5. e. ovSasooris ov 5. 97. 11. ovSa^tcov 'EAAi/wicaiv 
tw ov iroXXbv fLe£o> 7. 145. 19. acf>6ovoL otrot ytvovrai 4. 194. 5 ; cp, 

2. 175. 4; 4. 28. 3. In this connection may be mentioned the 



46 HERODOTUS 

formal use of cos cxaoros = each separately after the manner of 
Thuc. ; cp. I. 114. 10; 6. 31. 5; 6. 79. 7; cp. 2. 82. 2: ro8eoAAa 
tori i$evprjfX€va . . . tq Ikoxttos V^PV y^vdftcvos orcotcri eyjcvpi/crei 
/#*y to worked out what fortune will befall a man according to 
the day on which he is born, 

§ 14. Adverbs 

1. The demonstr. adv. cos so is freq., and occurs in the foil, 
combinations : cos 8c W 7. 104. 16; 7. 106. 4; 7. 206. 7 ; 8. 126. 
13 etc. ; ws 8c 89 wax 3. 37. 3 (?) ; cos 863. 13. 12; cos yap 9. 18. 11 ; 
dAA.' ovS' ws 1. 128. 3; 3. 152. 5; ficVrot ov8* cos 6. 76. 10; cos 
8* aurcos 7. 86. 9 ; 8. 21. 5 etc. ; cotravrcos 7. 86. 3, 7; 7. 236. 21 ; 
8. 5°* 7 etc.; cos 8c Trapair\iq<TLiiys 7» n 9* *• 

2. For adv. use of ofiova, cViicoiva, irapairAi/o'ia see I. 2 1 6. 2 ; 4. 
99. 16 ; 6. 77. 8 ; 7. 118. 8 ; 7. 120. 9 ; 7. 141. 4. 

§ 15. Tenses 

1. Present, a. Historic. For the ordinary use to give greater 
liveliness to the narrative see 1. 45. 19 ; 3. 78. 11 ; 3. 130. 6, 12, 
15 etc. H. also often uses the annalistic pres. when giving a 
brief chronicle of past events, esp. yiverai, TcAcvra, tiktci, ya/xci ; 
cp. 3. 160. 12; 4. 78. 4, 6; 4. 149. 5; 4. 160. 1 ; 5. 27. 5; 5. 
4 1 ' 3 > 5- 9 2 P- 4> 6; 7. 61. 14 etc. b. Pres. in fut. sense often 
in oracles; cp. 7. 140; 8. 77. In the apod, of fut. condits. 1. 
207. 15, 18; 3. 155. 17; 6. 86 a. 3; 6. 109. 29; 8. 102. 15; cp. 
5. 43. 6; 6. 82. 12. 

2. Imperfect, a. Iterative in -otcov freq.; cp. 7. 5. 15; 7. 
33.11; 7.41.2; 7.106.2; 7.119.16,19; 7. 211. 12. b. Iter- 
ative w. av 1. 196. 16, 22; 2. 109. 7; 3. 51. 12, 15; 7. 211. 13. 
aV w. forms in -ctkov 2. 174. 5; 3. 119. 12; 4. 42. 16. c. Of 
attempt or intention in 1. 68. 26 ; 1. 69. 16 ; 1. 208. 6 ; 7. 20. 10 
etc. d. With negative denoting resistance or inability 1. 76. 14; 



INTRODUCTION 47 

5. 41. 16 ; 9. 55. 6 ; often in temporal clause of antecedence 7. 
210. 3; 7. 211. 17; 7. 212. 12; 8.4.9; & 121. 1 etc., with 
associated causal meaning, e. With aurt/ca etc. much more freq. 
than aor. ; cp. 7. 1.6; 7. 215. 2; 8. 108.5; 8. no. 5; 8. 128. 
15. f. With apa expressing the real state of things in contrast to 
what had been thought 3. 64. 20 ; 3. 65. 12 ; 3. 70. 4 ; 4. 64. 18 ; 
8. 8. 7; 8. in. 10 (pres. in 7. 35. 10; aor. in 7. 130. 7). g. In 
certain verbs the imperf. is preferred to the aor., as Xcyetv (before 
a speech), /coXeiv, kcXcvciv, airctv, Sciorflai, ayciv, ircfX7rtiv, irXuv, iropcv- 
ecrflaietc; cp. 1. 35. 6; 1. 120. 2 ; 3. 41. 8 ; 7. 148. 4 ; 7.173, 
5 ; 8. 64. 9 ; 8. 66. 4 ; 8. 70. 1 ; 8. 122. 4. h. In temporal sen- 
tences w. until the main verb is reg. imp. The negatived aors. in 

6. 45. 7, 7. 137. 8, 8. 8. 12 imply an extended action of the oppo- 
site kind. The participles carry the idea of extended action in 2. 
143. 16; 6. 83. 2. Sometimes the sentences are elliptical, the 
extended action following the aor. being suggested by the context ; 
cp. 1. 158. 8; 4. 160. 2 ; 4. 201. 10; 6. 24. 7. The aor. in 4. 
196. 12 is gnomic. For the imperf. instead of the aor. in the 
until clause see 3. 

3. Aorist. a. Iteratives in -<tkov from aor. stems are found 
in 4. 78. 19 ; 9. 74. 6; combined w. av in 4. 78. 22 ; 4. 130. 8. 
b. Gnomic aors. in 2. 20. 8 ; 3. 82. 15 ; 7. 172. 18. Particularly 
characteristic is the use w. &v, which, when the verb is a corapd. 
is placed between the prep, and verb. See examples under Tmesis, 
§ 7, and 1. 132. 13. c. Ingressive in 7. 3. 18; 7. 13. 9; 7. 39 
1; 7.45.4; 7. 182.4; 8. 23. 10; 8. 85. 11 etc. d. In ques 
tions w. ov, suggesting immediate action, in 9. 48. 18 : rt 89 ov . . 
i(mx€<rdfu$a ; Why don't we fight ? e. Temporal clauses, a. In 
until clauses the subord. verb is reg. aor. Exceptions are due to 
the * overlapping ' of the time of the main and subord. actions, to 
the aoristic effect of the subord. clause due to the kind of verb or 
some accompanying phrase, or to some peculiarity in the structure 



4 S HKRODOTUS 

of the sentence; cp. for impf. i. 158. 11 ; 1. 196. 21 ; 3. 48. 20; 
4. 160. 3, 11 ; 9. 55. 6 ; 9. 94. 6 (pres. subj. or infin. 1. 202. 13 ; 

2. 115. 25; 4. 42. 13; 4. 196. 12; 7. 171. 9); for pres. 1. 98. 
3; 3. 104. 14; 4. 181. 19; 6. 75. 12; for plupf. 5. 51. 13; 
9- 55- 6- P' I n clauses w. wpiv before the aor. infin. is regular; 
the exceptions are due to the nature of the verb, as 7. 228. 3 ; 8. 

3. 2 ; 8. 144. 29. In the main clause the aor. is usual, but for 
impf. of continuing action see 4. 134. 20; 4. 167. 7. y. In 
clauses introduced by after the aor. is usual if the action of the 
clause is wholly antecedent. Many imperfs. are due to the kind 
of verb, #ceA.eva>, irXim etc. (see 2. g) being much used in this tense ; 
cp. 1. 11. 7 ; 1. 171. 8 ; 2. 29. 29; 2. 108. 16 ; 2. 140. 4; 7. 146. 
11 ; 7. 188. 1. The imperf. is reg. when negatived. The plupf. 
is found only 13 times w. era, eraS^, mire; of these 5 are pas- 
sives (8. 53. 14; 9. 84. 1 etc.), airUaro occurs 4 times (7. 175. 1 ; 
8. 6. 2 etc.), cycywei twice (8. 27. 1 ; 8. 129. 2),oi^(oK€t in 7. 164. 
13 ; Ttap-qPrjKti in 3. 53. 2. Of about 45 examples w. o>s about 30 
are passives; there are 10 cases of cyeywet of which 8 are ex- 
pressions of time like a>s €v(f>p6vrj eycyom 8. 12. 1 ; dwiKaro is 
found three times, ot^wKci twice ; cp. also 8. 126. 11 ; 8. 129. 6. 

4. Future, a. Indicative, a. A gnomic fut., descriptive of 
customs, is found in 1. 173. 21 ; 1. 198. 6; 1. 199. 20; 2. 39. 18; 

2. 41. 10. With this cp. the 'Traveller's Future,' ^cts cs ttoXjlv 
fieydXrjv 2. 29. II, 17, 19, 23, 24; 2. 30. 2; 2. 97. II etc. 
$. ov fir) w. fut. indie, in an emphatic negative is the reading of p in 

3. 62. 17; a has subj. (cp. 1. 199. 18; 7. 53. 11). y. In delib. 
.question 7. 234. 14 ; cp. tol? ri<p rpoww irtprjo-ofxev 3. 72. 7. Indi- 
rect cases in 1. 11. 22 ; 3. 72. 4 ; 3. 84. 2; 1. 98. 1 ; 1. 125. 1 ; 
the Mss. vary between fut. indie, and aor. subj. in 7. 213. 1 ; 8. 
I 35« J 3« 8. okws w. fut. in a demand 3. 142. 24. b. Optative. 
The Mss. agree in reading a fut. opt. only in 7. 226. 11 and 9. ^8. 
12 (Acyrov ws &jro\ap.\f/oiTO (ru^voJs). a has rj£oi in I. 1 2 7. 5. The 



INTRODUCTION 40 

pres. opt. in»7. 6. 17 represents the pres. indie, of a prophecy. 
The pres. pvolaro in 4. 135. 12 represents a command of the direct 
form, put into the opt. through the influence of peXXoi in the pcy 
clause, c. Infinitive, a. With promise, swear y prophesy etc., there 
is some variation between fut., and aor. or pres. V7rurxy&<r0ai w. fut. 
3. 74. 12; in 7. 168. 5 pres. in /?; in 7. 215. 1 aor. in B and /?. 
viro&eK€<r(ka w. fut. 5. in. 20 (neg. prf) ; 6. 1 1. 15 (neg. ov) ; 4. 119. 
5 ; 4. 133. 13 ; 4. 148, 7 ; 6. 62. 3 ; 7. 158. 21 ; 8. 29. 10 ; 8. 102. 
5 ; 9. 12. 5 ; in 3. 69. 16 fut. in a, aor. in /?; in 1. 24. 16 and 6. 
2. 5 fut. only in P (all three Karcpyacrco-ftu ; cp. 7I 215). forcSwav 
in 7. 134. 14 has fut. in /?, aor. in a. v7r<xjTrjvat w. fut. 9. 94. 8. 
irpoeiwe w. fut. I. 84. 4. iirayyekXeo-dcu W. fut. 8. 142. 18. cv^ccr^at 
w. fut. 2. 181. 13; 4. 76. 10. (=vow), but aor. in 1. 27. 
16; 1. 31. 22 { — pray for). irpoXcyeiv in 1. 53. 13 w. fut. 
(aor. in some Mss.) . Aoyiov w. aor. 8. 60 y. 6. c#c€Xp?^rro w. aor. 7. 
220. 10; w. fut. 2. 139. 9; 2. 147. 17; 2. 151. 12; 3. 64. 16; 4. 
x 56. 5; 5. 43. 7 ; 6. 76. 1; 7. 142. 7; 8. 51. 12. amXov w. fut. 
9. 33. 8. irpoayopvfeiv W. fut. I. 91. 16; I. 74. 1 1. iirop.vvvat etc. 
w. fut. i. 29. 11 ; 1. 165. 14; 3. 74. 8 etc., but Mss. have e/cSwra- 
(T0ai in 5. 106. 31. In laws, oaths, and agreements where the infin. 
is not directly dependent upon a verb of swearing or promising 
the pres. or aor. is used; cp. 1. 146. 16; 4. 201. 22 ; 7. 132. 9; 
9. 26. 20. i\iri£eiv etc. have fut. when hope of fut. action is ex- 
pressed, but H. freq. uses these words of confident expectation, and 
consequently w. pres. or aor. im&o£os w. fut. 6. 12. 17 ; w. aor. 1. 
89. 7. ttp<xt$€K€(t6(u w. fut. infin. 7. 235. 18; 8. 130. 14 etc.; w. 
fut. partic. 1. 89. 8 ; o>s w. fut. indie. 9. 48. 13. /?. In 8. 86. 10 
the Mss. agree in reading the aor. w. SoKtiv ; in 9. 109. 9 a has 
cdTr)<rai., ft alTrjacaOai; in 8. I OO. IO after ifapi ol 1/ yvtu/Ai; the MSS. 
have aor. With 9. 109 cp. 7. 38. 6. With Bokclv the aor. is hard 
to defend. In 8. 86 the pres. would suit the context better than 
the fut. After yvco/x^ in 8. 100 the aor. is possibly due to an idea 

HERODOTUS — 4 



So HERODOTUS 

of intention; cp. 5. ti8. 9 ; 6. no. 4. y. With kv vow fyetv and 
other words of intention there are several examples of the fut., as 
well as of the aor. or pres.; cp. fut. in 1. 10. 9; 1. 86. 9; 8. 7. 
10; 9. 93. 14; aor. in 7. 157. n ; pres. in 1. 27. 10; 3. 64. 8; 4. 
125. 19 etc. €7T€X€iv w. fut 1. 80. 24 ; w. pres. 1. 153. 20 ; 6. 96. 1. 
vo€6<r0<u w. fut. 7. 206. 7 ; w. pres. 1. 77. 14. huavouudai w. fut. 7. 
207. 2 ; w. pres. 9. 54. 8. imvoeiv w. fut. 3. 31. 7 ; 3. 134. 17 ; w. 
pres. 1. 27. 3 ; 3. 122. 8 ; w. aor. 2. 150. 12 ; 2. 152. 9 ; 5. 24. 7 
etc. iinpov\€veiv w. fut. 6. 137. 21. See also fut. w. irapao-Kcua£e- 
a-Oai 8. 97. n, and even w. povXofjuu 4. in. 15. 8. With /u,e\A.a> the 
fut. is most com. (c. 80 cases : c. 35 pres.), the aor. rare, ycveaOat 
alone being found 1. 34. 5; 2. 39. 14; 7. 148. 10 (pres. in /?) 
a form easily confused w. the pres. (in 4. 146. 7 some Mss. have 
KaTaxpiqmxrdai ; in 8. 40. 7 a has irouqaaoflai) . With /acAAq) cp. dva- 
fiaKXeadai w. fut. 5. 49. 50; 6. 86 /J. 12 ; in 9. 8. 2 ft has pres., 
a aor. 

§ 16. Subjunctive in Independent Clauses 
Besides the use in exhortations and prohibitions (8. 65. 26 ; 8. 
100. 26 ; 8. 109. 22 ; 8. 142. 20) may be noted : a. ov fi-q w. subj. 
in an emphatic negation 1. 199. 18; 3. 62. 17 (fut. indie, in /?) ; 7. 
53. n. b. Deliberative questions 7. 101. 15 etc.; for indirect 
cases see 7. 213. 1 ; 8. 36. 4 ; 8. 101. 19 etc. In fiaOrjaea-Se okolov 
avn vfuv i( avrov iKftaivfl (9. n. 12) we have a relat. clause rather 
than a question (cp. § 13. 1) ; cp. fidde oo-a dya0a airofhXtLS 1. 71. 
16. c. fitf ov w. subj. in an expression of doubt : aXXa paXXov /iiy 
ov tovto y to fwyr-qiov 5. 79. 12. d. okws firj w. subj. in a warn- 
ing 6. 85. 12. 

§ 17. Optative in Independent Clauses 
Besides the opt in wishes (3. 65. 37 ; 6. 69. 33 ; 7. n. 8; in 
relat clause 5. in. 16; introduced by dAA'a 7. 5. 10) and the 
ordinary potential opt. may be noted the following potential opta- 



INTRODUCTION 51 

tives referring to the past : a. With pres, tense 1. 2. 6 (drjauv 8* &v 
ovtol Kprjres these were Cretans, I suppose) ; 1. 70. 17 ; 2. 98. 7 ; 
5- 59- 7; 5- 60. 5 ; 7. 184. 17; 7. 214. 11 ; 8. 136. 19. b. With 
aor. tense 2. 11. 20; 7. 180. 7; 9. 71. 19. 

§ 18. Conditional Clauses 

In general the usage is as in Attic. For examples of particular 
conditions see 7. 103. 8 ; 8. 22. 9, 11 ; 8. 100. 28; of general 7. 
3. 12; 7. 6. 22; 8. 115. 8 (imperf. indie, in 7. 83. 5); of ideal 
7- 9 y« 5 '> 7« x 5* *5 > **• 108. 13 ; 8. 19. 3 (no av in Mss.) ; of 
unreal 7. 47. 4; 7. 50. 16; 8. 93. 5 ; 9. 45. 6 (imperf. of past 8. 
30. 5 ; 8. 103. 2 ; 8. 140 ft. 6 ; for xprjv in apod, see 7. 9 /?. 10 ; 9. 
60. 10); of future 7. 10 0. 6; 8. 80. 10. The following points 
may be particularly noted. 

1. Omission of &v. The foil, doubtful examples occur : el fir) 
avafirj (rjv in ft) 2. 13. 6 ; rjv /ecu etTroorcWt (ci in a) 3. 15. 8 ; ct 
/icv fi€Tafie\rj<rrj (fut. in £) 3. 36. 25 ; ct 8c SuLXpforprOe (fut. in /?) 
6. ii. 10; ci 8c d7ro8c£ct? (subj. in fi) 7. 50. 8 ; a vuoyflcWi 8. 49. 

9 (^v in /?) ; ci 8c Tavra ft^ 71-017/0779 (fut. P 8) 8. 62. 6 ; ct fir) ycVr/Tai 
(rjv in £) 8. 118. 13. The Mss. vary in each case. In three 
cases it is a question of an easily confused -07/ or -o*ct ; in four of 
rjv ftcV or el fiev 9 rjv firj or ct fir), rjv vik- or ct vlk-, i.e. a nasal follows 
the particle, rendering the confusion of ct and rjv easy, to the ear 
at least. See next section. 

2. Negative ©$. ct oe ravra ov 7rou]<rei<; I. 212. 13; ct 8* ravra 
/xcv ov irotrjo-own, ol &c irdvrm 8ta f^d\r^ «A.€vo-ovTat 6. 9. 20 ; cp. 7. 

10 $. 11 ; contrast ct 8c ravra /wy woirjoys (-cts) 8. 62. 6. The 
meaning in these cases is if you are determined not to do what is 
advised. In 7. 16 y. 15 ov negatives old re. In 6. 133. 10 the 
Mss. vary between 17 v firj ol Swo-i and rjv fnv ov 8a>o*t (Stein fiev ov). 
In 7. 9. 10 etc. ov after 8ctvw ct as freq. ; cp. 1. 60. 14 ; 1. 129, 
11 ; 5. 97. 14 j 7. 46. 9 ; 9. 68, 2 ; 9. 100. 7. 



52 HERODOTUS 

3. iMXci. a. With an inanimate subject WeXci is used in fut. 
condits. of something that is going to happen beyond the control 
of human agencies ; cp. ei yap IBfXrjcru prj£a<; V7rt pfirjvai 6 worafAos 
Tavrrj, kiv&vvos Trdo-rj M.€fi<j}t KaTa.K\.v<rOfjvai iuri 2. 99. 14 ; cp. w. 
Oeos as subj. 2. 13. 18. The fut. cflcA^o-ci is used in 1. 32. 13 ; 1. 
109. 12; 2. 11. 15; 2. 13. 18; 2. 99. 14; the pres. cfleXci in 7. 

10 8. 7 ; 7. 16 y. 6; 7. 49. 15 ; the opt. in 2. 14. 4 (possibly in- 
fluenced by <us ci7rov). b. Strong determination is expressed by 
the 2 pers. c&Ai/cras in 7. 10 0. 11 (see 2) ; cp. in the 3 pers. ci 
(avQpwiros) i$i\oL KareairovBdo-Ocu aici, Aa#oi av puavtU 2. 173. 18. 
c. Simple futurity is expressed by the 1 pers. in ct yap iQeXyaofAtv 
ioSe^aaOat tovs 7ro\€fjLiovs cs Tiyv X^PV V *• 20 7 # x 4 an< ^ Y^ ^ or 1 € * 
c#eA.ei cr<£i watrav rrjv akrjOtLrjv £i7r€iv, avros kivSvvctxtci a7roA.«r0ai 9. 
89. 5 ; cp. the impersonal 2 pers. in ci d&et? ^<^o> ftow^ ftaXciv 
Starcrpavet? 3. 12. 6 ('Traveler's Future* instead of pres. gen.). 

4. Future Indicative. See 7. 8 y. 3 ; 7. 10 0. 10 ; 7. 11. xi ; 7. 
16 y. 13 ; 7- 50- 8 ; 7. 172. 14; 7. 226. 11 ; 7. 236. 15 ; 8. 3. 5 ; 
8. 62. 3 ; 8. to8. 12 ; 8. 112. 6. Generally, if the verb is 2 pers., 
a warning is implied. 

5. For el clauses with attempt etc. see 3. 128. 13; 6. 52. 17; 
S. 6. 6; 9. 14. 4. 

§ 19. Indefinite Relative Clauses 

1. For subj. and opt. as in Attic see the general clauses in 7. 
49. 16; 7. 104. 21 ; 8. 98. 5; 8. 115. 8, 15 \ the future in 8. 19. 
9 ; 8. 93. 8 ; 9. 7. 13. Indie, in particular 8. 32. 12 etc. 

2. Omission of &v. The four examples are general clauses : 1. 
216. 4 ; 2. 85. 2 (cp. av in the clause on which it depends) ; 4. 46. 

11 ; 4. 66. 4 (jrivovo-t tcuv 2kv0£(i>v toicl avSpe? ktL, roicri 8' ay //.17 ; 
note av in the 8e clause and the possibility of loss of aV before 

&v8/D€s). 

3. Some indefinite relat. clauses apparently have a definite 



INTRODUCTION S3 

antecedent ; cp. iir€$vfirj(T€ fivrjiuyuw ccuvrijs KaraXnr€<r$€u irofyfia 
vouftrafjiiinff rovro rb fir) rvy\dvoL aAAo> €$cvprfjJLevov . . . rovro ova- 
Oelvai 2. 135. 13 = what shall turn out not to have been discovered 
by another, that to set up as a memorial. Note the negative, the 
mood, and the lack of the article w. rovro, showing that iroCrjfm is 
appesitive. Such relat. clauses are substantives, not adjectives. 
Instead of ovr&s Attic writers generally use tomwtos os (prf)- Cp. 
I. 32. 8; 4. 79. 12; 4. 95. 15; 4. 166. 5; 6. 125. 10; 7. n. 20; 
7. 102. 3. In ri (7<jf>eas aTraiprjcreaL, rolvl ye ynq fori fir)$€v I. 71. 15 
the meaning is what will you get from people who have nothing, 
like them ? 

§ 20. Temporal Clauses 

1. General. For the most part, as in Attic, the subj. w. &v 
is used of pres. time, the opt. of past. In clauses of which the 
action precedes that of the main verb lirtav is almost invariably 
used in pres. gen. (about 150 cases), okws in past gen. (about 50 
cases). Examples are: inedv w. subj. 7. 9 p. 3 ; 7. 10 a. 5 ; 7. 
ioc. 6; 7. 85. 9; 8. 104. 6 etc.; cVeiTe av w. subj. 1. 200. 3; 
1. 202. 8; cWtc w. opt. 2. 181. 7 ; evrc 3v (contemp.) w. subj. 
2 - 63. 3 ; 6. 27. 1 ; evrc w. opt. 4. 78. 15 (antecedent, resumed w. 
okws) ; 6k6t€ w. opt. 2. 120. 10 (contemp.); 2. 181. 17 (anteced.); 
6<ra/us ctv w. subj. 1. 198. 2 (anteced.) ; orav w. subj. 5. 16. 19 
(strictly anteced., but w. emphasis upon the almost simultaneous 
result); ore w. opt. 4. 78. 27 (anteced.); a>s w. opt. 1. 17. 7 
(anteced.); 7. 119. 18 (ey:Wo in a); in 1. 196. 17 ws is modal = 
just as he used to go through with the sale of the handsomest, he 
would put up the ugliest; okws w. opt. 7. 6. 19 ; 7. 41. 2 ; 7. 128. 
11 ; 8. 52. 4; 8. 90. 17 ; 8. 91. 6 etc. c? 5 av w. subj. 1. 93. 14; 
3. 82. 21 ; 4. 30. 9; 4. 196. 12 ; in 3. 31. 11 av is omitted ; fiexpi 
ov w. opt. 2. 179. 7; irplv aV w. subj. I. 140. 4; 1. 197. 9; 1. 
198. 6 ; 3. 109. 6 (a omits av); 4. 117. 5 ; 4. 196. 14. av is reg. 



54 HERODOTUS 

omitted w. irplv rj i. 136. 8 ; 7. 10 17. 10 and irportpov rj 1. 199. 14 ; 

4. i9 6 - *5- 

Two sentences (1. 132. 5 ; 4. 172. 15) have fa w. subj. without 
aV. Both are introduced by t&v 8k fa ocaoros and are not purely 
temporal. This is shown clearly in 1. 132 (iw 8k fa €koot<p dveiv 
dcky, KaXct tov Oeov) by the rov 6e6v ; the meaning is according as 
he wishes to sacrifice to each of the gods in turn, he calls upon that 
god. So tw 8k fa ocaoros ol pA\0fj, b\8ol &u>pov (4. 172) = according 
as each guest in turn has intercourse with her, he gives her a gift 
fa differs from when here in that it implies that the time of the 
action of the prin. verb corresponds in order to that of the subord. 
clause ; cp. each man is assigned a number when he comes in with 
each man is assigned a number in accordance with when he comes 
in ( = the time of his arrival). The use of fa is similar in 1. 196. 
5 : fa av <u -rrapOcvoi yivoiaro ydfi<av fopauu, ravras €s iv \mpCov 
itrdyea-Kov aXeas according as the maidens in turn became mar- 
riageable they used to bring them together into one place (cp. ravras 
w. rbv deov in 1. 132). Here the av is difficult ; perhaps we should 
read av in turn, which, like cKaoros, would bring out the idea of 
fa as of order rather than simple time. With the first two cp. 6. 
31.5: OKOJ? 8k \d/3oL TLva tw vrjcruv, fa eKaoTijv atpcorrcs ol fidpfiapoi 
laayrjvfvov rovs avdpuirovs, for which might have been written, with- 
out great change in meaning, tw 8k fa kudur-ipr Xdfioi ktc. 

In 1. 196. 21 the imperf. indie, is used in a gen. clause w,e$o; 
in 7. 23. 7 the aor. w. fa>s ; cp. 3. 104. 15 and 4. 181. 19, in which, 
however, the verb of the cs o clause does not fix the end of the 
action of the prin. clause. 

2. Future. The subjunctive is regular, but in 9. 58. 22 Suokt&h 
c&rl cs o KaTa\ap.<l>0€VTes 8cocrov<rt 17/uv Socas. Here the end of the 
action of &<dkt«h lies properly in KaraXafufrOcvTcs and 8<o<rovcri tells 
what is going to happen then. Examples of fat. clauses are: 
cWv 7. 8 8. 2 5 7. 77. 2 ; 7. 146. 14; 8. 22. 13 etc.; cWidV 8. 



INTRODUCTION 55 

144. 28 (all Mss. ; the Mss. vary in the conjunction in 1. 193. 18; 

3. 21. 16; 4. 22. 11 ; 4. 61. 3); faetre 8. 22. 19 (no av) ; orav 7. 
108. 4; 5. 30. 29; 5. 93. 4 etc.; &xpi ov 1. 117. 18 (no av) ; is 
o av 2. 115. 25 ; 4. 43. 12 ; no av in 8. 108. 25 (opt. in a) ; l<rf 
aV= until 7. 141. 10; 7.158.20; 8. 4. 8; = aj long as 3. 53. 22; 

4. 201. 12; 8. 61. 9; 8. 142. 19; 8. 143. 8; 8. 144. 19; /i^pt 
until 4. 119. 18 (no av); 7r/wv w. av 1. 32. 39; 1. 159. 7 ; 5. 106. 
32; without av 4. 157. 11; 6. 82. 8; 7. 220. 22 (oracle); Mss. 
vary in use of ov in 1. 32. 25 ; 1. 82. 36 ; irplv rj reg. without av 
1. 19. 12 ; 4. 9. 8 (infin. in a) ; 6. 133. 11 ; 7. 8 £. 9; 9. 93. 26 ; 
9. 117. 5 ; irporepov 17 without av 7. 54. 8 ; 9. 86. 6 ; 9. 87. 5. 

With regard to the omission of av it is to be observed that in 
the case of when clauses there is but one example of omission 
(8. 22) out of a very large number of future and general clauses, 
and that in this case (lirurt dveveix^fl) the following word begins 
w. av. In until clauses 7rywv r} and irporepov rj regularly omit av 
whether future or general ; with the other words the omission is 
so frequent in comparison with the total number of cases that 
there can be no question of inserting it. 

3. Conjunctions. o>s, craVc, and iireC are very freq. iirt&ri 
occurs about 35 times, okcds is freq. in past gen. clauses ; in past 
partic. 7. 229. 11 ; 9. 66. 9 ; in fut. gen. 5. 63. 3 (opt. indirect) ; 
okws re in 2. 108. 16. dxnrep in 6. 41. 3 is not temporal; the 
meaning is " he got through the gulf as he started from Kardia " 
(i>. with five ships), but, as he was passing the Chersonese the 
Phoenicians fell upon him and captured one ship ; cp. Thuc. 8. 
23. 1 T€o-<rap<Ti vavoiv wo-wcp Zpfirjro with four ships as he started, 
ore, orav about 50 times. 6kot€ in 2. 120. 10; 2. 181. 17. cvrc 
in 2. 63. 3 ; 4. 78. 15 ; 6. 27. 1 ; 7. 193. 11 ; 7. 209. 8. ^05 in 
4. 28. 13 (w. correl. nyviKavro in the season, in which). oo-aKts in 
1. 198. 2. iv $ while 1. 164. 12; 7. 26. 1 etc. (15 cases); cp. 
*v ckto) 1. 174. 12. oarov (without x/wvov) 1. 130. 5; 7. 161. 7. 



56 HERODOTUS 

axpi ov until i. 117. 18. Itrrt (see under 2). Iws = until 4. 42. 
12; 7. 23. 7 ; 7. 100. 5 ; = as long as 1. 62. 7 ; 1. 173. 10 (Mss. 
Tews); 2. 57. 6; 3. 25. 21; 3. 134. 12; 4. 165. 1 (Mss. tcw) ; 
9. 6. 2 ; 9. 23. 5 ; 9. 70. 7 ; 9. 102. 7. pcxpi = until 4. 119. 18 ; 
= as long as 4. 3. 15 ; jxcxfH oo-ou as long as 8. 3. 9 ; /ac^i ov #«/*'/ 
1. 187. 9 ; 2. 179. 7 ; 5. 28. 9; 7. 60. 11 ; 7. 225. 6; 8. 100. 2. 
€5 o is most com. for until ; about 60 cases. All Mss. have h ov 
in 4. 160. 11 (cp. 1. 3); 4. 181. 19; 4. 196. 12; 5. 51. 13; in 
seven other passages the Mss. vary, h ol is not used by other 
writers until we get to Appian, but h o also is only Ionic or late 
(in Thuc. 5. 66 cs 6 = as far as). It is impossible to reject cs ov 
with certainty. As ecus ov is found but once (2. 143. 11), there 
is more likelihood of post-classical influence upon the text, though 
the phrase cannot be considered especially strange in a writer who 
uses fte^pt ov ayoprjs SulXvctios (3. 104. 7 etc.). 

With the exception of iv a> and h o relative phrases are rare 
apart from a word of time, but cp. i£ ov 2. 15. 19 ; 6. 109. 14; 
i( oreo 3. 63. 8 ; air* ov 2. 44. 12 ; i£ oo-ov 2. 98. 4. 

§ 21. Final Clauses 

1. Xva. After prim, tenses the opt. occurs once (2. 93. 21, a 
repeated action) in 38 cases ; after sec. tenses the opt. occurs 23 
times, the subj. 38, and in four cases there is change from one to 
the other ; the subj. is used after a histor. pres. 

2. &ko>s. After prim, tenses the subj. in 9. 78. 8 ; after sec. the 
opt. in 1. 17. 4; 2. 109. 9; 5. 96. 5; 5. 98. 4; 8. 35. 7; the 
subj. in 2. 100. 17; 2. 120. 8, 28; 2. 121 p. 15 ; 9. 96. 9. &k<*s 
&v after prim, tenses w. opt. in 1. no. 16; after sec. w. subj. in 
1. 22. 2, w. opt. in 1. 75. 18 ; 1. 99. 9 ; 8. 13. 9. 

3. »s. After prim, tenses the subj. i. 1. 1 ; 1. 159. 21 ; 3. 140. 
24; 4. 97. 20; 4. 187. n; 5. 20. 19; 9. in. 26; after sec. the 
opt. in 1. 185. 28; 5. 33. 5; 8. 16. 4; 8. 76. 18; 9. 51. 21, the 



INTRODUCTION 57 

subj. in 1. 46. 17 ; 6. 49. 8 ; '9. 104. 3. In 8. 76. 13 o>s, resumed 
by 2Va, has the subj. after a sec. tense. »s &v after prim, tenses 
w. subj. in 1. 11. 11 ; 1. 36. 11 ; after sec. w. opt. in 1. 152. 5 ; 5. 
37. 9; 7. 176.24; 9. 22.21; 9. 51. 16; w. subj. in 1.5.8; 1. 24. 
12 ; 9. 7. 30; in 8. 7. 3 opt. in a, subj. in fi. 

4. |W|. a. Final. After prim, tenses the subj. in 1. 41. 9 ; 9. 
45. 5 ; after sec. the opt. in 4. 78. 24 ; 7. 107. 9 ; 8. 128. 20 ; opt. 
and subj. in 8. 6. 8 ; subj. in 1. 34. 16 ; 8. 130. 12. In four of 
these cases we have ^vkdcrcru) (<f>vXa.Ka) or KaraTrXrj^ax, fxrj is also 
found in object clauses, cp. 7. 103. 14 (opa), 7. 149. 6 (cTriAc'ye- 
<rOat), 7. 220. 2 (ki^o/xcvos) etc. b. With/ear. Freq. The subj. 
is usual after see-, tenses, the opt. only in 3 out of 32 cases ; cp. 7. 
52. 3; 7. 163. 3; 7. 235. 14 (ov&v fietroc *owT<u junj) ; 8. 53. 6 
(ovk av rj\.7rio-€ p.rj) etc. py ov in 4. 97. 18 ; 6. 9. 5 ; 7. 163. 3 ; 
9. 46. 18. In one case an independent prj ov clause, 5. 79. 12. 
Independent oko* jxrj in 6. 85. 12. 

5. Object Clauses. o*co>s w. fut. indie, in 24 cases, prim, and 
sec. After sec. tenses the aor. opt. 7. 176. 25 ; 8. 71. 1, the pres, 
opt. 9. 117. 4; the subj. 2. 121 a. 14; 9. 102. 10. After histor, 
pres. the opt. 1. 63. 8, subj. 4. 148. 6, subj. and opt. 1. 117. io, 
oKtos av W. opt. after sec. tenses 1. 91. 8; 2. 126. 8; 3. 44. 6 
5. 98. 22; w. subj. 1. 20. 6. w5 w. fut. 3. 84. 2; 3. 159. 8; 7, 
161. 6 (foils, okws). o)s av w. subj. after a prim, tense 3. 85. 7 
Independent o#co>s 3. 142. 24 ; oko>s /xiy 6. 85. 12. 

§ 22. av. 

For the use of av in final clauses see § 21. 2, 3, 5 ; for its omis- 
sion w. the subj. in conditional clauses § 18. 1, in relative clauses 
§ 19. 2, in temporal clauses § 20. 1, 2. oo-ot <foxn, without av, is 
found on an inscription of Teos (Hoffmann, Gr. D. iii. n. 106. 4). 
Hippocrates omits dV reg. w. irportpov rj, irpiv rj ; freq. w. irplv, !<ds, 
and in general relative clauses. 



58 HERODOTUS 

§ 23. Infinitive 

1. Imperative Use. See 1. 32. 40 ; 3. 155. 27, 30 ; 6. 86 a. 24 ; 
7. 159. 8 (fivqda a) ; 7. 209. 24 etc. In 5. 105. 11 the infin. 
expresses a wish ; cp. 9. 48. 24. 

2. Absolute Use. ckwv clvcu willingly at least 7. 104. 13 ; 7. 164. 
3 ; 8. 30. 8; 8. 116. 4 ; 9. 7 a. 12 ; 9. 53. 8, all negative sentences 
except 7. 164, where there is a contrast, rrjv irpwrrfv clvat at least 
at first 1. 153. 18. ipol oWTv, limiting the strength of an assertion, 
is found 16 times without o>s (cp. 7. 3. 17 ; 8. 22. 17 etc.), and 9 
times w. a>s (cp. 8. 30. 5 ; 8. 66. 5), once w. participle o-v/a/?oA- 
Ao/xcVo) 4. 87. 14. a>s Aoyo) ci7rav 2. 15. 13; 2. 37. 14; 2. 53. 4 
etc. only found in H., who does not use d>? &ros cwrcrv and has o* 
ci7rctv only in 8. 115. 6. He also has ov 7roAAa> Aoyo) clirctv 1. 61. 
19 and Aoyo) 8c cwrciv 2. 21. 2 ; to oc <rvp.irav cittciv 2. 91. I ; 7. 
143. 16 (MSS. that) ; cvl 8c cVci Travra (rvXXnfiovTa ciwctv 3. 82. 
25. <J)S ctKacrat I. 34. 2 ; 9. 32. 15. d>s civai o-v/i,/fc£AAciv 20. I. 7; 
4. 99. 2i; cp. iv irpbs cv <TV[i/3dWct.v 4. 50. 4. Also a)S /xcv c/ac 
frvfifiaXXofUVov evpto-Ktiv 7. 24. I ; a>s c/ac jcaravociv 2. 28. 18 ; o>s 
c/ac cv fxefjivrjcrOat 2. 1 25. 19 ; d>9 S^Aaio-ae. 2. 24. 6 ; 2. 25. I. 

3. With As. In addition to the preceding examples there are 
found the following uses of a>s, also in a limiting sense, a. d>s = 
oxrrc 3. 146. 3; 4. 184. 14; 7. 24. 6 (w. indie. 1. 163. 11; 1. 
199. 22 ; 2. 135. 22 ; 3. 130. 19 ; 7. 11. 22 ; 8. 99. 3). b. While 
in the preceding the a>s clause expresses the exact degree in 
which the statement of the prin. clause is true, or the result that 
follows from the prin. statement, in the following examples the 
o)s clause gives the point of view from which the prin. statement- 
can be made : to oV 89 Sorb 'HAibv tt6\ios ovkIti ttoXXov \tapiov oie 
clvai Atywrov 2. 8. 15 not large considering that it was part of 
Egypt ; wax yap #ca/>ra ttoAAovs ctvat cr^ea? #cal oAtyovs o>s ^kvOcls cwu 
4. 81.3 few from the point of view of their being Scythians ; /xcyaAa 



INTRODUCTION 59 

€KT^<raTo xpVf mTa &s ftV cW 'Po&ottiv 2. 135. 7 large from the point 
of view of its being Rhodope's (the aV and the ace. 'PoSomtiv are diffi- 
cult ; some omit av, and some change to dat. or gen.). With 
this meaning of a>s cp. rov fitov cv rjKovri a>s tol 7rap' rjjxlv 1. 30. 22 
and d>s ck KaKcov c^api/ 8. 101. 2 ; the effect of the d>s clause is very 
similar to d>s ifiol Sokziv. The above rendering is preferable to so 
far as it belonged to Egypt, so far as they were really Scythians 
(Stein, Abicht), for, in the latter translation, the adjectives 7ro\X6v } 
oXiyovs are taken absolutely, and w dvax limits the subject con- 
trary to the usage in similar cases (see examples in Grtinenwald, 
Inf. der Limitation, p. 12). 

4. With &ttc. Before Sophocles and Herodotus there are few 
examples of finite moods in wore clauses. In H. the various uses 
found in Attic prose are fully developed. Finite moods occur 
55 times as compared w. 76 examples of the infin. (of which about 
10 cases are in indirect discourse). The following points may be 
noted, a. The <Sore clause is the object of contrive in 1. 9. 6; 
1. 116. 10; 4.46. 9; of persuade in 2. 173. 2; 4. 145. 21; 6. 
5. 11 ; 7. 6. 3; of decide in 8. 57. 13 ; of prevent in 8. 57. 10; 
cp. 1. 98. 17 ; 3. 48. 2 ; 5. 105. 4. b. The wore clause is the 
subj. of // happened in 1. 74. 8; 3. 14. 24; 3. 71. 8; 8. 15. 5 ; 8. 
88. 2; 8. 90. 4; 8. 132. 17 ; 8. 141. 8. Cp. 5. 92 a. 8 where it 
explains toIvto; cp. 7. 9 ft. 14. c. cSore means on condition that 
in i. 82. 10; 3. 36. 24; 5. 65. 11 ; cp. 3. 15. 5. d. fj ma-re after 
a compar. in 3. 14. 40; 8. 22. 13. e. ovr<o uxm in combination 
has become somewhat formal = and so, the force of outco being 
practically lost ; cp. 9. 37. 19. f. After a negat. prin. clause a fut. 
indie, is used in 7. 16 y. 9, an imperf. indie, in 2. 120. 7. g. To 
express a probable action in the fut. or a possible action of any 
time the infin. is com. used, but we find the fut. indie, in 3. 12. 
6; Z* 36. 24; 7. 16 y. 9. In 3. 12 it alternates w. a potent, 
opt. ; in 3. 36 w. an infin. The fut. infin. in 1. 189. 12 represents 



6o HERODOTUS 

a fut. indie, of the direct form ; the infin. w. &v in 3. '105. 8 a 
potent, indie. In clauses- of practical independence we have 
the fut. indie, in 1. 155. 26 ; 8. 140 a. 16 ; the potent, opt. in 2. 
16. 11; 2. 173. 16; the potent, indie, in 2. 22. 14; 2. 43. 17. 
h. There is no certain case in which the wore clause is purely final. 
The meaning in 3. 15. 5 is he would have got back Egypt to the 
extent of being its governor, as opposed to the idea of becoming 
again its independent ruler; in 7. 130. 12 for (the conquest of 
Thessaly) is merely a matter of letting the river on the land and so 
putting it all under water ; in 8. 19. 13 the wore clause defines 
wprjv "the proper time"; in 8. 106. 19 the meaning is it was the 
gods who brought you into my hands, and so you cannot find fault 
with the punishment that is to be inflicted. 

The examples with the infin. are : i. Limiting Clauses, a. Pres- 
ent or past fact : 1.74.8; 1.98. 17; 1.107.5; i- 212. 6; 2.71. 
7; 2. 126. 2; 2. 173. 2; 3. 23. 9; 3.48. 2; 3. 71. 8; 4. 46. 9; 
4. 145. 20; 4. 160. 13; 5. 105. 4; 6. 5. n; 7. 6. 3; 7. 20. 6; 

7. 117. 7 ; 8. 15. 5 ; 8. 27. 17 ; 8. 84. 12 ; 8. %%. 2 ; 8. 90. 4 ; 8. 
132. 17; 8. 138. 8; 8. 141. 8; 8. 144. 22; 9. 37. 19; 9. 61. 14; 
9. 70. 24 ; 9. 73. 14. b. Possible action or probable action in 
the future : 1. 9. 6 ; 1. 82. 10 ; 1. 116. 9 ; 1. 189. 12 ; 2. 158. 5 ; 
3. 14. 40 ; 3. 15. 5 ; 3. 36. 28 ; 3. 105. 6 ; 4. 136. 19 ; 4. 198. 2 ; 
5.30. 16; 5. 65. n; 5. 92a. 7; 7. 9 0. 14; 8. 19. 13; 8.22.13; 

8. 57. 10, 13; 9. 13. 14; 9. 38. 5. ii. Consecutive Clauses, 
a. Present or past fact: 1. 17. n; 2. 12. 5 ; 2. 79. 6 ; 2. 120. 
18; 2. 141. 23; 3. 67. 4; 4. 50. 19; 6. 18. 6; 6. 126. 2; 7. 13. 
9 ; 8. 52. 1 1 ; 8. 92. 8 ; 8. 96. 7 ; 8. 106. 10 ; 8. 113. 19 ; 9. 61. 
4; 9. 94. 21 ; 9. 100. 10. b. Possible action or probable action 
in the future: 6. 109. 24; 7. 130. 12; 7. 175. 13; 8. 106. 19; 

9. 60. 19. 

5. With iif w re. Infin. in 1. 22. 13 ; 7. 154. 19, the latter w. 
preceding M tout&€, which in 6. 108. 25 is followed loosely 



INTRODUCTION 61 

by an infin. without iv w tc ; cp. infin. in 9. 26. 20 after inl Aoy<j> 
roupSc without iw <S tc, but depend, upon Irayuov opuov. The fat. 
indie, follows iw 9 <o re in 3. 83. 10 (im tovt<o precedes) ; 5. 82. 13 
(ori rouriSc precedes) ; 6. 65. 3 ; 7. 153. 15 ; 7. 158. 22 (c?ri Aoy<p 
roupSe precedes) ; 8. 4. 11. For ware on condition that see 4. c. 

6. Final Consecutive Use. a. With nouns. <£o/fos oKovtrai 6. 
112. 15 ; ffSovrj l&iadai 2. 137. 19. b. With adjectives. Besides 
ovvaros, agios etc., may be noted oY#catos 1. 32. 48; Ayados 1. 79. 

14 etc.; apiaros 7. 161. 21 ; amo? 2. 20. 6; 2. 26. 2; 3. 12. 8 
(but rov w. infin. 3. 12. 11) ; d&cyiaxos 7. 101. 12; 7. 138. 8; 
<££iovtKorepo? J, 187. 16; Kvpios 5. 93. 4; /3apvs 4. 150. it ; <t>€piy- 
yvos 5. 30. 16; 7. 49. 8; rjo-aw 3. 105. 9; oAiyos 6. 109. 2; 7. 
207. 10; XOC09 rcAeom (?) 3. 34. 15. C. With 3t$ovat, Tao"(T€iv, 
7r€fiwa.v etc. 7. 121. 10; 7. 163. 13 (fut. partic. in 1. 11 ; cp. 9. 6. 

7, 12 ; 9. 54. 7, 9) ; 7. 208. 2 ; 7. 236. 10 ; 8. 13. 3 ; 8. 107. 1 ; 

8. 118. 4; 8. 127. 6; 8. 136. 8. d. elvta w. ctTro&iKvwai, KaTiora- 
vai, wouiv etc. 1. 103. 5 ; 1. 114. 6 ; 1. 210. 8; 2. 6. 2 ; 2. 44. 14; 
2. 121 a. 8 ; 4. 33. 15 ; 5. 25. 4 ; 5. 57. 10 ; 5. 58. 13 ; 5. 68. 
15; 5- 94- 6; 5. 99. 11 ; 7. 129. 18; 7. 154. 10 (but cp. 1. 124. 

15 etc.); 8. 134. 14 (but cp. 1. 96. 17) etc. e. Freer cases w. 
verbs : \nrvj\l/av ttjv ajcpo7roXiv KaUodax I. 176. 7 ; aAAo tl c^evp^icaox 
ycyetrOcu I. 1 96. 31 ; irorapbv 6\tT€vaax puv 2. 99. II ; fcv£a/i,€vos 
<r€iprj4>6pov TrapcXxciv 3. 1 02. 1 6 ; voaos /jllv icarcXa/fe vooijerat 3. 149. 
5 ; ^XatVas cTretVvo'dat irot&nnn 4. 64. 14 ; cp. 7. 25. 4 ; 7- 5 1 * ^ J 7« 
211. 14 ; 8. 107. 8 ; 8. 121. 5. 

7. Object of verbs, a. Among other expressions w. a depend, 
infin. may be mentioned yvo>fi# vikov i. 61. 15 ; Kara&eiKvwai set 
the fashion I. 171. 14 ; awopLvrjpoveveiv 5. 65. 19 ; irapa ey TraAxuoyxa 
bpapuuv 9. 33. 11 ; cvpi<nc€iv obtain 9. 26. 26; he^aSax 3. 38. 19 ; 
avyyiv<0<rK€iv be conscious 0/4. 126. 7 ; 5. 86. 7 ; ace. and infin. w. 
iravrotos yivcadai 3. 124. 6 (w. added Sco/acvch 7. 10 y. 4 ; 9. 109. 1 1 ) ; 
ajroXvciv acquit 2. 174. 10; KcrraSav condemn 2. 174. 13. b. The 



62 HERODOTUS 

following take infin. or partic. cucovav 7. 10 y. 12; 7. 55. 13; 
7. 128. 5 ; 8. 109. 8; 8. 136. 12 (partic. 7. 10 0. 14) ; eJSov w. 
partic. and infin. 1. 209. 18, 20; olSa 5. 106. 19 (partic. 4. 76. 27 
etc.) ; yivwoTcciv 7. 143. 15 ; 9. 71. 16; (ruyyivwoTcciv 6. 92. 11; 6. 
140. 9 ; irvvdavto-Oou 7. 8 y. 10; 7. 114. 6 ; 7. 121. 7 ; 8. 6. 4 etc. ; 
irtpiopav 7. 16 o. 6 etc.; ireipao-Oai 7. 176. 22 ; 8. 77. 4; 8. 89. II 
etc.; (TvyKvpet 9. 90. 2 (partic. 8. 87. 16) ; airo^pav 6. 137. 20; 8. 
14. 4 (partic. 7. 148. 25) ; dpx^Bax 8. 51. 2. c. Of impers. verbs 
note KaTaXafiPdvci 7. 38. 11; 7. 155. 2; 8. 55. 6; irpo^i. 9. 27. 
23 ; iwipdWei 2. 180. 5 ; iKaWupti 6. 76. 8 (cp. 9. 38. 5). 

8. With irpCv. The prin. clause is affirm, except in 1. 71. 21 ; 
1. 165. 15 ; 4. 9. 9. In 1. 71 irpiv means before and the negat. 
idea does not affect the prin. verb ; in 1. 165 the sentence is in 
indir. discourse (yet this is the only case in which the infin. is 
used in a temporal clause of fut. time) ; in 4. 9 ft has lux&fi* The 
tense of the infin. is aor. except in 6. 116. 3 (rjntiv) ; 7. 228. 2 
(airoirefMfrOevTas oix*<t6oji) ; 8. 3. I {irip.ir€iv) ; 8. 144. 29 (irapei- 
vai) ; 3. 25. 15 (SuXrjXvOwai w. plupf. in prin.). Examples are: 
irpiv 1.46.6; 1. 71. 21; 1. 76. n; 2. i2ic. 6; 6. 119. 4; 8. 
144. 29 etc. ; irplv r) 7. 3. 13 ; 7. 94. 3 ; 7. 226. 3 ; 8. 3. 1 ; 8. 12. 
8; 8. 59. 2 etc. ; irporepov rj 1. 72. 2 ; 2. 11. 19 ; 7. 2. 4 ; 7. 150. 
3 ; 7. 228. 2 etc. Clauses w. irpiv and 7r/olv rj generally precede 
the prin., those w. wporepov rj regularly follow. In 6. 108. 12 17 
without irpiv or wporepov after <f>0dvu> (cp. 6. 91. 6 etc.). 

9. Articular Infinitive, a. As subject 7. 18. 9; 7. 114. 8; 8. 
88. 12 etc. b. As object 7. 10 8. 5; 7. 28. 4; 7. 135. 16; gen. 
after ^Oovuv 7. 236. 7, amos 3. 12. 12 (cp. 1. 15); 4. 43. 26. 
c. W. pv€(r$ai. save rw fir) in 1. 86. 12, but infin. without art. 7. 11. 
3 ; 7. 194. 14 (w. 8ia<£vywy) ; 9. 12. 5 (w. cryrivtiv) ; 2. 7. IO (w. 
KaraSct) ; cp. to firj w. &rx* 5. 101. 1, w. Std<f>opov 2. 7. 8. With 
ovocfua firjxo-vrj we find to /a?/ (no ov) 1. 209. 21, but fir) ov without 
art. 2. 181. 11 ; 3. 51. 6, & Not infrecj. is the use of the artic. 



INTRODUCTION 63 

infin. in explanation of a noun or pron.; cp. 1. 86. 16 ; 1. 137. 2 ; 1. 
204. 8; 2. 7. 8 ; 3. 132. 4; 7. 51. 15. e. With preps. 1. 134. 3 
(dvTt) ; 1. 136. 2 (/Jtcra) ; 2. 80. 6 (avri) ; 4. 79. 10 (7re/oi') : 6. 
67. 9 O^era) ; 7. 6. 4 (cs) ; 7. 10 f. 3 (cv). A peculiarity found 
in no other author is the omission of the art. after avrC in 1. 210. 
8 ; 6. 32. 6 ; 7. 170. 14 ; in 1. 210 and 7. 170 in a contrast, p.kv . . . 
8c. 1 In view of the constructions allowed w. Oavfid^etv and aya<r0<u 
it is unnecessary to take the gens, in the following sentences as pos- 
sessives dependent upon the artic. infin. : 'Apra^o^ov Otofjua iwouo^v 
to KaTapptobrjaai 9. 58. 15 j to cvvouv tc kol irpoopav dya/W o~co 9. 
79. 2. 

§ 24. Indirect Discourse 

I. Principal Clauses. A. Statements. 1. Finite moods with 
0V1, ck. The pres. and perf. indie, are more often changed to the 
opt. than retained, but the indie, is preferred for a general truth 
A pres. is changed to the imperf. in 8. 50. 9 ; 8. 78. 2 ; 9. 5. 4 
€>cAAov occurs in 3. 1. 16; 3. 25. 6; 3- 146. 8; 7. 57. 4; 7 
161. 10; 8. 141. 10. The fut. opt. is used only in 7. 226. n 
9. 38. 12 (Mss. variation in some other passages). An aor. indie 
is retained about as often as it is changed to the opt. An imperf. 
indie, is usually retained, but is changed to the pres. opt. in 3, 
87. 4 ; 9. 16. 33. For the opt. after a histor. pres. cp. 1. 70. n ; 
3. 87. 4 ; 3. 140. 5 ; 6. 23. 7 etc. The direct form of a speech 
with a preceding on is found only in 2. 115. 13 : Xcywv on iyfo 
ktL A? is rare after fa/it ; cp. 1. 24. 31 ; 3. 155. 18 ; 6. 70. 3 ; 
in 3. 87. 3 there is a change, after a parenthesis, from infin. to o>s ; 
in 3. 32. 14, after <£cwri with infin., a second clause with <w? follows 
but the infin. is still retained. The introductory conjunction is 
frequently omitted before an opt. in long passages (cp. also 4. 135. 
10). o#ca>s for ort, d>s is found after negatives 7. 161. 5 ; 7. 237. 
S etc. 



64 HERODOTUS 

2. Infinitive. The infin. instead of a finite mood occurs after 
on in i. 207. 4; after d>? in 3. 32. 14; 4. 179. 16 ; after ir\tjv on 
in 2. 100. 15 (cp. d>5 a\ovs after iwurrda-Sa) in 1. 91. 13). In long 
passages the change from o>s, otl with indie, or opt. to the infin. is 
frequent. A characteristic construction is the use of the infin. 
instead of an independent clause after <£>s Aeyoucn, <S>s rJKov<ra etc. : 
1. 65. 20; 2. 8. 9; 3. 14. 45; 4. 5. 2; 5. 10. 3 (follows an 
independ. clause); 7. 171. 4; 7. 229. 15. Generally the &s 
\eyowri introduces the sentence, but cp. 7. 229 ; 9. 85. 15. Note 
the resulting anacoluthon in 7. 184. 3. B. Questions. The 
pres. and perf. indie, are more often changed to the opt. than 
retained (cp. 7. ^8. 8; 1. 119. 26; 6. 3. 4; but 8. 122. 2). The 
imperf. is retained 3. 27. 9. The aor. indie, is changed 1. 31. 4 
(cp. 1. 30. 14); 1. 116. 14; 1. 119. 19 etc.; but retained 6.3. 2; 

1. in. 10. A delib. subj. is more often retained; cp. 7. 213. 1 ; 
8. 36. 4; but 8. 67. 12. 

II. Subordinate Clauses. 1. Finite Moods. Examples of 
change to opt. are found in 8. 19. 6, 10; 7. 25, 6 ; 7. 226. 12 (fut. 
in el clause) ; 8. 128. 20; but both indie, and subj. are more often 
retained: cp. 7. 136. 15 ; 7.235.10; 8.41.4; 8.3.5; 8. 112. 6; 
8. 2. 8 ; 7. 168. 7. A pres. becomes imperf. in 4. 202. 6; 9. 
106. 9. Past tenses are regularly kept except in 2. 121 e. 19 (ore 
clause) and 2. 160. 20 (el clause). In temporal clauses a primary 
tense of the indie, becomes opt. only in 3. 27. 10; a sec. tense 
only in 2. 121 c. 19. In 5. 63. 3 oko>s with opt. represents av w. 
subj. in a gen. clause. The subj. in temporal clauses of fut time 
is never changed to the opt. In clauses of subsequence ('until* 
etc.) neither the indie, nor the subj. is changed to the opt 

2. Infinitive. Especially characteristic is the frequency of the 
use of the infin. in subord. clauses. Examples are : in temporal 
clauses w. o>s when 6. 137. 9; 7. 148. 19; 7. 170. 9; 8. 94. 
6, 10; 8. 118. 19 etc.; w. eirel 4. 10. 6 ; 4. 7>Z* 2 °> 5* 84. 7; 



INTRODUCTION 65 

7. 150. 16; w. lirti&rj 3. 26. 15; w. ciretrc I. 94. 22; 2. 42. 12 ; 
2. 118. 9; 6. 84. 5; 6. 137. 6; 8. 135. 7; w. la* 4. 42. 13 (?); 
w. lore 7. 171. 11 ; w. eg o 1. 94.32 ; 1. 202. 14 ; 2. 102. 6 ; 5. 85. 

12; 5. 86. 14; W. €V TW 3. 105. 7J W. TTpLV I. 165. 15; W. OKiH% 

2. 140. 4; in causal clauses w. circi 8. in. 12 (cp. 7. 3. 12) ; w. 
8""" 1 3- 55- I2 > 3- I 5^« IO > m relative clauses 1. 94. 27; 2. 32. 
38; 2. 172. 16; 4. 7. 14; 6. 137. 10; 7. 232. 4 etc.; w. a>s 
<w 2. 140. 5; w. (vda 3. 111. 10; 9. 41. 10; in condit. clauses 

1. 129. 14; 2. 64. 9; 2. 172. 19; 3. 105. 6; 3. 108. 2; 7. 229. 
15. In temporal clauses out of 111 cases the infin. is found in 46, 
of which 43 are original indicatives, while in 2. 140. 4 <^oirav 
represents. an opt. in a past gen. clause, in 1. 165. 15 dva<f>avrjvaL 
W. vplv rj (MSS. have dva<l>rjvai) a subj., in I. 202. 14 aviaTacrOai w. 
€so a subj. in pres. gen. (though cp. 4. 181. 19); note also the 
infin. w. la* in 4. 42. 12. 

§ 25. Participle 

1. For the dat. of the partic. in temporal, local, etc. phrases 
see § 4. 3 ; with the dat. in 5. 49. 21 cp. 3. 91. 3 ; 9. 15. 14. 

2. Concessive: wep for xatVcp in 3. 131. 6; 8. 11. 4; 8. 13. 3. 
Kcuvep 1. 45. 8, etc. ? koltol irep 8. 53. 8 (£ omits TOl). 

3. With «s. Examples referring to the first person are i. 40. 3 ; 

2. 155. 3; 4. 84. 4 (indirect) ; 4. 134. 11 ; 7. 99. 2 ; 9. 42. 11. 
Examples expressing an assumption on the part of the writer are 
2. 152. 19 ; 4. 101. 2 ; 4. 142. 3, 5 (speaker) ; 7. 49. 19 ; 7. 184. 
7; 9. 29. 7, 9; 9. 41. 19. Pretended reasons are frequently indi- 
cated byhrjOtv: 3. 136. 11; 6. 1. 6; 6. 39. 6; 8. 5. 3; 9. 99. 
14; in 3. 74. 17 the reason is real to the subject, not to the 
writer; cp. 09 in 7. 17. 8; 7. 211. 4 ; 9. 59. 3. For <us with 
definitely known facts cp. 7. 22. 1. A common use is that in 
connection with an imperative to convey an assurance from the 
speaker: 7. 13. 11; 7. 143- 13; 7- 2 °7- 9i 8 - J 44. *S ', 9- 4*. 

HERODOTUS — 5 



66 HERODOTUS 

19 (accus. absol.). w with the partic. in indirect discourse in 
CTrioTacrda) K/jomtos o>? aAovs 1. 91. 13 ; cp. 8. 7. 12 ; 9. 54. 5. 

4. With &tt€, &T€, ota. This use of axrre is not Attic. Like 
are and ota it introduces a real reason, oxrre in 1. 73. 12, 20; 
1. 127.8; 2. 12. 10; 4. 136.9; 5. 19. 5; 5. 35. 11; 5. 42. 4; 
5. 101. 8 ; 6. 44. 15 ; 6. 52. 13 ; 6. 94. 2 ; 6. 136. 7 ; 7. 129. 2, 
9 ; 8. 118. 8 ; 9. 37. 9, 16 ; 9. 49. 7 ; 9. 70. 8 ; 9. 76. 10. are in 

7. 23. 11 ; 7. 87. 4; 7. 138. 7; 7. 176. 21; 8. 27. 3; 8. 69. 6; 

8. 71. 9; 8. 74. 2; 8. 86. 4; 8. 89. 5 ; 8. 90. 10; 8. 105. 11; 
8. 130. 10; are . . . Siy&v in 9. 80. 15 ironically, ota in 7. 6. 1 ; 
7. 18. 6 ; 8. 59. 4 ; 8. 90. 14, etc. 

5. After Prepositions. Expressions of time like ficra SoAawa 
olxpfLevov 1. 34. 1 are used rather freely. Besides the frequent 
im with the gen. (1. 134. 14, etc.) we have /nera 2. 147. 6; 7. 
171. 5 etc. ; irpo 5. 50. 12 ; 7. 149. 21 ; irepi 8. 6. 3 ; Kara 2. 134. 
9; wo 1. 51. 5 ; cVt w. dat. after 1. 170. 11 ; 2. 22. 12; 8. 94. 
18 ; a/xa 3. 86. 1 ; 8. 23. 6 ; 8. 64. 3 etc. (aor. in 3. 86. 7). 

6. Absolute Use. a. Genitive. Frequently a gen. absol. is used 
when agreement with a dependent word would have been possible, 
greater emphasis being thus given to the statement. This is often 
the case when the word with which the partic. could agree is an 
unemphatic pronoun (6. 85. 7 ; 6. 8(5. 6 etc.), but cp. 8. 69. 4, 6 
etc. b. Accusative. Besides the ordinary impers. use (7. 107. 
8; 7. 164. 13 etc.) note 2. 66. 15 ; 9. 42. 18 (rjfkaOe us ircpieoo- 
fievovs ^/i«i5 'EWyvw). c. An apparent nom. or accus. absol. 
frequently results from a loose partitive apposition, so loose at 
times that a gen. absol. would be expected, as in tVa ol fouSexa 
Irca dVrt l£ ercW yivqrai at vvkt€s ij/xcpat vouofievta 2. 133. 2«2 ; cp. 
1.52.4; 1.67. 23; 2. 41.15; 2.48.8; 3. 95.4; 3-99-6; 4-50- 
19; 4. 71. 5; 6. in. 13; 7. 157. 15. d. Other cases are ex- 
plainable as natural anacolutha, as in 1. 134. 1 ; 2. 9. 4; 7. 184. 
5; 8. 83. 4; 8. 124. 12 (partitive apposition sometimes aiding). 



INTRODUCTION 67 

7. Supplementary. Besides the ordinary use with 6pSv, cfyw- 
aiceiv etc., a.7roSeiKvvvai etc., and verbs expressing feelings, may be 
mentioned the following: a. <nryyu/(oo7cciv 5. 91. 12 etc.; ivopav 
with fut. 1. 123. 4; 1. 170. 10; 5. 36. 12; 8. 140 £. 5 (dat.) ;' 
vofi%eiv 1. 171. 26 (?; infin. precedes); 2. 1. 7 (with o>s) ; 
Aoyt£eo-0cu 3. 65. 22; KaOrfyeiaOai. 7. 183. 13; Trpoo-SeKCo-flai with 
fut. I. 89. 8; iirLTptwew 9. 58* 21. b. Trtipacrdai 6. 5« 7; 7. 9 a. 
5 > 7« *39« 7 etc - i ™AAos efyu 1. 98. 2 ; 9. 91. 1 (but cp. 7. 158. 
2 > $• 59' 3) > irwToios ytvcTai 7. 10 y. 5 ; 9. 109. 11 (infin. 3. 
124. 6) ; €7ray«r0ai 8. 68 )S. 3 (cp. y. 2) ; with cAaw 9. 89. 12. 
C. €p\ofmi cpeW etc. I. 5. 11; 1. 122. 11; 1. 194. 2. etc; rja 
Ae£a>v 4. 82. 9; 5. 62. 4 (atvcW 1. 122. n). d. Karafiaivuv I. 
90. 15; I. Il6. 22; I. Il8. 6; 9. 94.' 6 ; irpoPaiveiv 5. 51. 12 
(cp. t<5 Aoya) 8tcj8atv€ 8. 62. 2) ; liriK&rOai. 7. 9. 3. e. KarapKeiv 
1. 32. 43; a7roxpav 7. 43. 5 ; 7. 148. 26; 7. 196. 10; iKavds ct/u 
7. 161. II ; irXrjpys ct/xt 7. 146. 14. f. KaraXa.pdv I. 46. 7 (cp. 

7. 230. 4) ; <f>v\a.TT€tv 8. 9. 6 ; 9. no. 6 ; Seicco-^cu 8. 28. 7 ; virtp- 
fiaXktvOaL 9. 51. 3. g. cjyOdvuVy \av0dv€iv, Tvy\dvtiv as usual 8. 5. 
14 ; 7. 162. 5 ; 8. 103. 2 etc. (cp. avyicvpelv 8. 87. 16) ; <l>0dvav, 
XavOdveiv in partic. 3. 71. 23 ; 5. 15. 8 ; 8. 75. 2 ; 8. 81. 2 ; 9. 46. 
17. h. crvp,f3aLvcw, o-vp.'jriirTtiv etc. 1. 82. 4; 5. 82. 6; 7. 6. 4; 

8. 88. n ; 9. 37. 28; 9. 101. 1, 7 (cp. 1. 9). i. In 3. 53. 13 it 
is unnecessary to take 8ia<f>oprj0€VTa directly with /fcwAca&u. 

8. With cx». 1. 27. 19 ; 1. 28. 4 ; 1. 37. 8 etc. ; passive 1. 8^. 
6 ; intrans. 3. 48. 3 ; 7. 143. 6. 

9. Periphrastic with ctpC. Frequent, cp. 1. 98. 27 ; 1. 146. 20 ; 

9. 16. 5 etc. ; generally to give emphasis to the predicate (which 
is not necessarily expressed by the participle). The rarer aorist 
in 1. 160. 16; 1. 170. n; 2. 10. 12; 7. 194. 16. 

10. With &v. Examples are rare, av ytvo/mcva in 7. 15. 14 is in 
indirect discourse after evpLcncu). irapaxrxovres &v 7. 168. 20 = 
though we could have furnished. 



68 HERODOTUS 

ii. |ri| a* is sometimes found w. the partic. when the prin. verb 
is negatived : oukcov Sikcuov civoi icrravat (avSpidvra) — piq ovk xnrcp- 
fjaXXofuvov tolctl ipyotai 2. no. 12 ; cp. 6. 9. 7 ; 6. 106. 14. 

PARTICLES 
§ 26. |iiv 
a. /xcV, without foil. 8c, suggesting that there may be other views, 
though unexpressed, as a>s p.lv ipol Sokuv 1. 131. 4 ; cp. 1.71. 18; 
1. 152. 11 ; 3. 146. 2 ; 6. 95. 14 ; 7. 24. 1 ; 7. 50. 12. b. tovto 
fjikv . . . tovto Si very common (8. 76. 2, 5) ; rarely to plv . . . to 
8c (in 1. 98. 17 to piv is adverbial, to Si pronom. ; both pronom. in 
3. 40. 9) ; more often to. pkv . . . to. Si 1. 173. 17 ; 3. 80. 16 ; 4. 
108. 12 (all pronom.); Gp. 6. 105. 10. c. piv = p.rjv. y\ piv 1. 
196. 27 ; 4. 154. 13 ; 5. 93. 3. ov fiev ovSi 2. 120. 17 ; 6. 45. 5 ; 
8. 25. 6; 9. 7. 18; firj piv 1. 68. 11 ; 2. 118. 13 ; 3. 66. 13 ; 3. 
99. 7 ; 5. 106. 31. yc /xcV 6. 129. 22 ; 7. 103. 27 ; 7. 152. 12; 
7. 234. 12. oAAa . . . piv 2. 29. 1 ; 4. 77. 8 ; 7. 103. 26. koI . . . 
/xcv 4- 45- J 3 ; 6 - 9 8 - 5 ; 6 - 10 3- 7 J 6. 105. 10. d. pev 817, /xcv 
vw freq. in summing up and passing to a new subject 1. 14. 1 ; 
1. 32. 1 ; 6. 1. 1 ; 6. 22. 1 ; 7. 124. 1. 

§ 27. * 
a. For Sc answering to tc, ovt€ see § 30. 2. d. b. For iv 8c #ccu, 
generally after aAAos, see 1. 74. 6 ; 1. 184. 4 ; 1. 192. 3 ; 2. 43. 8 ; 
7. 238. 5 etc. c. For 8c in explanatory or causal sense = yap see 
1. 74. 7 ; 3. 44. 4 ; 6. 74. 8; 7. 9 a. 3 ; 7. 134. 6. d. With sec- 
ond definition 7. 10 a. 7; 8. 54. 5; 8. 136. 5. e. Beginning a 
speech 8. 68 a. 4 ; 8. 137. 21 ; 8. 142. 3. 

§ 28. U IN THE APODOSIS 

1. Si in the apodosis in Herodotus always follows a personal 
pronoun, the third person being expressed by 6 Si, or the demon- 
strative OVTOf. 



INTRODUCTION 69 

2. ovtos 84: The most complete form of sentence in which ovtos 
Si occurs is a double period of the form ovol fikv . . . ovtol /xcv • oo-oi 
8c . . . ovroi Si, in which the demonstratives in the apodoses refer 
to different classes and are balanced by fiev . . . 8c in the same 
manner as the relatives which introduce each period ; cp. 2. 26. 
5-8; 2. 42. 1-7; 2. 102. 10-16; 2. 174. 9-13. In 1. 196. 12-15 
ovtol fiiv is omitted. The /ncV-period contains but one clause in 

1. 171. 30; 5. 37. 10; 6. 16. 1; 9. 85. 12. In the following 
examples there is not a fully developed double period, but there 
is a contrast to the oo-ol 8c . . . ovtol Si in what precedes : 2. 50. 9 ; 

2. 61. 6; 2. in. 21 ; 4. 66. 7 ; 4. 204. 2 (for contrast see 202); 
6. 58. 20 ; 9. 63. 1-4. For ovtos fiiv in first without ovtos Si in 
second apodosis see 3. 108. 5 ; cp. 3. 158. 7. 

In 2. 39. 8-1 1 both apodoses are introduced by ol Si instead of 
by ovtol fiiv, ovtol 8c; cp. 7. 188. n in which the second apodosis 
is divided and introduced by ras fiiv ... ras 8c ... at 8c ... at 8c 

. . . at Si. 

The resumptive (epanaleptic) nature of the Si in the above 
cases of ovtos Si is illustrated by the following passage : 1/ fikv 
irp6r€pov dp^aaa . . . avrrf fikv airtSijjaTO ^wftara . . . 1/ 8c Srj 8curepov 
ycvofxivr} ravriys fiaackcixi . . . avri/ 8c #ctc. i. 184. 4-185. 3 ; cp. I. 
146. 13; 6. 54. 6. 

3. <rv 84, 6 84 etc. : In the following double periods the subject 
of both apodoses is the same and the contrast lies entirely in 
the action ; nevertheless we have the subject, marked off by an 
apodotic 8f, expressed in one of them, in the first if it is 6 8c, in 
the second if it is avSi: 1. 173. 10; 1. 191. 18; 2. 149. 22; 3. 
49- l '> 3- 6 9- !<>; 3- x 33- 4 ; 4- 3- *5 \ 4- 65. 5 ; 4. 94. n ; 4. 
123. 1 ; 4. 165. 1 ; 5. 73. 12 ; 6. 30. 1 ; 7. 159. 6 ; 8. 22. 8-13 ; 
9. 6. 2 ; 9. 63. 5 ; 9. 70. 7. The examples with av Si (3. 69 ; 7. 
x 59 > 8. 22) are alternative commands; in the following the com- 
mands are expressed in indirect narrative and, with the shift from 



70 HERODOTUS 

the second to the third person, there is also a shift in the position 
of the expressed subject from the second apodosis to the first : 
i- 13- 5; 3-36- 25; 5-1-7; 6. 52. 28. 

In 4. 61. 4-8 the ol Si is found in the second apodosis, but in 
this case the verb of the first apodosis (containing, of course, its 
subject) precedes its protasis which contains the /ncV. In 4. 126. 
3-7 crv 8c occurs in both apodoses; there is a contrast in the 
whole double period with what precedes. 

In 9. 48. 21 the two apodoses have different subjects, the first 
o! 8c, the second tJjacis 8c. In 4. 68. 15 the first apodosis is intro- 
duced by rov 8c, that is the particle is appended not to the subject 
but to another pronoun in the clause, illustrating the fact that the 
8c simply sets off the apodosis in contrast to the protasis without 
emphasizing the pronoun to which it is appended. In a number 
of the sentences in this section the second protasis is introduced 
by ovTta 817, ivravSa Sn/j (1. 173 ; 4. 123 ; 9. 6 ; 9. 63 ; 9. 70). 

4. The following examples are not double periods, though the 
protasis is frequently introduced by Si and is strongly contrasted 
with the preceding. The protasis regularly contains a negative, 
so that the 8c of the apodosis introduces a strong contrast (cp. 
dXXa in similar use 9. 42. n ; 9. 48. 17): 1. 112. 9; 1. 163. 14; 
3- 37- 8 ; 3- 68. 19 ; 4. 99. 23 ; 4. 172. 24 ; 5. 40. 3 (no negative ; 
but cp. 5. 39. 11) ; 7. 51. 3; 8. 115. 9; 9. 60. 15. The ex- 
amples in the preceding section which have av Si etc. in the 
second apodosis have a negative in the second protasis : see 3. 69 ; 
4. 61 ; 4. 126 (essentially negative); 7. 159 ; 8. 22 ; 9. 48 (but 
note the indirect cases ini.13; 3. 36 ; 5. 1). 

5. In 3. 108. 17 and 7. 103. 10 we have neither an epanaleptic 
8c as in § 2, a double period as in 3, nor a strong contrast as 
in 4. In 7. 103 p omits Si; in 3. 108 it is to be observed that 
av£6fiev6<; t€ 817 is most unusual in having no following kol (cp. some 
seventy examples of tc Srj in Hammer). Stein has suggested 



INTRODUCTION 71 

au£oficvo? 8c, which would give a double period, though the first 
protasis has no /xcv. For a series of events parallel to 3. 108, but 
connected by /ucv . . . Sc . . . re 89 . . . #«usee 7. 23. 15-18. 

§ 29. 0*8*, \irfii 

In Attic prose ov8c is used when the preceding clause is nega- 
tive, otherwise #c<u ov. There are numerous cases in H. of ov8c 
when no negative precedes. Very often the two clauses con- 
nected are direct opposites, as olxovro favyovrts ovSk virifxuvav 
6.96.3; cp. w.ov8c 1. 71. 17; 1. 85. 14; 1. 199. 20; 3. 137. 16; 
7» 43* 4 9 7. 237. 9 (cp. Kal ov in similar clause 8. 5. 6) ; in 7. 10 c. 
2, 8. 52. 7, 8. 135. 13 there is a contrast of ideas, though the 
clauses are not opposites. prjM is more com. in these cases than 
ou8c, especially in commands, as ttoXlv x<*>pci firjSk io-iOt, 5. 72. 19 
(cp. 1. 32.40; 3. 76. 8, 10; 5. 19. 7; 7. 173. 17; cp. in sen- 
tences of similar nature 1/82. 13; 2. 173. 18; 4. 11. 17; 8. 74. 
11; 9. 41. 17; but #c<u /xi/ in 3. 71. 9; 3. 76. 2; 3. 85. 13) ; in 
final sentences 3. 134. 11 ; 4. 190. 4; 7. 206. 3; 8. 13. 10; in 
conditional sentences 7. 10 y. 8 ; 8. 60. 8. Rarely is ov8c used in 
this way between nouns etc. ; cp. avv yap rep kolvw Kal ifirfiCo-afitv 
ov8c fiovvoi fiyuus 9. 87. 9; irpoOvfjuas ovS 1 crt cV8otaoTu>9 7* x 74* 4 
(contrast fyicas ei8ewu #cal firj fiovvov i/xe 3. 71. 8). 

In 8. 142. 20 firfii is «#/ <?#<?« (Alexander being contrasted with 
Mardonius and Xerxes). In 9. 8. 7, 9. 18. 7 ov& l^w cmtciv now 
I cannot say is used without adversative meaning. 

§ 30- T « 
1. Without a Correlative Particle, a. Sometimes, but not 
often, re connects separate words (1. 65. 26 ; 7. 8 a. 14 ; 7. 79. 5 ; 
8. 116. 2; 8. 140 £. 13; 9. n. 8; 9. 101. 10), or adds a third 
word to two connected by re (7. 190. 2 ; 9. 80. 5) or r\ . . . «au 
(7. 8 a. 8; 7. 202. 4; 8. 12. 12; 8. 144. 16). A fifth subst. is 



72 HERODOTUS 

added in 7. 9. 7. Rare is the addition of a more accurate defini- 
tion by re, as in 9. 57. 9. b. More frequently tc connects whole 
clauses or sentences. (1) It may connect two clauses of equal 
importance (cp. two participial clauses in 7. 38. 2 ; 7. 166. 6 ; 7. 
205. 5 ; 8. 138. 13; 8. 141. 11 ; two infinitive clauses in 7. 120. 6 ; 
8. 65. 8 ; two sentences in 7. 27. 3 ; 7. 29. 15 ; 7.37. 10; 8. 6. 9; 

8. 60. 17 ; 8. 61. 8), or add a third and newer idea to two more 
closely connected by tc (7. 128. 3 ; 8. 97. 7), or kolC (8. 86. 10; 

9. 7. 17), or tc . . . koll (7. 20. 15; 7. 116. 4; 8. 101. 2), 
or fikv . . . Si (7. 203. 6), or afjui ply . . . afm&£ (8. 113. 4 ; 9. 6. 
12). A third and fourth member are added by tc in 7. 5. 16 (cp. 

7. 145. 11). (2) tc adds quite a new thought to what precedes 
(7. 29. 14; 7. 83. 11; 7. 144. 14; 8. 56. 6; 8. 106. 16, 23). 
Sometimes it begins a new paragraph (3. 82.17; 3- 88. 7 ; 7. 144. 1). 
Sometimes it adds the conclusion of what precedes (7. 149. 20; 

8. 13. 9; 8. 81. 5) ; cp. vvv t€ in direct speech 1. 37. 9 ; 1. in. 
30; 8. 140 a. 4 ; 8. 143. 7. Rarely it adds an explanation of what 
precedes 2. 29. 27 ; 7. no. 7 ; 9. 57. 9. 

In 1. 146. 9, 2. 37. 13, 7. 9. 7 after several items have been 
enumerated tc winds up with aXXa re noWd. 

Particles or phrases added to re in the above uses occur as fol- 
lows: 7T/0OS T€ TOVTOUTL 7. I9I. J \ CTl T€ 7. I97. IO j ;(a>piS T€ 3. 82. 

29; aAA.<Ds tc 8. 142. II ; afta tc 7. 83. II. re av 3. 82. 17; tc 
8>J 7. 215. 8; 8. 103. 1; ovt<d tc 8. in. 9; 8. 144. 18 j tc cV 

TOVTOICTL I. 31. I7. 

2. With a Correlative Particle, tc . . . tc,o*tc ...«,«.. . kcU. 
a. re ... re generally join whole clauses: cp. 7. 10 a. 10; 7. 19. 
3> 7-35-9^8. 5. 12. Three equal members connected by three 
re's in 7. 102. 16 ; 7. 236. 18 ; four in 1.16. 4; cp. 4. 53. 7 ; 2. 12. 2. 
tc . . . re connect single words in 2. 65. 24; 3. 99. 4; 4. 28. 17 ; 
5. 11. 8; 5.42. 1; 7 8y. 12; 7.85. 11; 9-3-7; 9- I22 - " ( f or 
the most part rjv re . . . rjv re) . ctrc . . . are connect single words 



INTRODUCTION 73 

in 6. 137. 3; 7. 167. 11 etc.; clauses in 6. 82. 8; 8. 36. 4 etc. 
The second citc is followed by mi in 7. 205. 16 ; 8. 54. 6 etc. ; by 
or) in 6. 134. 13. b. ovt€ . . . re. The clauses may be contrasted 
(7. 11. 5 ; 7. 159. 1 ; 7. 208. 15 ; sometimes the second clause is 
just the affirmative form of the first 7. 37. 8; 8. 26. 12 etc.), or 
without contrast = both not . . .and(j. 96. 7 ; 8. 30. 7 ; 8. 116. 3). 
ovtc . . . ov. . . ov etc. in 8. 98. 7 for rhetorical effect (cp. 1. 132.4; 
1. 138. 12). ovtc . . . ovtc ... T€ in 7. 115. 13 ; 7. 231. 3 ; 8. 20. 
3 ; 8. 75. 17 ; 8. 108. 16 etc., the first two clauses being more closely 
connected (for striking separation of the T€-clause cp. 7. 158. 10 ; 
8. 57. 8; 8. 100. 18). ovtc . . . ovtc . . . re . . . ovo* in 7. 
104. 11; cp. 8. 60. 29. c. tc . . . koC is exceedingly common ; in 
about two thirds of the examples it connects words, not clauses. 
Often with numbers (cp. 7. 184. 7, 12, 27) ; irokXoi tc ko.i is also 
frequent (7. 18. 7> 7. 218. 13; 8. 61. 7; 8. 89. 3). afia tc . . . 
Win 1. 105. 15; 1. 153. 17; 2. 60.2; 3. 135. 2; 5. 92 f. 12; 6. 
in. 11 ; 5/xa in second member in 5. 85. 9 ; 8. 14.. 6. 

(1) Especially noteworthy are the cases in which the action of 
the second clause follows the first so closely that they are almost 
simultaneous; cp. 7. 12. 2; 7. 23. 18; 7. 217. 5; 7. 218. 5; 
8. 37. 2 ; 8. 81. 2 ; 8. 90. 8 ; sometimes a/xa is added; cp. 8. 5. 
10; 8. 98. 1. Frequently one clause is really subordinate to the 
other; cp. 7. 166. 7; 7. 176. 27; 8. 74. 8. Sometimes there is 
a causal connection between the two clauses ; cp. 7. 39. 1 ; 7. 
194. 3 ; 7. 209. 21; 8. 69. 8 ; 8. 107. 10 ; hence sometimes tc . . . 
«uouT0)(i. i3-8),T€ . . . koI 817 (7. 38. 7 ; 9. 88. 6). The follow- 
ing have no particle to connect with what precedes other than the 
T€ : 4. 181. 16 ; 4. 199. 7 ; 6. 41. 5 ; 6. 134. 14 ; 8. 56. 7 ; 8. 64. 
3 (cp. 8. 65. 8) ; cp. mi alone in 1. 112. 1 ; 5. 28. 2 ; 8. 83. 9. 

(2) (5Uos)tc . . . #cai8^Katin7.23. 13; 7.47. 11; 7.153.2; 
8. 52. 9; 8. 79. 12; 8. 96. 7; 8. 105. 10 (cp. teal oyj KaC when 
only two things are in question in 6. 64. 6 ; 8. 41. 7 etc.). (aAAos) 



74 HERODOTUS 

re . . . km 7. 9. 3 ; 7. 147. 19 ; 8. 10. 1 ; 8. 17. 3 etc. (ftoWra in 
second clause 6. 136. 3; 7. 171. 4). aAAa* tc ... W is not 
used, but rd re aWa km (i. 1. 5 ; 5. 62. 18 ; 9. 25. 11). - 

(3) re . . . #cal . . . re generally connect clauses ; re . . . km 
... koi (with few exceptions; cp. 7. 211. 7; 8. 99. 3) words; 
for several KaCs cp. 7. 158. 17; 8. 72. 3. A peculiar usage is that 
in which lists of words (generally proper names), all on equal basis, 
have re km inserted here and there ; cp. 7. 9. 7 ; 7. 66. 4 ; 7. 72. 
5 ; 7. 123. 18; 7. 154. n; 8. 66. 14; 8. 100. 28; 9. 31. 12. 

(4) Added to re . . . km we have ofUHco? (1. 140. 13), irpos (7. 
154. 12), wpoa-in (1. 41. 12), avris (3. 88. 10), Sevrcpa (5. III. 
15), vorepoi/ (7. 108. 5), /AaA«rra (7. 165. 10). 

d. re . . . 8c' occurs in 1. 153. 20 ; 2. 126. 5 ; 5. 69. 9 (?) ; 9. 
19. 11 (cp. 1. 108. 19; 6. 9. 17) ; more commonly re . . . cv Se 
km (2. 172. 7) or 8e $q km 1. 185. 6; 3. 38. 10; 3. 125. 3; 7. 
224. 9; 8. 142. 7. 

3. Position, re generally comes between an artic. and its noun, 
but cp. 6. 128. 3 ; 6. 136. 9 ; 7. 203. 6 ; 8. 29. 7 ; 8. 41. 7. It is 
almost always placed between a prep, and art., but cp. 1. 86. 4 ; 3. 
56. 3 ; 4. 45. 22 ; 6. 134. 14 ; 9. 107. 1. When the art. is lacking 
after a prep, re commonly follows the noun, yet often the prep, 
(cp. 7. 14. 4; 8. 40. 12, but 7. 20. 15 ; 7. 96. 8 etc.). When a 
prep, belongs to two nouns but is not repeated, re very often fol- 
lows the prep.: 7. 9/8. 2; 7. 42. 2; 7. 119. 10; 7. 123. 18; 7. 
I55-9; 7- 184.30; 8. 12.9; 8.64.4; 8. 73- 13; *• 97. 8; 8. 
140a. 21. It directly follows a common article in 1. 172. 6; 
2. 147. 2 ; 3. 54. 7 ; 3. 127. 8 ; 6. 129. 2 ; 9. 9. 1. Note particu- 
larly 2. 36. 6; 7. 106. 8; 7. 184. 25. Compare re after a verb 
governing two nouns in 7. 24. 3 ; 7. 44. 8 ; 8. 42. 5 ; or sis in 
7. 83. 11 ; 7. 146. 13; 7. 174. 2. Even when a prep, is repeated 
re not infrequently follows the noun ; cp. 7. 10 a. 13 ; 7. 137. 11 ; 
7. 212. 8; 8. 108. 20; 8. 115. 17 ; or when the art. is repeated 



INTRODUCTION 



75 



7. 40. 2 ; 7. 43. 4 ; 7. 55. 2 ; 8. 76. 7 ; 8. 85. 4 etc. More strik- 
ing irregularities occur in 7. 2. 10 ; 7. 145. 15 ; 8. 113. 14 etc. 

4. tc yap ... tc is not common (cp. 7. 102. 16 ; 8. 29. 4) ; more 
common is tc yap . . . #cat (7. 13. 5 ; 8. 31. 10 etc.). re 87 • . . ko.C 
($q koi) is exceedingly frequent : 7. 6. 25; 8. 5. 12 etc. 

5. wrov T€ about \s frequent in the earlier books (cp. 7. 100. 12 ; 

8. 55. 10). oKias re as often as (like Homeric Tva rt etc.) is found 
only in 2. 108. 16, but cWre some hundreds of times. 

§ 3i. 7*P 

1. Examples of the original adverbial yap (as distinguished 
from the developed conjunctional use) are found occasionally in 
wishes (1. 27. 11) and answers (7. 46. 7); more frequently in 
questions (7. 21. 3). To the same use belong many cases of #cal 
yap (pvSk yap) and dAAa yap. 

2. The explanatory yap (as distinguished from the causal) is 
particularly common after demonstrative pronouns and adverbs 
(cf. 7. 135. 3 ; 7. 147. 10; 8. 87. 5 etc.), after arffieiov 8c, oxctyacrflc 
8c, $y)\u<to> 8c etc. (cp. 2. 9. 8; 2. 58. 7; 8. 120. 1. etc.), and 
after superlatives (7. 164. 12 etc.). 

3. A parenthetical yap-clause is very common, either causal 
(cp. 8. 75. 12; 8. 76. 16; 8.87. 8; 8. 109. 3; 8. 113. 9; 8. 128. 
5), or explanatory (cp. 7. 70. 3 ; 7- 95- 7i 7- "7- 5 > 7- 205. 8; 
8. 85. 2). 

4. Particularly characteristic is the thrusting forward of a yap- 
clause so as to precede instead of follow the principal statement 
which is explained. This use is common in introducing a new 
person, place, etc. (cp. 8. 5. 4 ; 8. 8. 4 ; 8. 101. 17 etc.), or at the 
beginning of a speech after an introductory vocative (cp. 1. 8. 10 
etc.). In the principal clause we often have an epanaleptic demon- 
strative (cp. 7. 214. 13 ; 8. 5. 4 ; 8. 8. 2), an<3v (1. 30. 10 ; 1. 69. 
5 ; 8. 108. 23 etc.), or vvv (1. 124. 5 ; 1. 85. 12 ; 4. 97. 11 etc.). 



76 HERODOTUS 

Rarely the principal clause is introduced by 8c (9. 61. 10; cp. 
Thuc. 4. 132), or dAAa (9. 93. 15 ; cp. p, 154), or Kal (8. 109. 18). 

Sometimes a noun or pronoun, which is common to both clauses, 
is so placed at the beginning of the sentence that by position it 
seems to belong to the principal rather than to the yap-clause, yet 
it takes its case- construct! on from the latter : cp. t5>v 8c 7rav yap r\v 
to 7r\rj$o<s /xcratrtov, ovk £&£kovto tovs \6yovs 4. 2CO. 4; cp. I. 24. 
17; i. 27. 20; 1. 114. 10; 1. 155. 15; 2. 101. 1; 4. 149. 1, 7; 
5. 92/8. 6; 7. 142. 1; 7. 209. 4; 9. 109. 7. In ravrd <r^i 
YjTrutiTepa yap iSoKu clvai (7. 1 42. 1) the position of <r^i, like the 
case of tu>v 8c' in 4. 200, indicates that the preliminary words were 
felt as part of the yap-clause. In 4. 162. 15 and 8. 94. 14 with 
an initial ravra that belongs only to the yap-clause, the yap has a 
similar late position (tovto «ri iravrl yap tco 8t8o/xeVa> lA.cyc). With 
the position of a<f>i in 7. 142 compare that of 01 in 1. 27 and of 
avrw in 7. 209, as contrasted with that of <r<£i in 1. 191. 29. In 
most of the cases the position of yap is no later than is rendered 
necessary by the kind of connection (twv 8c, t# 8c etc.) with the 
preceding sentence ; and the case-construction is no stranger than 
in toivi §k "EAAiycrt d>s io-q/xrive . . . (rvnyyayov 8. 11. i . For similar 
constructions in Thuc. see 1. 72. 1 ; 1. 115. 4 ; 8. 30. 1. 

5. As a result of the usages explained in 3 and 4 yap is a far 
more frequent particle in H. than in Attic. The ordinary causal 
conjunctions, cVct, cVciSiy, on, a>s, are quite rare. 

§ 32. &v 
1. wv in its originaf meaning in truth is generally combined 
with particles or pronouns; butcp. 8. 109. 26. a. ywv at the very 
least 1. 31. 4; 4. 76. 2 (?) ; at any rate y certainly 7. 104. 21. 
b. yap wv 8. 128. 5 ; 8. 133. 7. c. pkv wv very common in pass- 
ing to a new subject, with following 8c. d. ottc &v . . . ovrc or 
ovtc . . . ovtc (Si/ 4. 96. 3 ; 7. 12. 9 ; 9. 18. 17. e. arc Zv . . . arc 



INTRODUCTION 77 

6. 137. 3 ; 8. 54. 6. f. 8* wv, adding a certain fact to a statement 
put doubtfully 6. 82. 5 ; 7. 9 y. 7 ; 7. 35. 5 ; 7. 189. 14 ; with 
preceding ficv 3. 80. 4; 4. 5. 6; 7. 189. 14 (different effect 
in 7. 145. 8). g. ov#c c3v in a strong adversative sense is a 
peculiarity of H.; cp. 5. 96. 10; 6. 52. 12; 7. 15. 7; in the 
middle of the clause 3. 137. 13. At times a sentence introduced 
by ovk wv has the effect of a causal clause, the conclusion being 
added with or without connective ; cp. 1. 11. 17; 1. 24. 10 ; 1.59. 
12 ; 2. 141. 8; 4. n. 13 (w. 8*7 in conclusion). The ovk <Lv clause 
may make an assumption, giving greater emphasis and liveliness 
than a conditional clause; cp. 4. 118. 10; 5. 9217. 33; 7. 10 /J. 
7 (cp. K<d&rj in I.3). 

2. The resumptive tov (cp. c above) lies between the use as 
a strengthening and an inferential particle. It is very common 
after ovtos (8. 21. 9; 8. 55. 6), but also in other connections; 
see 8. 67. 1 ; 8. 100. 11. It is often used with 89, which com- 
monly precedes (1. 8. 1 ; 1. 30. 1), but <3v 817 is preferred between 
art. and noun (7.40. 12 ; 7. 142. 12) ; cp. also 1. 115. 13 ; 1. 209. 
10 ; 6. 109. 18. For a resumptive wv in the apod, see 9. 26. 13 ; 
9. 48. 21 ; esp. with a gnomic aor. in tmesis, see § 7. 1. 

3. The inferential wv is common. Especially noteworthy is vvv 
<ov introducing a demand in a polite form ; cp. 1. 30. 13 ; 1. 36. 
10 ; 3. 69. 8 ; 6. 97. 11 ; 7. 16 £. 1 ; 7. 101. 8. 

§33- 8<j 

1. The original temporal meaning of 817 is seen in ko.1 817 = 17877 
4. 102. 4 ; 7. 196. 5 ; 8. 94. 14 ; 9. 6. 5 ; cp. ko1 8)7 kcu cVetvos 
then he too 7. 164. 15 and #cal ty #cat in an assumption 7. 10 ft. 3. 

2. In its derived meaning = you know 817 is used as follows: 
a. To emphasize single words, h 8^ ro ¥ Apyos 7. 148.19. Often 
w. pronouns ; cp. c/ac 817 3. 155. 6 ; particularly w. outos 7. 43. 5. 
With adjectives 7. 20. 5 ; 7. 152. 16; 8. 124. 14. With adverbs, 



78 HERODOTUS 

particularly ovrw, h/Oa, ivOavra, totc, often with resumptive effect 
after a subord. clause or participial phrase ; cp. i. 5. 8 ; 3. 134. 2 ; 
8. 23. 6 ; 8. 40. 13. Cp. ovrta 817 ti w. adjs. 1. 163. 11 ; 1. 185. 10 
etc.; so <5& Srj ti 3. 120. 13. With 0105, ovos etc. = such and 
such etc. 1. 86. 28 ; 1. 160. 6 etc. b. With whole clauses 8. 51. 13 ; 
very often yap 877, /xev bq, #cal 877, kcu 8r) xat, re 89 . • . kcu. In subord. 
clauses w. relat. (7. 8 p. 4) ; w. o>s, on, &<m (9. 48. 13 ; 1. 44. 8 ; 
1. 141. 13); in final clauses (8. 7. 5; 8. 76. 10); w. wore (1. 
185. 11) ; in conditions (7. 16 y. 13 ; 8. 140 a. 7) ; w. cVeiVc etc. 
(8. 6. 2) ; w. cere (8. 54. 6). With arc, ola, dxrrc, <ws and participle 
(6. 26. 9; 7. 211. 4; 8. 90. 10). 

SPECIAL WORKS ON THE SYNTAX OF HERODOTUS 

[An asterisk denotes that the book was not obtainable.] 

Bahr, P. — Zte ok<os conjunctionis apud Herodotum vi et usu. 
Magdeburg, 1887. 

* Beyer — De perfecti apud Herodotum usu syntactico. Bres- 
lau, 1868. 

Bohlmann, C. — De attractionis usu et progressu, qualis fuerit 
in enuntiationibus relativis apud Herodotum, Antiphontem, Thucy- 
didem, Andocidem, Lysiam. Breslau, 1882. 

Bottcher, H. — Der Gebrauch der Casus bei Herodot. Hal- 
berstadt, 1885. 

Brackett, H. D. — Temporal Clauses in Herodotus. In the 
Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
July, 1905. 

* Brandt — De modorum apud Herodotum usu. Cothen, 1873. 
Broschmann, M. — De yap particulae usu Herodoteo. Leipzig, 

1882. 

Brown, L. D. — A Study of the Case Constructions of Words 
of Time. New Haven, 1904. 



INTRODUCTION 79 

o 

Cavallin, S. J. — De futuro Herodoteo. Lunds Univ. Arsskrift. 
Vol. xiv. 

De tnodis atque tetnporibus orationis obliquae apud 

Hero do turn. Lund, 1877. 

Diessl, A. — Die Itnpersonalien bei Herodot Wien, 1899. 

Ekedahl, E. — De usu pronominum personaliutn et reflexivorum 
Herodoteo. Lund, 1885. 

Erxleben, R. — De eotnparativi cum comparata re conjuncH usu 
Herodoteo. Halle, 1884. 

Gomperz, Th. — Herodoteische Studien. i, ii. Wien, 1883. 

Hammer, B. — De r\ particulae usu Herodoteo, Thucydideo, 
Xenophonteo. Leipzig, 1904. 

Heikel, J. A. — De participiorum apud Herodotum usu. Hel- 
singfors, 1884. 

Heiligenstadt, R. — De enuntiatorum finaliutn usu Herodoteo 
cum Homerico ex parte comparato. Pars prior. Halle, 1883. 
Pars altera. Gorlitz, 1892. 

Heilmann, L. — De infinitivi syntaxi Herodotea. Giessen, 1879. 

Helbing, R. — Uber den Gebrauch des echten und sociativen 
Dativs bei Herodot. Karlsruhe, 1898. 

—Der Instrumentalis bei Herodot Karlsruhe, 1900. 

Die Prdpositionen bei Herodot und anderen Histori- 

kern. Heft 16 in Schanz* Beitrage. Wtirzburg, 1904. 

Hoffmann, V. — De particularum nonnullarum apud Herodo- 
tum usu. Halle, 1880. 

Uber den Gebrauch der Partikel S>v bei Herodot. Schnei- 

deratihl, 1884. 

Kallenberg, H. — Commentatio critica in Herodotum. Berlin, 
1884. 

Der Artikei bei Namen von L'dndern, Stddten, und 

Meeren in der griechischen Prosa. Philologus xlix, p. 515. 

Studien uber den griechischen Artikei. ii. Berlin, 1891, 



78 HERODOTUS 

particularly ovto), hBa, ivOavra, rare, often with resumptive effect 
after a subord. clause or participial phrase ; cp. i. 5. 8 ; 3. 134. 2 ; 
8. 23. 6 ; 8. 40. 13. Cp. outco &q n w. adjs. 1. 163. 11; 1. 185. 10 
etc.; so <5& 817 n 3. 120. 13. With olos, oaos etc. = such and 
such etc. 1. 86. 28 ; 1. 160. 6 etc. b. With whole clauses 8. 51. 13 ; 
very often yap 817, yxv &rj, kol Srj, kcu 817 #cai, re 89 • • . #cai. In subord. 
clauses w. relat. (7. 8 f$. 4) ; w. o>s, on, 8w>ti (9. 48. 13 ; 1. 44. 8 ; 
1. 141. 13); in final clauses (8. 7. 5; 8. 76. 10); w. ware (1. 
185. 11) ; in conditions (7. 16 y. 13 ; 8. 140 a. 7) ; w. cWrc etc. 
(8. 6. 2) ; w. circ (8. 54. 6). With arc, ola, dxrrc, w and participle 
(6. 26. 9; 7. 211. 4; 8. 90. 10). 

SPECIAL WORKS ON THE SYNTAX OF HERODOTUS 

[An asterisk denotes that the book was not obtainable.] 

Bahr, Y. — De okws conjunctionis apud Hero do turn vi et usu. 
Magdeburg, 1887. 

* Beyer — De perfecti apud Herodotum usu syntactico. Bres- 
lau, 1868. 

Bohlmann, C. — De attractionis usu et progressu, qualis fuerit 
in enuntiationibus relativis apud Herodotum^ Antiphontem, Thuey- 
didem, Andocidem, Zysiam. Breslau, 1882. 

Bottcher, H. — Der Gebrauch der Casus bei Herodot. Hal- 
berstadt, 1885. 

Brackett, H. D. — Temporal Clauses in Herodotus. In the 
Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
July, 1905. 

* Brandt — De modorum apud Herodotum usu. Cothen, 1873. 
Broschmann, M. — De yap particulae usu Herodoteo. Leipzig, 

1882. 

Brown, L. D. — A Study of the Case Constructions of Words 
of Time. New Haven, 1904. 



INTRODUCTION 79 

o 

Cavallin, S. J. — De futuro Herodoteo. Lunds Univ. Arsskrift. 
Vol. xiv. 

De modis atque tetnporibus orationis obit quae apud 

Herodotum. Lund, 1877. 

Diessl, A. — Die Impersonalien bet Herodot Wien, 1899. 

Ekedahl, E. — De usu pronominutn personalium et refiexivorum 
Herodoteo, Lund, 1885. 

Erxleben, R. — De comparativi cum cotnparata re conjuncti usu 
Herodoteo. Halle, 1884. 

Gomperz, Th. — Herodoteische Studien. i, ii. Wien, 1883. 

Hammer, B. — De r\ particulae usu Herodoteo, Thucydideo, 
Xenophonteo. Leipzig, 1904. 

Heikel, J. A. — De participiorum apud Herodotum usu. Hel- 
singfors, 1884. 

Heiligenstadt, R. — De enuntiatorum finalium usu Herodoteo 
cum Homerico ex parte comparato. Pars prior. Halle, 1883. 
Pars altera. Gorlitz, 1892. 

Heilmann, L. — De infinitivi syntaxi Herodotea. Giessen, 1879. 

Helbing, R. — Uber den Gebrauch des echten und sociativen 
Dativs bei Herodot. Karlsruhe, 1898. 

—Der Instrumentalis bei Herodot, Karlsruhe, 1900. 

Die Prapositionen bei Herodot und anderen Histori- 

kern. Heft 16 in Schanz* Beitrage. Wlirzburg, 1904. 

Hoffmann, V. — De particularum nonnullarum apud Herodo- 
tum usu. Halle, 1880. 

Uber den Gebrauch der Partikel <3v bei Herodot. Schnei- 

demtthl, 1884. 

Kallenberg, H. — Commentatio critica in Herodotum. Berlin, 
1884. 

Der Artikel bei Namen von Landern, Stadten, und 

Meeren in der griechischen Prosa. Philologus xlix, p. 515- 

Studien uber den griechischen Artikel. ii. Berlin, 189 1. 



So HERODOTUS 

Also numerous articles in the Jahresberichte des phito- 



logischen Vereins zu Berlin. 

* Karassek — Der Infinitiv bei Herodot. Saatz, 1883. 

* Kuhne — Die Prdpositionen bei Herodot. Rostock, 1883. 

* Lundberg — De ratione Herodotea praepositionibus utendi a 
scriptoribus Atticis diversa. Upsala, 1869. 

May, O. — De attractionis usu Herodoteo. Breslau, 1878. 

o 

* Melander — De anacoluthis Herodoteis. Lunds Univ. Ars- 
skrift. Vol. v. 

Miodonski, A. S. — De enuntiatis subjecto carentibus apud 
Herodotum. Cracow, 1891. 

Nehmeyer, W. — Syntaktische Bemerkungen zu Herodot (Final- 
und Consecutivsatze) . Darmstadt, 1895. 

Reisert, K. — Zur Attraktion der Relativsdtze in der griechischen 
Prosa. Allgemeines. Herodot und Thucydides. Neustadt, 1889. 

Rodemeyer, K. T. — Das praesens historicum bei Herodot und 
Thucydides. Basel, 1889. 

Rudloff, F. T. — Observations in orationem Herodoteatn. 
Halle, 1879. 

Sagawe, K. — Uber den Gebrauch des Pronotnens acaoros bei 
Herodot. Breslau, 1891. 

8i im Nachsatz bei Herodot. Breslau, 1893. 

Schaeffer — Uber den Gebrauch des Accusativs bei Herodot. 
Gross- Strehlitz, 1884. 

Schwidop, L. — Zur Moduslehre im Sprachgebrauche des 
Herodot. Konigsberg, 1876. 

Sharp, R. — De infinitivo Herodoteo. Leipzig, 1880. 

Spormann, C. — De ellipsis brachylogiaeque apud Herodotum et 
Thucydidem usu. Halle, 1888. 

Stourac, F. — Uber den Gebrauch des Genetivus bei Herodot 
Olmtitz, 1888-1895. 

Thomas, G. S. — Departiculae m usu Herodoteo, Leipzig, 1888. 



INTRODUCTION 81 

* Vayhinger — Gebrauch der Tempora und Modi bei Herodot 
Heilbronn, 1880. 

Walther, O. — Uber o>s bei Herodot. Hameln, 1887. 

Wehmann, M. — De dare particulae usu Herodoteo, Thucydideo, 
Xenophonteo. Strassburg, 1891. 

Zander, A. — De imperfecti atque aoristi apud Herodotutn usu. 
Halle, 1882. 

In Schanz' Beitrage zur historischen Syntax der griechischen 
Sprache the works of Sturm on irplv, Weber on Final Clauses, 
Grtinenwald on the Infinitive of Limitation, Dyroff on Reflexive 
Pronouns, and Fuchs on Temporal 'Until' Clauses have been 
specially refened to. 



HERODOTUS- 



ABBREVIATIONS 

B. = Babbitt's Grammar of Attic and Ionic Greek, 1902. 
G. = Goodwin's Greek Grammar (revised edition), 1892. 
GMT. = Goodwin's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb 
(enlarged edition), 1890. 
Gl. = GoodelPs School Grammar of Attic Greek, 1902. 
. GS. = Gildersleeve's Syntax of Classical Greek (first part), 1900. 

HA. = Hadley's Greek Grammar (revised by Allen), 1884. 
Kiihn. = Kuhner's Ausfuhrliche Grammatik, liter Teil (revised by 
Gerth), 1898-1904. 
Kr. Spr. = Kruger, Griechische Sprachlehre, Leipzig, 1 875. 
S. = Smyth's Greek Grammar, 1908. 
Dial. = Introduction : Summary of the Dialect Forms. 
Syn. = Introduction : Syntactical Usage. 



82 



HPOAOTOT 



AAIKAPNHSSEOS I2TOPK2N EBAOMH 
EnirPA^OMENH nOATMNIA 

l *E7rci 8c 7) dyyeXirj aTTucero irepl Trjs P-^XO^ TV* 
Iv Mapa0a>vL yevopevrjs irapa /SaaXea Aapelov tov 
e ToTa<r7rco5 Kal irplv /xcyaAa>s K€)(apayp4vov rotcrt 
' ASr/vaiouri 8ta rr)v es SapSis iafiokTJv, Kal 8>j /cat 
rare 7ro\\<3 re heivvrepa eiroUi Kal paWov cjpprjTOs 
orpaTevej-dai iirl ttjv e EX\a8a. /cat aurt/ca pkv iinjy- 



BOOK VII 

PREPARATIONS FOR A SECOND 
EXPEDITION AGAINST GREECE 

i. i. frfycXh): Dial. § i. i. i. 
— fardcrro: Dial. § 2. 3. — 2. iv 
Mapaftm: see 6. ill ff. — 
3. c Yvr&nrt os : Dial. § 1. i. 2.— 
KfXopa^i&lvov : exasperated, Cp. 
o£w0ci9 8. 138! 4. Darius, on being 
told that Sardis had been burned 
and who were the Athenians who 
had joined the Ionians in the in- 
vasion, shot ah arrow toward the 
heavens and prayed, "O Zeus, 
grant that I may punish the Athe- 
nians!" 1 Then he ordered an at- 
tendant to say to him every day 



S3 



at dinner, " Master, remember the 
Athenians" (5. 105). — 4. ttjv Is 
SdpSis 4<rPoMjv: the city put, as 
often, for the satrapy (Av&irf). Cp. 
&' 'kfihripuiv 7. 1 26. 4. For an ac- 
count of this invasion, made during 
the Ionian revolt (500-494 B.C.), 
see 5. 99 ff. — Kal 8t| icaC: intro- 
ducing and emphasizing the apod- 
osis, as 7. 164. 14. Cp. Kal totc 
817 Horn. rj 262. — 5. iroX\$ tc 
Scivrfrcpa lirotci: acted still more 
angrily, as 2. 121. c 2, 3. 14. 23, 5. 
41. 9. The middle is more com- 
mon. Cp. 7. 35. 1. — |iaXXov &p- 
[Li\ro : was more determined, with 
dependent inf, as often in Hdt. 
Note the force of the plpf. Cp. 
1. 14 and 7. 19. 1. — 6. 4ittiyy*XXcto 



8 4 



HERODOTUS VII 



[1.7 



ycXXero TT€fiTT(ov dyycXovs /card 7rdXts kroifxatjeiv arpa- 
Tirjv, 7roXXa> 7rXca> eTrirdaaiov c/cct tto tcrt 17 nporepov 
TTapel)(ov y /cat peas re /cat i^ttous /cat alrov [/cat 7rXota]. 
tovto)v Sc irepiayyekkofiivcov f) 'Aair) iSovelro iirl r/ota 10 
crca, KdTaXeyofieiHtiv re rS>v apurnov cos C7rt rip 'EXXaSa 
<TTpar€vaofi€V(t}v /cat 7ra/oaa7ceva£o/xci>coi>. rerdpra) Sc 
erc(, Atyv77Tioi V7TO Kafifivcrea) Soi/Xco0c*T€S aireoTYjaav 
airo Hepcrecjv. ivOavra S77 /cat /xaXXo*/ a>pfirjTO /cat c?r' 
2 dfi(f)OT€povs CTpareveaOai. aTcXXo/xci>oi/ 8c Aapeiov 
i.if Alyvwrov /cat 'Adrjvas rS)v ira&cov avrov crracris 
iyeuero fieyd\r) irepl rfjs f/yefiovirjs, cos Set /jiii> 



v4|i<ir»v dyy^Xovs : pleonastic. Cp. 
&" dyycXrov i7T€KrjpvK€V€TO 1 . 69. 10, 

TTifiApaS . . . €7T€Kr)pVK€V€TO 4. 80. 

14. — 7. icard ir6Xis : distributive, 
from city to city. The Hellenic 
colonies on the coast of Asia 
Minor are esp. meant, though not 
exclusively, as r\ 'Aarirj in 1. 10 
proves. — 8. . trkfo : sc. orpaTirjv. 
— fc&rTOMri : sc. iroKirousy const, 
ace. to sense after ttoAxs. — 9. ical : 
correlates via? tc kcu . . . crlrov 
with arpari'qv. — [ical irXoia] : 
wanting in the best Mss. If genu- 
ine, transports are meant, while 
veas refers to ships of war (tri- 
remes). — 10. tovtwv ircpiayycMo- 
|ilv»v: while these demands were 
being sent around. — 48©v€ito : 
was. in a whirl = €kwc2to. Cp. 

Hom. P 55 TO 8c TC 7TVOUU Sovcov- 

mvj of a tree shaken by the wind. 
The word is poetic, Ionic, and 



Hellenistic. — 4irl rpia J-rfa: for 
three years. hrC with the tempo- 
ral, as with the local ace, as 
often (7. 20. 1, 7. 119. 8 etc.) = 
per. The years 489-487 are 
meant. — 13. inrb Ka|i£v<r€a> : suc- 
cessor of Cyrus (529-521). Dial. 
§ 3. i. 2. — 14. 4v6a9ra : Dial. § 2. 
4. — ical jidXXov : still more. — ical 
cV ap^oWpovs : against both alike, 
kcu as in 1. 52. 5, 7. 16. a 3. 

DISPUTE OF DARIUS' SONS ABOUT 
THE SUCCESSION. HIS DEATH 

(cc. 2-4) 

2. i. <rrc\\o|Uvov : on the point 
of setting out. Cp. 7. 239. 2. — 
3. ircpl rfjs 4|<yc|tovtT|s : i.e. as to who 
should be ruler (yyefiatv). — «• 
Set : clause of indir. disc, depend- 
ent on the claim implied in crnuris 
iyevcro. The indie, of dir. disc. 
is retained for vividness. — |uv: 



3. 4 ] HERODOTUS VII 85 

airohi^avra /3acnAea Kara tov Ilc/ocrcW vop.ov ovtcj 
OTpaT€V€<T0cu. rjaav yap AapeCw .kclL irporepov fj ($0.0-1-$ 
XcScrai yeyovores r/ocis 7rai8c5 oc ttJs irp<yrepy)s ywawcos, 
T(i)/3pveco dvyarpos, /cal fiaTikevcravTi cf 'Aiwcnjs rijs 
Kvpou crc/ooi recra-epes. rtov fiev S77 irporipwv iirpe- 
a/Seve 'Aprofia^dprjs, rS>v Sc €7n/yci>o/i,cVa>i> Hcpfqs. 
coitcs 8c firjTpbs ov Trjs airrjs iaTacrCa^ov, 6 fikv 10 
*kprof$atjiv7)<z Kar o rt irpecrfivraTos re eh) iravrbs tov 
yovov /cat 0V1 vo/ii^ofievop el-q irpbs iravriov dvOpamcov 
top wpecfivraTOv tt/p &PXW ^X cw/ » Sep^s Sc a>s 'Arocr- 
cnjs re 7rats cnj ttJs Kvpov Ovya/rpbs /ecu <m Kv/oos en; 
3 6 KT^cra/xei/o? rotax TlepcgcL ttjv iXevdepirjv. Aapeiov 
8c owe airo8eLKwp,€vov /ca> yvcop/qv irvy)(ave Kara 
towto tovtokti kou ArjfidprjTOs 6 'ApiaTtovos aVa/Jc- 
firjKcbs eg Sovtra, iortprjfia/os re rrjs cV Xirdprrj fiacnr 

ix. Aapttov. Dial. § 3. ii. 2. — the cause assigned emphatically 

4. AiroS^avTa: Dial. § 1. ii. 2. — on another's authority. Kar o n 

ovrw: /.*. aTroSc&ura fSaatkm. It = Attic Stort. Dial. § 2. 3. — 12. 

introduces the apod., as 7. 150. 17, «y6vov : progeny, as 2. 43. 7 ; poeti- 

7. 158. 15. — 5. tjo-av -ycyovdrcs: cal. — 8™ vo|u(6)ifvov cti) irpos irdv- 

periphrastic form, as 7. 3. 13, 7. t«v: that it was customary with 

11. 10. — irpdTfpov tj: as in 7. a// /**« ; though irpos c. gen. really 

150. 3 with inf., like irpiv. Cp. denotes agent here, as 7. 151. 10. 

irpiv 77, 6. 22. 4. — fkwriXcvo-eu : in- — 15. Uipa^cri: Dial. § 3. 1. 2. 
gressive. — 7. r«ppvca>: one of 3. 2. km: Dial. §2. 1. — icard 

the seven conspirators (3. 70) who rwnb tovtoio-i : = Kara tov clvtov 

slew the Pseudo-Smerdis, sue- xpovov tovtouti. Cp. 7. 206. 9. 

cessorofCambyses. — 8. W<r<rcp«s: For the dat., see S. 1500; HA. 

Dial. § 1. ii. 2. The names were 773 a. For towto, see Dial. § 1. 

Xerxes, Achaemenes (7. 7. 6), ii 8. — 3. Aiutdpirros : for the his- 

Hystaspes (7. 64. 9), Masistes tory of Demaratus, see 6 61-70. — 

(7. 82. 6) . — tirp&rpcvc : =irp€ar/3v- 4. Sonera : seat of the Persian court ; 

. raros ty* — J 1. k*t 8 n . . . cItj : Ecbatana summer residence. — isr- 



86 HKRODOTUS VII [3. 5 

tajiks /ecu <f>vyrjp einfiaktov cowro) e/c AaiceSalfjLOvos. 5 
ovtos o)vrjp irvdofievos t£>v Aapeiov TraS>(oi> ttjv Sia<£o- 
prjv, ikdcov, &>s 7) <^art5 fJLw cx eL ' &*p£v <rwtfSov\€V€ 
\4yeiv 7rpo5 rotcn cAcyc iireai,, a>s auros fiev yivono 
Aapeico ^Stj fiacriXevovTi /ecu €)(Optl to Hepcrewit /cparos, 
y ApTo/3a^dvr)<; Sc £ti ihutrrrj iovri Aa/ociw • ovk $>v outc 10 
oIkos eirj ovre h'ucaiov d\\ov nvd to ycjpas *X eiv ^P** 
ictvTOV) C7rci ye /cal Iv XTrdpr^ tcfyr) 6 ATj/x,api}Tos vno- 
ti^Cjucpos, ovtj) vofii£e<r0cu> rjv ol [xev irpoyeyovores 
€(o(tl irpXv rj top TTdTcpa <T<f>€(oi> ^SacriXcvcrai, 6 Sc fiaair 
\evovTi oxfjiyovos imyevTjTcUy tov emyevoixevov tt)v 15 
c/cSc^ r^5 /Jao-iX/r/i/js yiveaOai. xpTjaafievov Sc 
Hep^cco Trj ArffiaprJTOv v7ro0TJK7j yvovs 6 Aapelos a>9 
Acyoi Sucaia jSacriXca fiw d7rcSc£c. So/cca> 8c fioi, 

rcf»)|Uvos . . . pao-iXijCiis : by Cleo- of the indir. disc. — r6 *ylpas : i.e. 

menes, who was king with him at to Utpcritov #cparos. Often in 

Sparta. — 5. <t>v^v 4mPa\«v «u>vt4> : Homer. Cp. np.rj 7. 8. a 12. — 

in chagrin at a public insult offered 12. fewroO: Dial. 1. ii. 8. — Iv 

him (6. 67). — 6. &H)p : 6 avfjp. — EirdpTT) : such a custom at Sparta 

iraC8»v tt)v 8ia<t>opVjv: note the is not elsewhere mentioned. — i 



unusual position of the attrib. gen., n0l|icvo$ : by way of suggestion, as 

which thus acquires special empha- 7. 237. 10. — 13. vo|t£lc<r9at : it 

sis. — 7. ws t| <t>&Ti$ jiiv t^u : as the was customary \ as 7. 2. 11; 

report is about Aim, as 7. 26. 17, 8. grammatically dependent on c^, 

94. 20. Cp. Pind. P 1. 96 ixOpa though the opt. after eirct was to 

&d\apw KaT€\eLwavTa<j}dTi^. The be expected. — flv . . . I00-1: prot. 

reverse const. 9. 84. 8 l^ct nva of gen. cond. For the periphr. 

<t>a.Tiv kolI &.iowcro<t>dvr]S. — 8. irpds pf. see on 7. 2. 5. — 15. ©+(*yovos 

Tot<ri cXc-yc Iirco-i : = wpbs tovtois 4wi-y<vt|Tai : note the pleonasm. 

tois €7T€(rtv a lAcyc. — 10. Aapcty : The adj. is poetical. — toO 4hv 

for repetition, cp. 6. 23. 15, 17. — -yevo^vov: pred. gen. of posses- 

«v : Attic ovv. — 1 1 . oIk6s : Attic sion dependent on yiveaOai. — 

etKo?, fitting. — c*t| : continuation 18. SokcCv 84 |&ot: as it seems to 



5.1] 



HERODOTUS VII 



87 



/cat dvev ravrr/s ttJs xmodrjicris fiacrikevo-ai av Sep £77 s • 

4 f) yap "AToacra €tj(€ to ttolv Kpdros. cjwroSc^as 8c /Ja- 
crcXea ncpo^tri Hcpfrp Aapelos opfxaro orpareuecrOai. 
dXka yap fiera ravrd re Kal Aiymrrov airoj-Tacnv to> 
voTCpco era trapacTKevatpiievov crvmjveiKe avrov Aa- 
ptlov, fiacnXevcravra tol irdvra e£ re Kal TprficovTas 
crca, airodavelv, ovSe oi iijeyevero ovre tovs aireareioTas 
Alyxmrvovs ovre *A0r)vaiovs Tip.(tiprj(Tacr6ai. diroOa- 
vovtos 8c Aapeiov r) /3aai\rjCri dve^dprjere cs top 7rcuSa 

5 top eKeCvov Bepfrjv. 6 tolwv Beptjrjs iirl p.kv rfjv 



me, absol. inf. (S. 2012 d; HA. 
956), on which depends /?a<riA«5- 
<rai av. , Some editions read &>*€?, 
with a few Mss. — 20. "Aroo-o-a 
. . . Kpdros : compare the influence 
of Amestris over Xerxes (9. 109) 
and of Parysatis over Darius II 
(Xen. Anab. 1. 1. 1). Darius I 
had six wives: the daughter of 
Gobryas (7. 2) ; Atossa and Ar- 
tystone, daughters of Cyrus (3. 
88) ; Parmys, a daughter of 
Smerdis (3. 88) ; Phaedyme, a 
daughterofOtanes(3.88); Phra- 
tagune, the daughter of Artanes 
(7. 224). 

4. 2. 6p|&aT0 <TTpoT€V€0-8ai : 
note the impf. as compared with 
plpf. in 7. 1. 5.-3. dXXd -ydp: 
elliptical, at enim. The thought 
is to be supplied from the context. 
But (he did not carry it oui),for. 
— I&rrd rafira: i.e. after the dis- 
putes about the succession. — 



Atyvirrov dir6<rrcurtv : 486 B.C. — 
4. <rvWjvfiKf : it chanced, as 6. 22. 
14. Att. (rvviprf. Dial. § 4. 7. 
— 5. Td ir&vra: in all. Formu- 
laic addition with numbers, as 1. 

214. 13, 2. I59. II, 4. 7. 3.— T€ 

Ka£: with numbers, as 7. 184. 7, 

12, 26; rare in Attic. — 6. ovW: 
in Attic icat ov, since the pre- 
ceding clause is affirmative. — oi 
Igcylvcro : was it allowed him, 
contingit. — tovs dircorcwTas : Dial. 
§ I. i. 2. — 8. dvcxwpT]<rc : re- 
verted, rediit,as dva/foiVcti/ 1. 109. 

13, 7. 205. 6. dpa- always of 
rightful succession. Cp. 1. 7. 1 
rf rjy€fwvirj v€p\.r}\0€ the kingship 
came round, of passing into dif- 
ferent hands. 

XERXES PERSUADED TO MAKE THE 
EXPEDITION AGAINST GREECE 

(cc. 5-7) 

5. I. toCwv: now, continua- 



88 



HERODOTUS VII 



[5.2 



'EXXdSa ouSa/xai? irpoOvfios rjv kclt apx&S OTpa- 
T€V€<r0aL> iirl Sc AxyviTTOv €7roi€tro or/oarajs ayep&iv. 
irapewv Sc /cat Swdjievos irap* aura) [xeyiarov Hepcrccov 
Ma/oSowos 6 T(o/3pv€a) y 05 rjv Hc/o^fl /xc*> di/a/fios, Aa-s 
/)€tov 8c dScX<£c7?s 7rat5, roiourov \6yov eixero, X^g>i>* 
Accrwora, ou/c 01/co? cart 'Adrjvaiovs ipyacrafLevovs 
7roXXa 87) /ca/cd Ilcpcras /xt) ov Sovvau SCktjv tcov hrovq- 
crai>. dXX* ct to /Ltci/ j/5j> Tavra TrprjcraoLS rd irep ht 
XC/ocri cx ci5 ' ^^poKra? 8c Alyvurov rr)v i&fipCo'ao'aw 10 
<TTparY)\aT€i iirl ras 'AOrjvas, Iva \6yos t4 <re c^ wpos 
dvdpdmtov dyaflos /cat ns vcrrepov <^vXd(rcnjTat cwt y^p 



tive. — 2. Kar dpx^s: at first, as 
3. 159. 10, 5. 92. £ 4. — 3. Iirot- 
ftro crrparifjs a-ycp<riv : periphrasis 
for iJyctpcTo orpaTiiyv. aycpoxs, 
also 7. 48. 9, is Herodotean. Cp. 
iwdy€p<riv 7. 19. 12. — 4. Svvd|ic- 
vos trap' crfr$ ^-yuri-ov: multum 
valens a pad eum. Cp. 9. 9. 4. 
— 5. Map86vtos: see 6. 43. — 
6. toiovtov : = tckouSc, referring 
to what follows. Hdt. is not 
consistent in this usage. — ctx?ro : 
held to, i.e. kept rehearsing, as 7. 
6. 1 1 . — 7. A&nrora : at Athens so 
used by slaves to masters or by 
mortals to gods. — 8. iroXXd 8t| 
icaicd: cp. Aesch. Pers. 236 orpa- 
tos toiovtos cp£a? iroAAa 877 MiJSovs 
jca*a. — jit| 0$ : double neg. on ac- 
count of the preceding ov. S. 2747 ; 
HA. 1034. — t«v: rel. for tov- 
roiv a, gen. of cause. — 9. ct . . . 
xpVjo-o-ois : a wish that carries an 



exhortation. This use of simple ei 
is poetical. S. 181 5; HA. 870 b. 
Cp. Horn. O 571, II 559. — 4v 

x «p<rl*x€i«: as 1.35. 1,7.47. 5- — 
10. TjjjL€p»<ras . . . {(uPpfo-ao-av : 

figure from the taming of animals. 
Cp. Cic. de Off. 1 . 26. 90 ferocUate 
exsultantes domitoribus tradere. 
rftAcpuHTas = Att. SovXuxras. — 11. 
(rrpaTtiXdrct : Att. orpaTcwu. — Iva 
. . . &ya96s : as 9. 78. 9. Cp. Horn, 
a 95 tva fuv kXcos iaSXbv iv &vOp<t>- 
7tol(tlv ixfjcnv, Eur. Med. 420 
ovk€tl SwrjccXaSo? (fxxfjua yvvauca? 
?£ct. See on 7. 3. 6. — irpit 
dv6p»TTft)v : practically agent const. 
See on 7. 2. 12. — 12. koC ti« . . . 
<rrpoTcv€o-9ai : for the thought, cp. 
9. 78. 9, 9. 1 16. 12 and Horn. © 515 
tva Tts (TTvykrjcri. #cal aAAo? Tpoxrtv 
€<£' i7r7ro8afUM(ri <f>€p€iv 7roAv&ucpw 
"Aprja. — tis : practically = Jiea- 
qros, 7. 8. 8 3, 7. 237. 14, and freq. in 



6.8] 



HERODOTUS VII 



89 



ttjp <rr)v OTpareveaOai. ouros p.4v ol 6 Xoyos rjv rtftco- ~ 
pos, toCSc 8c tov \6yov TrapevdrJK7)v 7rotco7cero rrjvhe^ 
a>S 17 Evporrrq 7rcpt/caXX^s X^PV- K< * L S^Sp^a iravrolais 
<f)€p€L tcl rjfiepa, dperijv re d/cprj, ^SacrtXct re (jlovpco^ 
6 0it/tw dftrj iicnjo'dai,. raCra IXcyc ota vewrepiov 
epycov imdvfirjTrjS i<ov /cat dikcov avro<z rrjs 'EXXdSo; 
vrrapxps cli/at. XP° V ¥ ^ KaTepydaaro re /cat averreicre 
E,ep£r)v ai(7T€ 7rot€ti> raura • crweka/Se yap /cat aXXa ot 
crv/x/xa^a yevofieva is to Treidecrdai 'Beptjrjv. tovto fikv 5 
cwro r^5 Cko'craXtTjs 7ra/>a tw 'AXcvaScW diriypevoi 
ayyeXoL iireKakiovro flaxrikia 7racrai/ irpodvfiCrjv irape- 
)(6fi€voL €7rt tt)*/ 'EXXdSa (ot 8c 'AXevdSat ourot 770x1*; 



Horn. — 13. ovtos |iiv ol 6 X6«yos : 
ot dat. of possession, this speech 
of his. — ri)iup6$ : for vengeance, 
— 14. TotiSc : referring to the 
same thing as ovros. Some Mss. 
have rovrov. — irapcv04jicf|v : as 1. 
186. 2, 6. 19. 4, 7. 171. 3. It is 
pred. ace., to which the obj. ace. 
is assimilated in gender. — 16. rd 
njuf*'- ue. fruit trees. — Apc-rijv: 
ace. of specification ; refers to fer- 
tility. — &Kpt|: excellent ', as 5. 112. 

3,5.I24.3,7.III.6. — I7. lRTf|- 

«r#cu : = Attic KCKTrjcrdai. 

6. I. ota: because of with ptc. 
as Jt€ 7. 23. 1 1, &otc 7. 129. 2. S. 
2085 ; HA. 977. The idiom is 
post-Homeric' — v€»r4pa>v fyrywv 
tn0v|a.i|'Hjs : rerum novarum cu- 
pidus. Cp. 7. 52. 10. — 3. Wapxos 
= aarpdmp, which Hdt. does not 
use, though he has aarpawqiri (1. 



192. 9, 3. 89. 2). — XP* V ¥ M : oui * n 
time, postremo autem. — Korcp«yd- 
<raT<5 Tf koI AWmurc : worked upon 
and persuaded. Sometimes Karep- 
yd£ecr6at alone has this fig. sense of 
bring over, as 9. 108. 3. — 4. wore : 
pleonastic, but freq. after irciloi in 
Hdt. and Thuc. — o-w&affe : co- 
operated. aAAa is subj., ot obj. 
— 5. o-vfiftaxa <ycv6fi€va: proving 
auxiliary. Notice the personifica- 
tion in the sent. — tovto ji^v, tovto 
hi (9) : = to fi€v y to Se, as often 
in Hdt. Note the asyndeton. — 
7. irao-av irpo9v\Lir\v irapcx6ficvot : 
displaying all zeal, Cp. Thuc. 4. 
85.15 Tray to irp6$vfwv 7rapc^d/ic- 
vot. — 8. 4irl ttjv 'EXXdSa : construe 
with €7reKa\€ovro. — oi 8c 'AXcvdSai 
. . . pao-tXcts : this princely family, 
descended from an ancient king 
of the land, 'AAevas (7. 130. 13, 9. 



9<> 



HERODOTUS VII 



t«.* 



®e<r<ra\ir)s /JacnActs), rovro he ncKricrr/oartSccoi/ ol avar 
fiefirjKores cs SoOcra, rail/ re avr(op \6ycov i^ofievoi Tans 10 
zeal 'AXevaScu, kol 877 tl irpbs tovtouti, en irXeov irpocr- 
(apcyovTO ol. i)(ovTes 'OvofidicpiTovy avhpa 'Adrjvalov 
)(pr)<Tfio\6yov re /cat hiaderr)v xpr)<Tfi<ov tcov Movaaiov, 
avefiefiriKecrav, tj)v eyOpy\v 7rpoKaTa\vadfi€voL * i£r)- 
\6xT0y) yap virb 'iTrirdp^ov tov IIcwnoT/oaTOi/ 6 'Ovo-i$ 



58. 4), and tracing their pedigree 
from Heracles, dwelt at Larissa. 
They exercised a predominant in- 
fluence in Thessaly, and some 
member of the family was gener- 
ally the federal leader (rayos). 
Hdt. 9. 1. 5. calls them ©ccnraAo/s 
rjyeofievoi. With Persian aid ttoey 
now hoped for and did attain abso- 
lute sovereignty, which they re- 
tained until their prerogatives 
were again restricted by the Spar- 
tan king Leoty chides (470 B.C.). 
ftacrtXeLs is here used, as often in 
Hdt., of all members of the royal 
house. They were patrons of the 
poets, e.g. Simonides and Pindar. 
— 9. ncMrurrpariSlav : i.e. Hip- 
pias and his sons, who had hoped, 
with the aid of Darius, to return to 
power at Athens. Cp. 5. 62, 90- 
96, 6. 94, 6. 107. — ol Avaffepr)- 
k6tcs: sc. iiriKaXkovTQ. — 10. twv 
Kal'AXcvdScu: asalsotheAleuadae. 
The Ktd in comparisons, esp. rel. 
clauses, emphasizes the mutual re- 
lation of the things compared. — 
1 1 . Kal S4j n ktI. : transition from 



ptc. const, (ixoficvoi) to finite verb. 
— irpo<ra>p£yovT6 oi : were urgent 
with him. The verb, synonymous 
with 7rp(xre<t>epeTo (27) and irpwr- 
KtlaOai (1. 123. 2), occurs only 
here. — 12. 'Ovo|tdicpiTov : a poet 
of some note and a member of the 
commission of four (Onomacritus, 
Conchylus, Zopyrus, Orpheus of 
Croton) appointed by Peisistratus 
for the arrangement and recension 
of the disordered Homeric poems 
(Cramer, A need. Par. 1. 6). — 

*3- XP T l°~l Jl0 **Y ov • • • XP t 1< r l ifiv : ex- 
Pounder and arranger of oracles. 
Hdt. seems to indicate by xpV €r f JLO ~ 
Aoyos, not simply expounder but 
also seer (/xavris) and composer 
of oracles (xprjcrfitpbos). Besides 
the oracles of Musaeus here men- 
tioned, he collected and published 
'Op<^€a)s xprpfioi (Suidas s.v. 'Op- 
<£cvs), and the state oracles pre- 
served on the Acropolis are to be 
traced to him. — 14. ri\v tyfiprp 1 
their hostility ; the explanation fol- 
lows in the yap clause. — 15. 'Iw- 
irdpx°v : of the three sons of Peisis- 



6.25] 



HERODOTUS VII 



9i 



fiJjcpiTOs it; 'A0r)V€<ov, iir avrocfxopa) a\oi><; xrirb Adaov 

TOV 'Ep/UOPCOS i[lTTOL€(OV CS TCL MoVCTCLlOV ^p-qapLOV 0>S 

at inl AtJuvo) iirLKeifiei/ai vrjaoi a^avilpiaro Kara rrjs 
Odkdao'r)?: 810 itjrjkacri \lw 6 "linrap^o^, nporepov 
Xpecofievos tol /laXiora. rore Se cruvavafias o/ca>s 2 o 
airucoiTo cs otyw tyjv /JaaxXcos, Xeyovrcov tu>v Heicn- 
OTpariBicjv nepl avrov <rep,vovs Xdyovs Karikeye rS)v 
XprjCficjv • el pev tl ivioi cr<f)d\pa <f>epov ra> fiap/3oipco, 
Ttop /i€P iXeye ovSev, 6 Se ra evTv^iarara c/cAeyo/xcj/os 
eXeye, tov re 'EWtJcitovtov a>s £ev)(0r}vcu XP e ° p e ^V ^ 7r * 2 5 



tratus the esp. supporter of art and 
letters and the patron of poets like 
Lasos, Anacreon, and Simonides. 
— 16. Iir avT0$4p<j> aXovs : as 6. 
72. 5, 6. 137. 22, though here not 
the immediate detection, but the 
irrefragable proofs of the forgery 
are meant. — Aourov : of Hermione 
in Argolis, lyric and esp. dithy- 
rambic poet, and teacher of Pin- 
dar. — 17. is tA Mowalov: sc. 
hni). — 18. A<t>avii;oCaTo : Dial. § 4. 
3. u Prophetic " present, found esp. 
in oracles. Paus. 8. 33. 4 men- 
tions the subsidence of Chryse ad- 
jacent to Lemnos, a region whose 
volcanic conditions made it esp. 
liable to upheaval or subsidence. 
Some such actual subsidence Ono 
macritus' interpolation seems to 
have referred to. — 19. 816 : as 7. 
8. a 16. — tffikturi \uv : the incident 
is a proof at once of the zeal of 
Hipparchus and of the interest of 



literary men in the matter of the 
purity of the texts. — 20. xf*^!"- 
vos Td |idXi<rra : sc. avra>. ra fjua\i- 
ora, as 7. 37. 10, and cs ra ftoAiora 
(6. 63. 12) = simple /uLkurra (6. 
65. 5).— 8ko»s: as 7. 41. 2 = 
Att. oirore. — 22. crcjivovs: rev- 
erential, a term applied esp. to 
gods or things divine. — t&v xf"|- 
<r|t»v : partitive. — 23. tvioi : epic 
opt., only here, = cveti/. Dial. § 4. 
5. — <r<t><£\(ia 4>^pov: bringing, i.e. 
betokening, misfortune. Cp. 8. 
137. 16 d>5 u.yj W/oas icat <f>ipoi 
fu'ya tl. — 24. t»v [Uv : dem. fiiv 
resumptive of the preceding. — 
6 hi: Homeric repetition of the 
subj., freq. in Hdt. but rare in Att. 
prose. Cp. Xen. Anab. 4. 2. 6; 
Thuo 1.87.2. — 25. t6vtc c EXMj<t- 
irovrov . . . t4\v tc SXocriv : appos. 
to tcl evrvxevraTOL, the first being 
explained by a>s . . . Ilcpo-ca), 
the second by i$riye6ficvo$. — X(*ov 



9 2 



HERODOTUS VII 



[6.26 



dvSpbs Uepaecjy rrjv re ekaaiv iirjyeofievos* ourds T€ t , 
8r) ^prycr/xajSea)!/ irpoaefyipero, Kal ol T€ IIctcricrrpaTiScu ^ 
7 /cat ol 'AXcvaSai yvd>[ias dirohtiKvufievoi. a>s 8c di>e 
yvtoadr) Hc/ofr/s arpareveadai iirl rfjv 'EXXaSa, ivdavra 
8evT€p<p fiev em /xcra tov QdvaTov rov AapeCov irpSna 

<TTpaTl7)V 7TOl€tTCU €7Tl TOU5 a7T€OT€aiTaS. TOVTOV? [L€l/ 

vvv KaTacrTpeifjdnevos Kal Aiyuirrov iraaav 7roXXoi> 80V-5 
Xoreprjp ironjaas rj iirl Aapeiov rjv, iiTLTperrei, 'A^at/iei/ct, 
a§e\<f>eco fiev ioovrov, Aapetov 8k iraiSL *A^ai/i6/ca /K€i> 
ia/i> imTpoTTeuovra Alyvurov XP° P V /^crCTCira i<f>6v€v<T€ 
8*Ii/apa>5 6 *Pafifir)TLX ov ,wyp At)8v5. Bepdrjs 8c /i,era 
Atyv7TTOv aXaKra> a>s e/xeXXc cs ^cipas dtjecrOou to 
o-rpdrevfia to iirl tcls 'Adijvas, ovk\oyov iiriKkryrov 



eft] : # was fated. Cp. 7. 17. 9, 8. 
141. 4. — 26. cXcuriv: Att. orpa- 
rctav. — £{iryc6)ifvo$ : recounting, 
i.e. foretelling and explaining. — 
27. irpocrc^pCTO : see on Trpocruipi- 
yovro in 1 1 . — 28. &iroS€iicvv|icvoi : 

SC. 7TpO<T€<l>€pOVTO. 

7. i. dvc«y vw<t6ti : regularly in 
Hdt. = aveireiaOr). — 3. StvWpw 
Itci: 484 B.C. — irpwra: in Att. 
usually 7rpu)Tov. — 4. |iiv vw : as 
7. 8. /J 5. Common formula of 
transition in Hdt. = pjkv 89. — 
5. iroXAdv: Att. form iroXv. — 8ov- 
XoWprjv : seems to occur only here. 

— 6. 4iriTpcirf 1 : Dial. § I. ii. I. 

— 'Axcu^vci : the two appositives 
indicate that he was full brother of 
Xerxes. Seeon7.2.8. — 8. tavrpo- 
ircvovTa Atyftirrov: in Hdt. this 



verb rarely takes ace, regularly in 
Att. — \ur4m tra : Att. Iirctra. — 
9. 'Ivdp»s : King of the Libyans, 
effected the revolt of Egypt from 
the Persians, being assisted by 
an Athenian fleet of two hundred 
ships. The war lasted 460-455. 
Achaemenes was killed in battle 
at Papremis. 

COUNCIL OF STATE. SPEECH OF 
XERXES 

8. 2. Is xtfp** &£to4cu: as 4. 
79. 3. The const, is not Attic. 
Cp. iv \epol ?x €l9 > 7* 5* Ia — 
r6 crrpdrc v|&a : expedition, as often 
in Hdt. 1.6. n, 3. 48. 1, 3. 49. 4, 
8.112.16,9.33.23.-3. <t*XXoyov 
tiriic\T|Tov : called meeting— Att. 
<rvy#cAipros CKicAiprta (Soph. Ant* 



6. a 12] HERODOTUS VII 93 

Hep<re(ov t£)v dpCcrr&v enotelro, Iva yvcopas re wuQiyraL 
<T<f>€(ov /cat avrbs ev naci €i7T]j rd dekei. is 8e o~uve~s 
a Xe^^ijcrav, eXcfc Bepijrjs rdhe- *Ai/8pcs Ilepo-ai, our 
avro? KarrjyTJaofiai vo\lov rovSe «/ v/ui/ Ti#€is napaSe- 
£dpevo$ re avra> ^piqaopai. a>s yap eyco TtvvQ6.vop.ai 
t£>v 7rp€<r{ivT€p<av, ovSapd k<o rjrpspicrapeV) entire 
7rape\d{$opev rrjv fjyepovtrjv rrjvhe irapa MtjScdi/, Kvpov 5 
KareXovros *A<rrvdyea • dXXa Oeos re ovrco dyei ical 
avrolai rfp.lv 7roXXa enerrovai. avpfyeperai em rb dpeir 
vov. rd pev wv Kvpos re /ecu Ka/i/Jvcrr/s rrarr\p re 
cfto? Aapelos tcarepydaavro Kal irpoaeKTrjcravro edvea, 
imxTTap.evoi<Ti ev ovk av rts Xeyoi. eya> 8c eneire nape- 10 
\a/3ov rbv dpovov rovrov, etypovritpv o/ca>s prj Xea/io- 
/xai rcov wporepov yevopevcov ev npfj rfj8e pr)8e iXdaaco 

160). iTrUXrfTo^ elsewhere applied — r|Tpc|i.C<ra|fccv : aor. ingressive. — 

to persons, as 7. 203. 1, 8. 101. 5, 4w€(tc : Att. iiret. — 5. Kvpov icarc- 

9. 42. 8. — 4. r&v ApCo-Twv: esp. Xdvros 'Ao-rvoVyca : Cyrus overthrew 

the royal princes, the " Seven," Astyages, King of the Medes, at . 

the satraps and commandants in Pasargadae 559 B.C. — 6. Ocosovtm 

the provinces. — 5. <r+€«v: Att. fryci: cp. Xen. Anab. 6. 3. 18 6 

avroiv. — «Tn*Xixfrn <ra v • m Hdt. 0eo? tcra>? ayci ourais. — 7. iroXXd 

more common than owcAcyiyo-av, 4ir*irov<ri : engaged in many under- 

in Att. the reverse. takings. The verb is poetical. Cp. 

a. 1. evVf . . . tc : common cor- Horn. £ 195 ; Aesch. Pers. 552. — 

relation in Hdt. = ovk . . . aAAa. ro^pcrou : it happens. Cp. crvvrj- 

— 2. Kanry4j<ro|uu riOcfc : lead the v€lk€ 7. 4. 4. Att. uses the active. — 

way in introducing, vofxov ride- 8. t&: rel., with ZOvea. — 9. tcarcp- 

vaiy of a law proposed by a law- ^AeravTo : = cSovAwcravTo, as 7. 

giver; vofiov Tid€<T$cu of one 211. 4. — 11. rovOpovov: so freq. 

decreed by the people. The cus- in tragedy, but in plur. — 6k»s 

torn in question is indirectly com- \ir\ \€(v/o|t<u : more vivid than the 

municated in what follows. — more usual aor. subjv. Cp. 7. 

4. oiSopd ic.«: = Att. owtcottotc. 18. 20. — 12. Ttjifi : /WtAcax. — 



94 HERODOTUS VII [8. a 13 

TrpocrKTTja'OfiaL 8vvcl[alv Heparja • (frpovriCofiv 8e evpurKO) 
d/xa fiev kv8o<s rj/juv Trpo(Tyiv6yLevov X^PW TC ^S v ^ lv 
iKTrjfieda ouk ekdcrcrova oi8e $\avpoTepr)v Tra/JL^opar- 15 
repr)v re, dfia 8e TLfi(opirjv re /cat rtcrti> ytvofievrjv. 810 
i/ieas vvv iyco crweXe^a, ti>a to poco) irprjaaeiv inrep- 
P Oecofiat ifiiv. fxeWa) £ev£a<$ rov ^Wrjcnrovrov ekav 
arparov Sta, V179 Evparnyjs eVt tt)i> 'EXXaSa, ti>a 9 Kdrf 
vaiovs TifKoprjacofiaL ocra 877 ireiroirJKacTi Hepcas re kcu 
irarepa rov i/iov. ai/oare fiev vvv /cat Aapeiov idvovra 
(Trparevea'dai iirl roi/9 av8pas tovtovs. aXX* 6 /x,€i> Tere-5 
XevT^/ce /cat ou/c iijeyevero oi Tt/x,a)/o>jo"acr0at • eyoi 8c 
inrep re eiceivov /cat t<3p aXXcwp IlepcreW oi nporepov 
Travaofxai irpiv rj ekco re /cat irvpdxTdi Ta9 'Adyjvas, ol 
ye ifie /cat warepa rov ifiov V7rf)p£av aSt/ca 7rotcbprcs. 
irpa>ra jxev €9 SapSts e\96vres dfia ' KpiorayopiQ t^5 10 
MtVyjcrta), 8ouXa> 8e rj/jLerepa), [a7rt/cd/Ltcpot] eveirprja'av 

. 14. kvSos : epic word for rifirj. Att. 7rptK av, which Hdt. also uses. 

— irpo<ryiv6|icvov, (16) 71vo|jl4vtjv : — irufxucrw : = ifnrpya'<D. Cp. 8. 

note the pres., indicating the self- 102. 17; Eur. Phoen. 575. — ol: 

assurance of Xerxes. — rfjs : rel. construction ace. to sense. See on 

dependent on the following com- ejcaoroKU 7. 1 . 8. — 9. virfjptav . . . 

paratives. — 15. fcrfjpcOa : Att. kck- itoi&vtcs : began to do. Cp. 6. 133. 

TrjfitSa. — 17. vir€p0fo>|i<H : set be- 3. — 10. irpfrra piv : note the asyn- 

fore for deliberation, as 7. 18. 22. deton. — &pa 'ApiOTayopn : son " 

The Att. term is avaKowovaOai. in-law of Histiaeus, tyrant of Mile- 

P 1 . 4Xav orpaTdv : Att. i\av- tus, and governor in his absence : 

veil/ intr. — 3. oo-a 8rfj : we should active instigator of revolt among 

expect tovtwv ova or 6<r<ov. Stf the Ionian cities (5. 30 ff.). He 

stresses the idea of number. — was the soul and organizer oft 

4. lOvovra : Att. op/jwu/xevov. — though not a participator in, this 

6. Kal o*k l£*yivtr6 ol. Cp. ovSi oi expedition. Cp. 5.99. — II. So4X* 

ifjeyevero 7. 4. 6. — 8. irpiv ij : = hi: second appos. designation, 



8.713] HERODOTUS VII 95 

rd re dkcea /cat tol ipd • hevrepa 8e r^eas ola ep£av 
cs rifv <r<t>er€pr)v a7roj6aj/Tas, ore Actrts re /cat \\/ora- 
y<f>pevr)s eoTparrjyeov, eTrioTacde kov Trdvres. tovt<ov 
parrot elvetca dvdprr)\Lai in avrovs ar pareveaO ai, 
dyad a he ev avrolcn roadhe dvevpixTKO) A.oyt£d/x€*>os • 

€1 TOVTOVS T€ /Cat TOV5 TOVTOMTI TrXrjCTtO^CW/OOVS KOLTa- 

aTpoffOfieday 6t IIe\o7ros toS 4>/ouyos vepovTai ^(oprjp, 5 
yip rijy ITe/ocrtSa aTrohi^ofiev t<£ Atos aldepi opovpeov- 
<rav. ov yap hf) )(<tipr)v ye ovSe/xCav KaroxjjeTav rjXios 
ofiovpov eovcav rjj rjfAeTepr/, dXXa cr<£eas 7rdcras eya* 
dfia vfilv fiiav X^PV V 0w<*>> hid Trdai)^ hie^ekOcov tjjs 
Evp<Dirr)<s. TrvvOdvofJiai yap whe exeiv, ovre nvd nokiv 10 
dvSpcov ovSefiCap ovre edvos ovhev dvdpamaiv vnokei- 
ire&Oai) rb tj/jliv otov re carat ekdeiv es /id^^, toiJtg)i> 
rSnv Kareke^a vTre^apaLprjfievcov. ovro) of re rj/jLlv atrtot 

regularly with 8c. — [cwriKo/ACvoi] : the ancients ovpavos was a hemi- 
see App. — 12. Scfa-cpa: secondly; sphere covering the earth, so that 
freq. in Hdt., hardly in Att. with- the circumference of the two co- 
out art. — T||jias : before ola for em- incided. — 6povplov<rav : not Att. 
phasis. — ola : exclam. rel. — Ipjav : = opopov ov<rav. — 8. <r<^cas : of 
as 5. 65. 22 ; poet, for copao-av. cities, as 7. 108. 10, of ships, 7. 194. 
■y 2. jUvtoi: with the inten- 18, 7. 195. 4; pxv still more freq. 
sive force of pkv &/. — &vdpri]|i<u : of things in Hdt. — 10. riva o48c- 
c . inf. = irapeo-KCvaauai. — 3. lv |*Cav : any at all. Cp. tl ov&ev 8. 
airroltri: therein, i.e. the expedi- 20. 2. — 11. dvSp&v, &v6p&ira>v: 
tion against Hellas. — 4. €t . . . for stylistic effect, without distinc- 
KaTcurTpc+6|«0a .... &iroSl{opcv: tion. — 12. tijuv: governed by 
for cond., see S. 2328; GMT. 447. ZkQ&v cs aaxqv = paxtvdai. — 
— 6. t$ Atos atOlpi : = ovpavco. Cp. 13. wr€japatpr||jL4v«v : removed out 
I. 131. 7 tov kvkXov iravra tov of our way. — t^Iv atnot : cp. Horn. 
ovpavov Aia K<i\eovT€s (sc. ol Hep- A 152 ov yap cyw TpaW Ii/ck' 
oat), and Horn. £412 Zev aidepi yXvOov cux/^Tawv Aevpo pxi\T 
vatwv. Ace. to the conception of <rd/xcvos, C7rct ov tl pot atnot ctctv. 



9 6. HERODOTUS VII [8.81 

6 Ifoucrt hovkiov £vybv ol re avainoi. u/xei9 8 s dv /101 
TctSc 7rotcb^T€5 \apitpia-0e. imdv vfilv arjfnjva) TOV 
Xpovov es rov r\K€w Set, irpodvfLO}^ tram a nvd v/iecov 
)(pyj(r€L iraptiv ai • 05 av hk e)(a)v rJKy TrapecKevaafievov 
(TTparov /caXXtora, Saxra) ol 8a>pa rd TifiKOTaTa vo/ii-$ 
£erat elvat iv rj/jLerepov. iroirjrea /xev vvv tovtol cart 

OVTO) * IVa 0€ /JLT) lOlOpOVkeiV V/ILV OO/C60), TLUTJILt, TO 

irprjyfia i<s jj.€<rov y yvdfirjv Kekevwv vfiecov top /3ov\6r 
9 /xevov airofyaivtcyO ai. ravra et7ras iiravero. fier avrbv 
§€ Ma/oSoVtos eXcye • *fi heo-woTa, ov fiovvov cts rSav 
yevo/jL€v<ov Hepaecov aptoros, dXXa /cat t(ov icrofievojVy 
05 ra T€ aAAa \eycov iiriKto dpiara Kal aXrfdecrTaTa 
Kal ¥ I<ova<s tovs iv rfj Evpcimy KaToucrfiievovs ovk eacrct? 5 
/carayeXacrat tj/jllv iovras dvat;iov<z. /cat yap heivbv av 
el?) irpfjyfLa, el 2a/cas fiev /cat 'Ii/8ov9 /cat AWCoirds re 

— 14. 8ovXiov gvydv : cp. Aesch. 

Pers. 50 fryov ip+ifiaXfy SWW SPEECH 0F MARDONIUS IN FAVOR 

'EAAaSi.-otrc dvalnot: rhetori- 0F THE EXPEDITION 

cal addition, merely for the sake 9. 2. els: Dial. § 4. 5. — t»v 

of contrast. Cp. 6. 67. 13,8.68. ^cvo^vwv: including, as opp. to 

y 5. tw £<rofjL€v<ov, also those now liv- 

8 4. XP^°" €t : Att. XPW*™- — m g« — 4« ^n-tKco : sc. avraiv, hit the 

os&v &: unusual order, as 1. 138. mark (lit. came at; cp. the slang 

5 . Cp. os av fiiv 3.72.25. — 5. ol: phrase, got there) . — 5 . Kal : strictly 

Homeric for avra> or tovtw. — we should have #cat on after Aeycw. 

8upa rd ri^icGrara : cp. Xen. Anab. — 5. "Lavas : written also 'laovas or 

1. 2. 27. — 6. kv T)pcWpov: as 1. 'lavas, common designation in the 

35. 18; blending of two idioms, Orient for all Hellenes. — Karouo|- 

Iv i\\jmxv and cv ty/ACTcpai (oiK«p). |iivovs: for KaToucowras. — 6. KttTa- 

— 7. l8iof3ovX.ctv : = 181a f3ov\eveiv. ^eXao-at : in Hdt. oftener with dat. 

— 8. 4s \U<rov : before you. Cp. 6. for regular gen. — dvoglovs : sc. 
129.7,6. 130. 2. — 9. ctiras: Att. rov KaTayeAaom 17/uuv. — 7. Saica*: 
eiww. powerful nomadic tribes in the 



9. pi] 



HERODOTUS VII 



97 



icat 'Acrcru/oiovs aXXa re idvea 7roXXa /cat fieydka 
ahucfja'avra Ilc/ocra? ouSci/, dXXa hvvaynv TrpocKTacrdai 
fJov\6fAevoi, KaTaaTpe\fjdfievoL 8ouXov9 exofiev, "EXkrjvas 10 
8c xmdp^avra^ dhiKir)<z ou TLfia}p7]a6fi€0a. ri Sctcra^TCs ,* 
kolt)v irXrjdeos avoTpocftrjv ; koltjp 8c xPVt 1 ^ 7 ^^ SuVa- 
a/uv ; t£)v im<TTd[A€0a fiev rrjv [Ad)(V)V) emora/tcfla 8c 
rr]v SvvafiLv iovcrav dadevea • €)(Ofi€P 8c avrcov 7ratSa9 
Karaarpe^d/jievovy tovtovs ot iv rrj ^/jterc/Ofl /caroticr/- 
fjievoi "l<i}v4s re /cat AtoXcts /cat Acopiels /caXcoirat. 
iir€Lprj6r)v 8c /cat avT09 ^Siy €7rekavi/(ov iirl rov9 dvSpas 5 

TOVTOV9 V7TO 7TaT/0O9 TOl) CTOV /CcXeU(T^Ct9 ? /Cat /AOL [A€)(pL 

MaKeSovCrjs iXdaavn /cat okiyov diroknrovri cs auras 

jJ'Atfi^'as dmKcadat ovScts rjVTKadrj cs p*d)(r)v. /catrot 

northeast of Baktriana. — 1 o. Kara- 
o~rpci|rd|uvoi Ixofuv: periphr. pf. 
esp. common in Hdt. and tragedy, 
but occurring even in Att. prose. 



S. 1963 ; GMT. 47 ; GS. 295. Cp. 
Dem. Phil. 1 . 6 iravra Karea-T pa7rraL 
Kal ix u ' — ll ' ^rdpfavTat &Sik(i)$ : 
began wrongdoing, as 4. 1 . 6. — 
0$ Tt|u»pi)0-6|u0a : in ei-clauses 
after verbs of emotion ov some- 
times occurs for more common /11J. 
S. 2701 ; GMT. 386. — t£ SiUrav- 
Tit ; ktI. : rhetorical questions ex- 
pressing energy and vividness. — 
12. vX4j0cos <rwrrpo<t>^v : multitudi- 
nous mass. Cp. Aesch. Pers. 235 
av&p07r\iq$€ia arparolv. — XP 1 ^ - 
rmv S6vo|uv: as Thuc. 1. 25. 17. 
One is reminded of Eng. slang, 
" a power of money . " Cp. 8wa/uus 
dvSfwv 5. 100. 8, 5. 113. 3, 7. 153. 



13. It is characteristic of the Per- 
sian to think victory dependent 
alone on men and money. 

a I. {frio-rdpcOa pcv . . . &iri- 
o-rdpcOa hi : note the anaphora, as 
7. 18. 9, 10. — H L ^X T l v: manner of 
fighting, as 7. 85. 8.-2. typptv 
hi: Homeric coordination, for, 
since the clause gives the basis 
for the preceding assertion. — 
iratSas : descendants, as 3. 19. 8. — 
3. to$tovs of: as 7. in. 6. — 
5. &ircip4j6r|v &irf X.cu&v«v : irciptofuii 
with suppl. ptc. freq. in Hdt. and 
occurring even in Att. S. 2102; 
GMT. 896, 897 . — 7 . 6XC70V diroXi- 
irdvri : more freq. SXiyov Serjaavn, 
as 7. 10. y 3. Cp. Thuc. 7. 70. 24 
fipaxv yap aTriXiirov $vvafL<t>6r€pai 
SiaKOcriaL yeveoSai. — 8. tjvtu&0i| : 
Att. rjvavTi<i>Ori* 



98 HERODOTUS VII [9. P 2 

[ys] iwdaai EXXrpcs, a>s TrvvOdvofiai^ d/3ov\6rara 
TroXe/jLovs laraa'dai vwo re dyvco/jLooijvrjs Kal aKaiorrr)- 
to<$. ineav yap dXXTjXoicrt 7ro\ep,ov irpoeiTriovi,, efev- 
povres to KaWicTTOv ^coptou Kal Xetoraroi/, es tovto$ 
kotiovtzs fid^ovraij wore avv KaKco /ieyaXa> oi vikcovtcs 
aTrakkdacrovTaL • wepl Se tmv io-aovfieucov ovSe Xeya) 
apXyv> c^coXei? yap S77 ylvovrai. rov% XPV V > iovras 
ofioykcoaaov^y KTjpvtji re Siaxp^^fievov; /cat dyycXoicri 
KaTakap.fiaveiv ra; &La<f)opas /cat Ttavrl fiaXKov rj 10 
^a^Tjo"f ct 8c ndvTcoy eSci 7ro\efieiv 7rpb<; dXXijXoi/s, 
iijevpiakew XPV V T V cKarepoC ctcrt Suj"^€t/oa)ToraTOt icat 
ravrrj Treipdv. Tponcp roivyy ov XPV <TT V *EXX>ji>€s 8ta- 
Xpttoiievoi ifieo iXdaavTos p*£XP l Ma/cc8o^i>j9 ovk tJX^op 
-y €9 rovrov Xoyo*/ wore ^a^ecr^at. crol §€ S17 fieWet, Ti5, 
a> jSacrtXcS, avr nacre r 9 ai vokefLOv irpo<f>€p(ov, dyovri 
Kal Trkfjdos to €/c T17? 'Acrtr/s /cat peas T<x9 a7rdcra9; c&s 
/Lte^ eya> 8ok€(o, ovk es rovro ffpdaeos dvyjKei rd 'EXXtj- 

P 3. iroXipovs 'uttcutOcu : to — 13. ircipav: sc. aXkrj\<i>v. Cp. 

wage wars, as 7. 175. 3, 7. 236. Horn. <l> 580 ovk iSekev <j>evyeiv 

19. Cp. Horn, t 54 <TTrj<T<iiAzvoi 8' 7rptv irciprjaaXT 'A^tX^os. Hdt. 

ifjj&XovTo fidxrjv. — 7. t«v £0-0-0 v- uses both act. and mid. in this 

\Uvotv: t&v fjTT<j)fjLiv<i)v. — oittk dp- sense. — 1 5. is tovtov X6-yov &o*rc 

\f\v: ne omnino q 7/ idem, apyfiv |id\co-0(u: to a thought (lit. ' men- 

originally adv. ace. — 8. tovs \pf\v : tion ') of this, namely to fight. 

for x°yv w ^h inf. see GMT. 415 ff. *y 2. irdXcftov irpo^pwv: Att 

row? is rel. — 10. Ka/raXafApdvciv : l-m^ipuiv. Cp. helium inferre. — 

to settle. — 12. €K&T€poi: subj- in o/yovri . . . dirdoras: the attribu- 

dependent clause instead of subj. tives Ik rr\% 'A<rti)s and diraous, 

ace. of iievpio-Ktiv as we should belonging to both objects, are 

expect. The sense of the passage distributed, for the sake of bal- 

is, then, that each should discover ance, one to each clause. — 4. It 

where he is hardest to subdue* tqOto 6pdo-cos: gen. of degree.— 



10. a 7 ] HERODOTUS VII 99 

p<ov irpyjyiiaTa • ct 8c a/oa iyco re xfjeva-Ottrjp yp(op>y; kcus 
iiceipoi iiraepda/Tes d/3ov\iy ekdotep rffiLv cs ^X7) v ^ 
fiddoiev av a>? el/iep dpffpamcop a/otcrrot ra 7roX€/ua. 
€OTG> 8' a>i> fjLTjSei/ direiprfTOv • avrofxarop yap ovSev, 
aXX' aTTO 7T€Lpr)<$ iravra dpQp&Ttowji <£tXct ytpeaOat. 

10 Map8oVto9 /x.€^ Tocravra iirikerjva*; ttjp Hejpfca> yi/<w- 
ftiji* iirerravTo • (TKoircatrcov 8c raw aXXaw Hepj-ecop Kal 
ov roXfuoisrcop yvco/jLrjV a7ro8et/a/ucr0at olvtltjv ttj npo- 
K€L/JL€irrj y * ApTafiavos 6 *TcrTacr7reo?, irdrptos icjp Sep^, 

a toI 8^ /cat 7rtcrwo5 €gjj> eXeyc raSe • *ft jSao-tXeu, /x^ 
Xe^deiaeojp iiku ypcofiecop dprtecop aXX^'Xycrt ovk cart 
Tip d/ieCvo) alpeofJLevov eXecr^at, dXXa Set T77 elpr]fi4 tj 
Xpr)(rdai 9 \e)(dei(T4(s)v he eort, cScrrrep ro^ \pvcrov top 
dtctjparop olvtop p,£v £tt' icovrov ov Staywajx/co/Ltci;, €7T€ai>5 
Se irapaLTptycofiev aXXaj XP V<T V> hiay LpdcrKO/xep top 
d/ieipco. iyco 8e Kal irarpl r<5 era), d8e\(f>eco 8c e/x<3, 

5. clSi&pa: £11/ if indeed. — tytv- — 5. t$ . . . k&v.^ upon which 
v6c(t)v "yx&K-TI : for more usual gen. indeed also being reliant. lAcyc 
Cp. 8. 40. 8. — 6. -f||i£v : const, same pred. also to rel. clause, 
as with fmx €(T ^ aL - — 7* c ty L€v : Dial. a 3. aipedpevov 4\6r6<u : note 

§ 4. 5. — 8. 8' &v: at any rate. — the picturesque fullness of expres- 
9. ^iXcC : is woftt, lit. loves, attribut- sion. — 4. hrn.: sc. rrjv d/jtctveo 
ing will or choice, as often in Hdt., cAeo-ftu. — 5 . axrrbv £ir IcavroO : 
to inanimate things. Cp. ZQeXti itself by itself common juxta- 
7. 50. 21. position for emphasis. — fcirc&v 8t 

. . . xpvo-w: sc. lv f3a<rdv<0, when 
we rub it (on the touchstone) be- 
side other gold. The /Jaaavos, or 
xo. 1. tiri\c4jvas: smoothed over, At'tio? AvStiy, when rubbed with 
i.e. made more acceptable. The fine gold, showed a red mark, with 
simple verb in exactly this sense 8. adulterated gold a dark streak. — 
142. 21. — 3. &vt(t|v: for ivavTirfv. 7. &8cX.$€$ 8*: see on 7. 8. /3 11. 



ARTABANUS OPPOSES THE EXPE 
DITION 



ioo HERODOTUS VII [10. a 8 

Aapetco f)yopevov fir) (TTpaTevecdai inl 2/cv0a9, dvhpas 
ovhafiodi yfjs daru vefiovra^ • 6 he ekirll^cov S/cvda? 
rov9 *>o/xa8a<? /caraoT/oa/recr&u e/tot re ovk iireidero, io 
(rr/oarcvcra/xei/ds Te 7roXXov9 /cat aya#ou9 tjJs crr/oari^s 
a7ro/3a\(op dirrjkde. crv Se, al /JacriXcv, fieWeis cir' 
dvhpas G'Tparevecrd ai ttoWov ert dfieivova^ r) 2/cv0a?, 
ot Kara ddkacadv re dpioroi /cat /cara yrjv Xeyovrai 
elvcu. to he avrolcn evean heivov, ifie crol St/caioi/15 

peart <£/oa£etv. £eu£a9 <£#9 tov 'EXXtjctttoitoi' eXai/ 
arparov Sta 7*779 Jbvpa>7rr)s €9 r^ 'EXXaSa. /cat 8?) #eal 
<jvvr\veiKe rjrot Kara yrjv r) /cat /caTa OdXaaaav e<T<TQ>dy}- 
vcu, r) /cat /caT* d/x^orepa ' oi yap dvhpes \4yovrai eb/au, 
aX/a/uot, irdpecn he /cat oTa0//,a5cra(r0at, et aTparvrjv ye$ 
Toaavrrjv <rvv Aart /cat ' Aprafypevei eKdovcav 69 t^p 
'Attlktjv ^coprjp jjlovvol 'Adrfvalot hiefydeipav. ovk &v 
d[i(f)OTeprj <r<f)i e^aS/o^crc • aXX* ^ TTjcrt invert ifJL/SdXaxn 
/cat vucrjcravTes vav/JLa^iri irXecoai €9 toi> c EXX*7o-7roj>Toi> 
/cat eireirtb Xucra>crt t?)*> ye<f>vpav 9 tovto hrj, /JacriXev, 10 

Yyt^erat Setiw. eya> Se ovhefiijj <ro<f)£r) oIki^Liq avro9 
ravra crv/AjSaXXo^tat, dXX* otoi> /core rjfxeas oXtyov .. 

— 9. 068041661 «yf|s : for const., see — 7. 061c wv . . . cx4p*|flrf " suppose 
HA. 757. — 10. 4fu>( tc o*k . . . then they did not succeed on both 
T€ : ovk to be construed closely (land and sea) . The tense as in 
with €7rei$€To {disobeyed} ; the awrjveiKc. — 8. &XX' f\v t^cti vtjvcrl 
usual order is ovre . . . tc. — cppdXoxri : but if they attack our 
15. avToto-i: cp. 7. 8. y 2. j&^j. Note change of const, of 

p 2. Kal St| Kal o-vWjvcticc: and supposed case stated as a fact to 

supposing now it has actually regular supposition. 
happened. — 5. irApccm : = l&crri. 72. dXV otdv icoTf : supply 

— trraOifc&rcurOai : to weigh, i.e. aAAa (<rvfif3a\\o[mt roiovrto ira- 
te decide. — et yc : since indeed. Oct) olov kotc. — oXCyov IS6|ot : cp. 



10. € i] HERODOTUS VII 101 

iheqae KarakafZelv irddos, ore irarrfp abs £eu£a9 Bdo- 
vopop top Qpytaop, y€<f>vp<oo'as Se TroTayLov "\arpop 
Ste/fy im %Kv0a$. Tore ttoptoIol eyepopro 2/cv#at Sco-5 
fievoi 9 I(op(op Xvcrat top iropop, toZcti iirererpaTrro rj 
(f>v\aKrj t(op ye<f>vpe(op rov "lorpov. /cat Tore ye 
c IoT6au)9 6 Mihjrov rvpappos el iirecnrero tcop dk\<op 
Tvpdu/pwp Tjj yvdfi-g [irjhe r)PTi(*)Or), 8iepyacro dp rd 
Uepcrewp Trpyjyiiara. kolltoi /cat Xdya> a/covcrat hewop, 10 
in dvhpi ye epl irapra rd /JacrtXeos TTprjy/iara yeyepij- 

S cr#ai. crv &p p,f) /3ov\eo es klp8vpop firjhepa toiovtop 
diriKeadai firjSefjurjs dpdyicr)<z eovcn;?, dXXa ifiol ireLOeo • 
pvp fiep top avKKoyop ropSe StaXvcrov • avrts 8c, otolp 
tol 8ok€Y) 9 7r/oo(r/co/ra/Ltc^os C7rt (reawroS irpoayopeve rd 
tol So/cct et^at d/otora. to yap ev fiovXeveadai K€p8os 5 
fieyta'TOP evpurKO) eop • el yap Kal epaPTKadrjpai n 
Oekei, {JefJovXevrai fiep ov8ep fjcaop ev, ecrcrawat 8e 
virb rf}<s rvyjqs to fiovkevfia ' 6 8e fiovkevadiievos at- 
o~)(p£>s 9 el ol 7) rv\7) eTTuriroiro, evprjfia evprfKe, fjacop 8e 

€Ou8a> oi #cajca>? /Jc/JovXcvrat. 6/oas rd vnepe^ovra tjpa 

6\iyov airoXmovrt 7. 9. a 8. — Cp. Siaxpa<r0at I. 24. 12; Kara- 

3. 8ti ira«njp <rfe kt4. : the expedi- xP° L(jr O cu *• 82. 42. — 11. 4ir dv8p( 

tion of Darius against the Scythians yc 4vl . . . 'ycycKqo-Ocu : were in the 

occurred 515 B.C. — 5. iravroioi power of one man. 
tyfoovro Srtpcvoi : used every means 8 3. avris: Att. avOis, later. 

in Pegging. Cp. iravroi-q iyivero — 4. ln\ o-cwvroO: see on a. 5. — 

firf airo&r) ycqvax 3. 124. 6; iravroXoi 7. Oikti: is inclined, i.e. is likely 

TeAc'florrcs Horn, p 486. On the (= /ac'AAci).— 9. cvpi||ia cvprjKc: 

matter, see 4. 136 fF. — 8. 'Lrri- figura etymologica, as 8. 109. 

atos: note the emphatic position 10. 

before d. — 9. SUpYcurro: as 7. c 1. t& virepfyovra f$a: over- 

224. 3. Stcpyafco-ftu = &a<£0cipe«'. towering (i.e. haughty) creatures, 



102 HERODOTUS VII [10. c 2 

a>9 Kepaviol 6 0ebs ov8e eq. <f>avrd£e(T0at,, ra 8c <T[UKpa 
ov8ev flip Kvl^et,- 6 pas Se ws es olKij/iara ra fiiyicrra 
aiei /cat Sa^S/oea ra rotavra airocTKrJTTTei ra /JcXca. 
<56tX.cZ ya/o 6 debs ra vnepe)(ovra irdvra KoXoveiv. ovrcos 
he teal arparbs noWbs virb 6\Cyov hia<$*9eipirai Kara 
roiovhe • liredv or<j>L 6 debs <f)0oif)jcras <j>6/3ov ef/xjSaX^ ^ 
fSpovrrjv, hi Q>v e^ddprjaav dva^ucos eonrrSiv. ov yap ea 

^cfrpovetv jxeya 6 debs dk\ov fj ecovrov. eireiydrjvai fio^ 
wv irav irprjyfia riKrei cr<£aX//,ara ? 4k rtov t^p-lai fteyd- 
Xat c^tXeovert yiveadai • efj> Se t<£ emcr^elv evean dyadd, 
el jxr) irapavriKa hoKeovra clvat, dXX* ai/a xpovov itjev- 

•n pot ri5 a*>. <xol fiev hrj ravra, a> ySacxiXei), cxv/x^SoiAo/co* 
crv Se, a> 7rat T<o/3pve<o [Maphovue], iravcraL Xeycov 
koyovs fiaraCovs trepl 'JLXkrjvaiv ovk eovrcov aijicov <f>\av- 
pojs dtcoveiv. "EXXi^as yap hiafSdWcav enaeipeis avrbv 
)8ao-iXea arparevecrO ai • avrov he rovrov elveica hoKels 5 

proleptic. — 2. 4>avT&£co-0ai : se os- iv tovt<o ck ylv rov ovpavov /ccpawot 

tentare. — 3. kv({ci : sting, i.e. vex. avTouri cvcVwrTov, and Horn. ® 75- 

Cp. 7. 12.2. — 4. t& roiavra: /.*. 77. — 81' wv ty0dpi)<rav : tmesis; 

to. fitytara. — diroo-K^jirrei : cp. 4. gnomic aor. Syn. § 7. I- 

79. 8 cs ravTrjv 6 0eos iviarKYjif/e % 1. tVimx^vcu irav -rp^Yjia: 

jSeAo?. — 5. +tX€t -yap . . . koXovciv : subj. of Turret. The verb = <nrcv- 

for the thought, cp. Hes. W. and am, opp. to €7r«rx€tv. — piv vuv : 

D. 6 peta 8* dpif^Aov fiwvdci kclI see on 7.7.4. — :4- dXX' . . . igc*- 

(1877X01/ dc£ci, Hor. Carm. 1. 34. 12 pot tis &v: note change from ptc 

valet una su minis mutare ct insig- to finite verb, and cp. 7. 6. 11. — 

nem attenuat dens, obscura pro- dvd \P<>vov : as 7. 1 53. 7, = x/xwp 

mens. — 6. icard toi6v8c: = a>8c 7*6.3. 

7ro)5. — 7. <t<|h : ^. (TTpartwTai?, i| 3. ^araCovs : va///, i.e. COn- 

from orpard?. — <|>6pov: panic, as temptuous. Cp. 7. 15. 5. — 3. +Xai- 

7. 43. 10, 8. 38. I. — 8. ppovrfjv: po>s dKofaiv: pass, of <f>. AcyeiF. — 

here thunderstorm. Cp. 8. yj. \ 5 4. aftrdv : in person, as below, 3. 



10.au] HERODOTUS VII 103 

fioi irao-av irpoOv/iCrfv €kt€u>€lv. fnj wv ovTo) yew/rat,. 
8ia/3o\7j yap tan htivvrarov, eV rjj 8vo fiet/ ctcrt oi 
aot/ccoircs, ets oe o aoi/cco^L€i/05. o pep yap ovapaWojp 
dSi/cet ov irapeovros Karrjyopecov, 6 Sc dSt/cet dvaTTudor 
/ici/os irplv ^ aT/0€/ceito9 €K[id0rj m 6 8e S77 afreet rov 10 
Xoyov rd8e eV avTOtcrt dSt/cetrat, SiafikrjOels re v7ro tov 
Qercpov /cat vofiiaBw irpbs rov erc/oov /ca/cos €«>at. dXX* 
et St) Set ye TrdpT(*>s cVt rov? avSpas tovtov9 (TTparev- 
ccrdat, <^cpc, /JacrtXevs ju,cV avros cV yjOea rolai Uepaecop 
{Levero), 7j[JL€(ov Se afi<f)OT€p(ov irapafiaWopevcov TOL T€KVa^ 
OT/oaTTjXdVct avros crv imkeijdpepos re dv8pas tovss 
c^cXcts /cat \a/3<ov orpaTirjP oKoarjp tlpol jSovXcat. ./cat 
tjj> pJEv rr} crv Xeyct9 dua/Saipy jSacrtXct rd 7rp>jy/jtaTa, 
KT€ipe<r0(ov oi ifioi 7rat8c9, 7T/oo9 Sc avrourt /cat eyew • i)j> 
8c Tfl iyco TrpoXeya), oi crot Tavra 7racr)(6pT(op> crvv 8c 
cn^t /cat crv, r)*/ dirovoaTrja-rj^. et 8c ravra fiep v7ro8v- 10 
m*> ov/c ideXTJacLS, crv 8c irdvrcos crrpdrevpa di>d£et9 

— 6. irao-av irpo6vp(T)v cktcCvciv: play). Cp. Horn. I 322 aicv c/x-iyv 

unusual combination, after the t/w;$y7rapa/JaAAo/ji€vos,Thuc.2.44. 

analogy of the proverbial iravra 1 5 dl av firj kclI 7raiotts cV tov 6/xolov 

KaXtov €KT€iv€iv (Plato Prot. 338), 7rapaf3aW6fJL€voL javuvvcvctKriy. — 

stretch all sail. Cp. 7. 6. 7 7rao~av 6. Tivd : about, fere. — 7. dvapaCv^ : 

frpoOvfiirpt Trapexpfitvoi. — pf\ wv : eveniant = airoPaivuv 7. 234. 4, 

»* igitur ; not Attic. — 10. irplv 8. 4. 4, 8. 68. ft 2. — 10. dirovoo-rfj- 

ij: see on 7. 8. /? 8. — drpcKlas: <rt|s: cp. Thuc. 7. 87. 26. Freq. in 

= <ra^a>?, intensifying the idea of Horn, and Hdt. — 10. cl 8c . . . 

Ik in iKfiAOrj . — 11. toSc: cognate ovk tfcX/tfjo-cis : ov belongs to the 

ace. — 12. vopurOcls irpos toO hi- single word, not to the prot. as 

pov: see on 7. 2. 11. a whole, S. 2696; GMT. 384. 

2. clSrfj: if indeed. — 3. 4v The cond. is minatory, S. 2328; 

tpc<ri: in sedibus. — 4. irapaftaX- GMT. 447. — 11. <rv 8^: Homeric 

XofUvav: staking {venturing at repetition of the subj. See on 



104 HERODOTUS VII [10. 12 

inl ttjv 'EXXaSa, a/covo"€cr#at nvd <f>rj/ii t5)v avrov rghe 
vnokenroiLeviov Ma/oSoVioy, fieya rt kolkov i^zpyaad- 
lievov Tlepaas, vtto kviscov T€ /cat opviOtov Siatfropeoficvov 
tj kov £v yjj tt) 9 A0rfvaUop rj ere ye iv rg AaKeSatfjLOvUoVy 15 
el fir) dpa /cat TTporepov /car' 6Sdi>, yvovra itf otoi/9 
dvhpas dvayivaxTKeLS CTpaTeveorffai /SacrtXea. 
11 *A.prdfiavos p,€v ravra eXetje, Ec/o^r/9 8c OvfiwOels 
afxeC/Scrou rotcrtSc • 'Kprdfiavt, Trarpos ct9 rov ipov 
dSekfaos • tovto <T€ pvaerav [ir/Seva d(~iov fiiadbv 
Xafielv iirewv fiaraicjv. /cat tol ravrqv ttjv aTipxr)v 
npocjTCOrjfJLL iovrt /ca/cft) re /cat a#v/xa>, ^re avcrTparev" 5 
ecrdai efioiye inl ttjv c EXXa8a avroC re [tevevv a/ia 
Tjjau yvvai^i • eya> 8c /cat dvev ceo ocra 7T6/0 etira €7rt- 
rcXca noLTJaa). /xr) yap eirjv €/c Aapelov tov 'ToracrTrcos 
rov 'A/oaa^€09 tov 'Apiapdnvea) rov Tctoircos tov 
Kvpov rov Ka[A/3v<r€(o tov Tcto"7rco9 tov 'A^at/xci/co? 10 



ANGRY RETORT OF XERXES 



6 8c 7. 6. 24. — 12. avrov ttj8c: 
rag"-*/ ^*r*, as avrov tolvtyj 7. 
42. 10, = Attic avrov. — 13. 4{cp- 11. 3. |ii|S{va : the neg. because 
yao-dpevov : circumstantial ptc, as pvVcrai has the force of a verb of 
yvovra (16), while 8ta</>o/)co/Acvov is hindering. — 4. ica( : loosely tack- 
supplementary. — 14. vv6 kwvwvtc ing on the following clause, where 
ko.1 opvCOwv : an Hellenic sentiment, in English the force must be u still." 
since the Persians esteemed that — 7. tavrcXia iroUjo-a : freq. Hero- 
one happy whose body was soonest dotean periphrasis for cVircAw. — 
consumed by dogs and birds, Hdt. 8. w -yap cb|v 4k . . . •yryoW&s : " for 
1. 140. — 15. a-4 -yc: Homeric let me not have sprung from — ." 
repetition of the subj. with re- Xerxes mingles here his ancestors 
newed apostrophe. — 16. cl |it| apa : of both paternal and maternal lines, 
nisi forte. — -yvdvTa : expertum. as inscriptions show. Teispes, as 
— ht otovs avSpas kt€. : the speaker ancestor in both lines, occurs twice. 
returns to the main idea (a 13 f.). The genealogy is as follows : 



11. 21] 



HERODOTUS VII 



105 



yeyoi>d5s, fir) TLfKoprfadfievo^ 9 A0r)vaiov<z, ev €7rioTa//,ei/os 
art el rffiels r)av)^Crjp dijo/iev, dXX* ovk e/cetpoi, a\Xa *a! 
/udXa arpaTevaovrai eirl rrjv rj/jLereprji/y ei xpr) aTaOfKo- 
cacrdaL Tota-i inrapyfiei/OLCTL i£j iK€LV(ov y 0$ SapSis re 
iveirpTfa'av /ecu rj\a<rav e? rr)v 'Acrir/i/. ovk &v iijava- 15 
-^(opelv ov8cr€jpowrt 8war<39 e^ei, ctXXa 7rotctv ^ naOeiv 
7T/ooK€6rat dya)*', ?*>a ^ TctSe irdvra vtto *EXXr/cn, r) 
itceiva irdvra vtto Hepcrjcri yeprjrai • to yap fieaov 
ovSep Trjs cxPP 7 !* c<jtL koKov 3>v TrpoTretrovdoras 
r)fi€as TifKopelv fj8r) yiverai, Iva /cat to Seivbv to ireLCO- 20 
fiat tovto fidOo), cXao"a9 €7r* dvSpas tovtovs, tov9 ye 



Achaemenes 

1 

Teispes 



Cyrus I 

Cambyses I 

Cyrus II (the Great) 



Ariaramnes 

1 

Arsames 
Hystaspes 



Cambyses II Atossa Darius 

1 1 



Xerxes 

— 12. ct . . . &{opcv: monitory 
cond. — AXV ovk fcctvoi: yet will 
not they (sc. rj<rvxfy v «£ov<nv). 
&Wd thus freq. in speeches. So 
in Homer (A 82 etc.). Cp. Xen. 
A nab. 2. 5. 19. — ical |td\a: even 
very much, i.e. then especially. — 
14. rolax frrapy|i4vouri 4( 4kc(vwv : 
by what has been begun by them. 



The const, ck = vwo c. pass, be- 
longs mainly to Ionic and poetry 
(esp. tragedy), but is found spo- 
radically in prose (Thuc, Xen.). 
— DdpSts tc . . . 'A<t(t)v: revers- 
ing the natural order, as freq. 
in Homer (rj 77). — 16. Swarcas 

tX« - SvVCLTOV €OTl. 17. ITp^KCiTOi 

a-yc&v: the contest is before us, i.e. 
the question is. Cp. Horn. % 65 vvv 
yfuv 7rapaK€ircu ivavriov ^c /xax*- 
<rOaL fj <f>€vy€iv, Eur. Med. 235 k&v 
t<58' dywv [LtyLorros rj kclkov Xa/Stiv 
V XPV a " r ^ v ' — *8» T0 yfy \Ua-ov 
•H|s <bc6pt|s : middle ground of our 
enmity. — 19. ica\6v: pred. with 
yiVerai. — 20. to 8€ivov . . . tovto : 
epanaleptic dem. with scornful ref- 
erence to 7. 10. f3 10. — 21. &vSpas 
tovtovs : note omission of the art. 
tovtovs gets from position and con- 
text the force of tolovtovs. Cp. 2. 
135. 13, 7. 102. 3. — tovs ?€ : whom 



io6 



HERODOTUS VII 



til. 2± 



xal ncXcn/i 6 <l>/ov£, iav itaripoiv tS)v ipxov 80OX.OS, 
KaTecTpeffaro ovto) o>s /cat is roSc clutch re <ov0p<o7roL 
Kal r/ yfj avrcov hroyvvpuoi rod Karaarpo^afiivov 
Kakeovrai. 
12 Tavra p,ev iiii roc ovto ikiyero, /lera 8e eixfrpovri re 
eyivero Kal Sep^r/v €Kvi£e r) 'Apra/Sdvov yvco/xr) • wktI 
§6 fiovky)v SiSous trayyv evpicrKe ol oi nprjyiia €ivcll 
OTpareveaOai iirl rf/v c EXXa8a. SeSoy/xevw Sc ol 
avris tovtcop KaruTrvcocre, Kal S77 kov iv ttj wktI cTSes 
otyiv rot^Sc, a>s Xeycrat v7ro Ilc/ocrewi/ • eSo/cei 6 Ec/o^tyS 



certainly. — 22. 6 $p4g: as 7. 8. 
y 5 ; more strictly 6 Av86s : but 
the confusion is common, esp. 
.among the poets. — iraWpwv r&v 
ipuv SovXos: claim based on the 
mythic descent of the Achae- 
menidae from Perseus and An- 
dromeda, daughter of Cepheus and 
niece of Ninus, which latter ex- 
tended the Assyrian kingdom to 
the west coast of Asia Minor, and 
so over Phrygia and Lydia. Hence 
the Persian dynasty regarded it- 
self as rightful heir of the Assyrian 
kingdom. — 23. «s : = were. — Kal 
is t68c : even to this time, Cp. 7. 
38. 12 €5 roSe 17A1K117S. — 24. Note 
the dactylic close, and cp. the com- 
plete hexameter 7. 178. 9. 

XERXES 1 DREAMS AND CHANGE 
OF PLAN (CC. 12-15) 

12. i. tv$p6vr\: the kindly time, 
i.e. night, esp. in the poets and 



Hdt. Cp. 7. 56. 3, 7. 188. 7, 8. 
6. 9, 8. 12. 1, 8. 14. 12, 9. 37. 
19, 9. 39. 4. Freq. also in Hip- 
pocrates. Is it a euphemism, or 
is night regarded really as "the 
kindly time" in hot climates? — 
tc . . . Kat: note the paratactic 
arrangement, where the first clause 
should be subord. — 2. wktI Si 
PovXtjv SiSofc: leaving counsel 
to the night. Cp. the proverb ev 
wktl f3ov\rj, and the advice to 
Themistocles (Plut. Them. 26) 
wktl <l><i)vqv, wktl ($ov\-qV) WKTI 
Tqv vUrfV Stbov. Kal fxera ravra kol- 
/xrjOcU 6 ®. ovap €$o$cv Ibeiv ktL — 
3. itoyxv • • . ctvcu: he found that 
it was not at all a matter for 
him. 7rayx v ( = 7rc "' v ) emphatic- 
ally separated from ov . . . elvat. 
cvpKTKe with the inf. is rare. For 
the idiom irprjyfjua ctvcu, cp. 7. 130. 
9. — 5. Kal S4j kov : and now per- 
haps. Hdt. does not vouch for 



13. io] HERODOTUS VII 107 

avhpa ol cVioTaira [teyav T€ /cat euciSca eiTrelv • MctcL 
877 fiovXeveaty a> lie/) era, arpdrevfia fir) dyeiv €7ri ttj^ 
'EXXdSa, Trpotunas dXi£€ii> Ilcpcra? orparov ; ovre 3)v 
fiera/Sovkevofxa/o^ 7roi€t9 cS, ovre 6 (rvyyvtoaofxevo^ rot 10 
trdpa • dXX' cjairep 7*779 fifjLeprjs efiovXevaa) iroielv, 
izravrqv Wl tcov 68a>v. tov fxkv ravra tlirovra eSd/cei 6 
S^ofyj? aTtowrdtrQai, i)fJL€pr)^ Se eViXa/Lu/fdcrr/9 oveCpov 
fiep tovtov \6yoi> ovSeva eVotctro, 6 §€ Uepcrecov cruva- 
Xicras rou9 fcal wporepov crwe'Xe^c, cXeye cr<^t TaSe • 
*Av8pe<s Hepaaiy crvyyi/cofnjv fioi ^X er€ ° TL dy^Carpo^as 
fiovXevofjiou ' (fypevwv re yap €9 tol ifxecovrov irp&Ta 
ovkco dvrJKco, Kal ol iraprfyopeofievoL eKtlva iroielv 
ovSeva yjpovov fieo dirv^ovTai, aKovcravri fiivTOi fioi 
rrjs 'Aprafidvov yv(6fir)<; napavTiKa fiev rj veorrjs iire- 
^€cr€, ware dcuceorepa diropptyai ewea €9 dvhpa irpe-io 

the story. — 7. avSpa ot cirio-TAvra : 13. 2. airoirrdo-Oai : cp. Horn, 

note the similarity to the dream B71 &s 6 fj.lv ewreov $x €T ' airon-rd- 

that appeared to Agamemnon in /xcvos. — trnXapv/dcrns : = Att. vtto- 

Hom. B 20 ff. Cp. also Horn. £ <£aiVav. — ovcCpov jicv tovtov: note 

21 if. — jurd Stj povXcvccu . . . \lt\ the omission of the article, as with 

ayciv: with change of plan then r^Sc 7. 8. a 12. — 3. X6-yov ovS&a 

you determine not to lead, fiera fcirouiTo : took no account, freq. in 

$7 povXcvau is tmesis, for fitrd Hdt. — 5. &Yx £o ~ T P°+ a PovXcvou^ai : 

has this force elsewhere only in make a sudden change of plan. 

composition. 817 in indignant Cp.Thuc. 2. 53. 3 a.yxi(TTpo^>ov rr^v 

question, as 7. 17. 7. — 10. 6 o-vy- [MTapoXrjv dyx«rrpo<^a is cog- 

yvwo-o'iuvos : who will agree, con- nate ace. — 6. <t>p€v«v tc . . . dWjica> : 

sent. — 11. irdpa : usually taken as I am not yet come to my own prime 

= wdp€OTi, as 1. 42. 4. Cp. fitra of mental power. Note <f>p€vu>v 

= /xctcotc 7. 157. 12, In = eveo-Ti outside of the regular attrib. posi- 

7. 112. 6. Stein and others take tion. — 9. 4-rr^co-c: boiled over. 

irdpa = irdpufju. — 12. r&v 686v: Cp. Ar Thesm. 467 ov Oavpudviw 

part. gen. with ravrqv. cot' ov$ €7rtfctv rrfv xp^l v ' — 



108 HERODOTUS VII [13. n 

aj3vrepov rj XP e ° v ' V ^ )V M^oi cruyyvovs xPV a ' f laL TV 
€K€ivov yvaixj). a>s 3)v fx€Ta8e8oy[jL€j/ov fiot fir) <rtpar 

l*T€V€<T0aL im tj)v e E\\a8a, t)<tv)(oi core. Ilepcrat /ikv 
a>9 TjKov<rav Taura, Kexaprjicores npoaeicvveov • ituktos 
8e y€vo[jL€vr)s avri9 towto ovtipov rS Btpijji Karvvvcar 
/A€v<p eXeye eiriardv • *ft 7rat Aapeiov, Kal 877 <f)aiveai 
iv HepaycrC re a7rct7ra^€^09 r^ aTparrfXaairjv Kal tcl$ 
ip,d €7rca ei> ovSevl 7rotcd/Ltc^09 Xoya> a>9 7ra/o' ov8ci>o9 
d/cowa9. e3 i>w toS' fo-0i, ^p 7re/o /lm7 avruca orpa- 
T7?A.aT#9, raSc rot cf avrwv dvao'xrjo'ei, * cos /cat fieyas 
Kal 7roXXo9 iyeveo Iv oXCyco XP° P V> °^" w *<** raircwos 

15 ottutq) Kara ra^o9 ccrcai. 'Eip&qs fiev neptSer)^ ya/6~ 
/xc^09 T|} oi//t d*>a re eSpafie 4k ttj9 koCt7j<s Kal Ttipmti 
dyyeXov [cm] 'AprdjBavov KaXeovra. airiKOfxeixt) 8c ot 
cXcyc Sepfq? TaSc • 'Apra/Jai/c, cya> to napavTuca p.kv 
ovk i<f>pov€ov ct7ra9 cs (re /xdrcua lirea xprjcrrrj^ eiPGcas 
av/i/SovXCyj^ • ftcra \l4vtoi ov noXXbv ypovov /Mereyvajv, 

ii. o-vyyvovs: having come to the 8. avao-xfyrw : w#7 spring, as 5. 

same mind with him. — 12. us «v 106. 14. Cp. ayapXaoravciv 3. 

pcTaScSoYijivov : ace. abs. S. 2076; 62.18. — piyot Kal voXXto : Stein 

GMT. 851. — |it| o-TpaT€vc<ri)<u : see points out a probable parody of 

on 7. 12. 8. this passage in Ar. Aves 488 outcd 

14. 2. irpoo-CKvvcov : </*V/ ito- 8' Ztr^vc tc kou //.eyas i}v ^w* *"* 

j««^ /#, lit. 'kissed the earth be- iro\vs, as also allusions in vv. 552, 

fore.' — 4. Kal Wj : really then, hq 11 27, 11 30, 1145 of the same play 

as in 7. 12. 8. — ^aCvcai airciird- to Hdt. I. 179. 5, 1. 179. 12, 2. 

ucvos : you have openly renounced. 127. 7, 2. 136. 24 respectively. 
The const, as ffxtvtpos c? c. ptc. 15. 2. dv£ rt SSpaoc: by the 

— 6. 4v o£Scvl iroudpevos \6y<p : tmesis emphasis is put upon the 
cp. \6yov ov&cva iiroteiro 7. 13. 2. prep. 3. KoX&vra: fut. — 4. ri 

— irap' ovScvrfs : from a nobody. — trapavrCKa : for the moment. — 5. 
7. vw: igitur, as in 7. 10. rj 6.— typlvcov: = icraycfrpovcQv. — ftiraf J9 



16.2] 



HERODOTUS VII 



to() 



eyvcov 8e ravrd fioi irouqTea eovra ra av vTredrJKO). 
ovk Zxv Swaros roi el fit, ravra /3ov\6fievos iroieiv • 
Terpafifievto yap 8f) Kal fxereyvcoKOTL emfyoiTeov oveipov 
<f>avrd£erai /not, ov$afi<os crvveirawov eov iroieiv fie 10 
ravra • vvv 8e Kal 8t,a7ret,\r}o-av olyerai. el &v deos 
eon 6 im7r€fi7r<ov /ecu ol 7rdvT<o$ ev rjSovfj ean yevecQai 
OTparrjXaairjv cm tt/v 'EXXaSa, eTrnrnjo-eTai Kal col 
rctwrb tovto oveipov, ofioiojs Kal ifxol evTeWofievov. 
evpLCTKQ) 8e aJSe av yivofieva ravra, el XcfySois rfjv ififjv 15 
<rK€vrjv iratrav Kal £v8vs fiera tovto Itpio c? tov ifibv 
dpovov Kal eneiTa ev koCttj tyj ififj KaTOTrvwaeias. 
leBep^Tjs fiev ravra ol eXeye, 'Aprdfiavos 8e ov ra> 
TTpcurq) ol KekevcfiaTL Treidofievos, ofa ovk djziovfievos 



ai : rare const. Cp. 6. 69. 3, 6. 86. 
8 3, 8. 26. 13. — 7. virffNJKw: as 
freq. in Hdt., for vttMov. — 8. «v : 
however, — 10. ^avrd|cTai : = <f>at- 
vcrcu. — cmWiraivov &v : consent- 
ing, with dependent inf. clause. — 
12. kv ffSovtf lori: as 4. 139. 8 = 
<fu\avi<rr!v(i. S7. 21). Cp.Thuc. 
1. 99. 6, 3. 9. 4; Eur. /. T. 494. 
Hdt has also wpos rjSovrjv ol etvcu 
3. 126. 13. — 13. 4mirrfjo-€Tcu : cp. 
air07rrd(r6cu 7. 13. I. — 14. .toOto: 
note the dem. in attrib. position. 
HA. 673 c. — &|ao£o>s KaC: like as. 
— 15. &Sc: looks backward as 
well as forward in Hdt. — &v 71V6- 
l&cva : supplem. ptc. in indir. disc. 
after cv/k<tjc<i>. S. 2 1 1 3 ; GMT. 994. 
— i4pr t|it|v <tk€vt]v ir&o-av : my 
full dress, which consisted of 
purple mantle, tunic and trousers, 



saffron-colored shoes, upright tiara, 
with fillet of blue and white, golden 
girdle with pendent bejeweled 
short sword, gold earrings, collar, 
and bracelets. Note the rhetori- 
cal repetition of the poss. pron. 

ARTABANUS' PHILOSOPHY OF 
DREAMS 

16. I. r(o irp<&rcp oi Kc\c6o*|&aTi : 

for Att. T<J> 7TpO)T<i) KcAciXTfUITt 

avrov, though the dat. implies for 
him as well as of him. This 
const, of dat. of pers. pron. as 
possessive is also Homeric. — 2. 
ota: see on 7. 6. 2. — d£iovfuvos: 
mid. = Att. d£ia>v, deeming himself 
worthy. Cp. 1. 199. 5. To seat 
oneself on the king's throne was 
deemed high treason and punish- 
able with death (Curtius 8. 4). 



i to HERODOTUS VII [16.3 

€5 top fiacrtKyfiov dpovov i£€O"0ai, re'Aos a>s ^'ayjca£ero 
a 6t7ra5 ra8e hroiei to KeXevofxevov ' *\<rov iicelvo, al /}a- 
aiXeVj irap 9 ifxol Keicpirai, (ftpoveiv re ev /cat tgj \eyovTi* 
XprjGTa idikeiv TreCOeaOai • ra ere kcli dfx(f)6r€pa TrepLij- 
Kovra avOpdmw kclkcov o/u\tat o"<£aXXowi, Kara 7re/) 
r^p irdvTQiv xPV (rL f JLa)r( ^ Tr l 1/ dvdpdmoicri ddkaaaav wvev- $ 
fiard <f>aai dveficov e/A7ri7rroi>ra ov irepiopav (frvcri ty} 
icovrrjs ^prjo-dai. ifie Se aKovaavra 777009 aio Kafcaj? 
ov Toaovro eSa/ce \virr), ocov yvcofieojv 8vo 7rpoK€ifi€v(ov 
Tlepar/aL, rrjq p,ev vfipiv av^avovarj% tyjs Se Kara- 
Travova-rjs kolI Xeyovo-rjs a>s kolkov enj hihdenceiv ttjvio 
\fwxrjp tt\4ov tl hi£r)crdat alel e^eu/ rod wapeovros, 

TOLOVTCDV TrpOKeifJLevCOV yV(0/X€(jt)V OTL TY)V &<j>a\€pa)T€pr)v 

pcrecwvTft) re Kal Yliparjai dvaipeo. vvv aii/, C7ret8^ re- 

a I. fcrov: pred. to ckcTvo, — icard ircp: = Kaddirtp (tbairep). 

which looks to the following inf. — 5. irdvrwv . . . OdXacnrav: for 

clauses. — 2. irap* cpoC : meo iudicio. the thought, cp. Solon, frg. 12 c£ 

— KCKpirai : it has been decided* it avefuov oc OdXaaaa rapaoxrercu • fjv 

is judged. — <j>pov€iv tc . . . ircC- 8c tis avrrjv firj Kivfj, iravrmv coti 

Oco-Oai : for the maxim, cp. Hes. oWioraTiy. — 6. oi ircpiop&v . . . 

Op. 293 ; Soph. Ant. 720. — 3. rd xP f l o " 0at : S. 2 141 ; GMT. 903, 6. — 

dp^tfTcpa: both of which. The 7. dicovo-avTa kcmc&s: pass, of 

rel. is obj. of TrtpirJKovra. and this kulkws Acyav. Cp. cfrXavpws d/covctv 

agrees with cc, which is obj. of 7. 10. -q 3. — irpds o-io: see on 7. 

<r<^a\A.ov(ri. — ircpi^JKovra : having 2. 12. — 10. SiSdaricciv . . . SCtiprOat 

attained. Cp. 6. 86. a 10 tovtov . . . cxciv: three infs. dependent 

rbv avSpa. <jyifx€v rd tc aAAa 7ravra one on the other, in the order of 

7T€pu]Keiv Ta 7rpa>ra. — 4. &vOp<&- their occurrence. Si£rfcr6ai = Att. 

irwv KaKwv 6|u\(ai <r<J)dXXovcrt : cp. ^ryrtiv. — 12. toiovtwv . . . yv«»|i4ttv: 

Aesch. Pers. 753 ravra rot Kaicot? epanalepsis, or resumption, for the 

6fxc\u)v dvSpda-iv SioaonccTcu Oovpios sake of clearness. — 8ti : connect 

Ecp£»75, I Corinth. 15. 33 <£0ci- with ocov, as because. — 13. Avoir 

powTtv rjOrj XPW& ofAi\uu KaKai plo : unusual for the simple verb. 



16.7 7] HERODOTUS VII in 

Tpa^at iirl tt)v dpeiva), <f>jj<; tol periivri top iif "EWrjvas 
a*r6\ov im<f)OiTav oveipov deov twos iropiry, ovk icovrd 

(T€ K<LTa\v€W TOV (TTokoV. dXX' Ov8i TaVTa €OTl, 3) 

7rcu, Oeia • ivvrrvia yap ra es dvdpdmovs TrerrXavqpii/a 5 
Totavrd ccrrt ofa crc eyw SiSd^co, erecrt <xeo 7ro\Xot^t 
TTpecrfivTepos icov • TrerrXavrjo-dtu aSrat /idXiara io&Oaai 
al onjjies t5)v dveipdrcov, rd tis rjpipr)? (fypovTL^ • i^ets 
8c ra? 77700 rov r/pipas ravrqv ttjp o-TpaTrj\aai7)P /ecu 
yrb tcdpra el)(opev pera ^etpa?. el 8e dpa prj icrn 
rovro tolovto olov iyco hiaipeco, dXXa tl rov deiov pere* 
X ov * &v irw (lvto arv\\a/3coi> eipr)Kas • <f>av7JT<o yap S77 
Kal ipoCy a>5 Kal vol, SiaKeXevopevov. <f)avr}vai 8k 
ovSkv /x,dXXoV poi ofaikei e\ovn ttjp ar/v iadrjra f/ ovs 
Kal ttjp iprjvy ov8i tl paWop ip koCttj rfj afj dvairavo- 
peva) rj ov Kal iv ry ipyj, el Trip ye Kal dXXcos idikei 

p 2. jMTVf'vTi : conative. S. dem. sense. — Kal rb xdpra : = 

1878; GMT. 25; GS. 192. — koL trdw. — 10. pcrd xcipas : rare 

3. 0coO iro|&v{: as Horn. Z 171, for iv \epvi (7. 5. 10). Also in 

c 32. Cp. deiy Trofiiry I. 62. 15. Thuc 1. 138. 14; Xen. Ages. 2. 14. 

— o*k Idvra: forbidding, ova- 7 2. Sicupta: explain, as 7. 
pw is here masc, though it was 103. 6; so mid. 7. 47. 3, 7. 50. 
neuter in 7. 15. 9. Cp. similar 2. — 3. o-uXAapwv : succinctly. Cp. 
change I. 34. 4, 1. 39. 4. — 4. ov& 3. 82. 24, and Eur. Erechth. frg. 
ratira . . . 0c£a : referring to Oeov 20, 5 ttoXXo. <rv\Xa/3i0V cpa>. — 
twos TTOfiTry. — 5. ir«r\avi)|iiva : 5. Ij 0$ : so freq. after fiaXkov in 
gnomic pf. GMT. 154, 155; GS. neg. sent. (esp. ovocv fiaXkov) for 
257. — 7. avTcu: assimilated to the emphasis. Lit. // ought no more 
gender of 01/aes, though anteced. (just as little) to appear to me 
of to, the thoughts which one has when I have your garments, than 
by day, these are especially wont to it ought not (to appear) when I 
visit men in visions of dreams, have my own. Cp. 4. 118. 15, 
Cp. Attius apud Cic. de div. 1 . 45. 5 . 94. 14. — 7. & trip ye Kal aXXws : 

— 9. wpb roO: = tovtov, original if indeed even at all. Cp. ctaAXos 



it* HERODOTUS VII [!«•** 

(jxtvrjvai. ov yap 8r) is tocovto ye evrjdeirjs awjicei 
rovTOy o n hrj Kore coti to €7ri<f><uv6fi€v6v tol iv T(p 
virvcoy (Sore 8d£ei ifie 6pS>v ere elvai, Tjj <rjj iadrJTi T€K- 10 
fiaipo/xevov. el 8e e/xe fiev iv oihevl \6ya) Trovrjo-eraL 
ovhe d^icocrei i7TL<f)avrjva^ ovre r\v rrjv ifir/v iaOrjra c\<o 
ovre rjv rr/v o"ijv y ae 8c eVi^oi/njcrei, tovto rjSrj fiaOrjTeov 
eorai • el yap 8rj iTri<f>omJGei ye orvvexeas, <f*atr)v &v 
Kal avrbs deiov elvai. el Sc tol ovto> SeSoKrjrai ytveaOai i$ 
Kal ovk old re avrb Traparpefyai, dXX* rjSrj Set ifie iv 
KOLTTj rfj o-fj KarvTTvSxra^ <f>epe, tovtw it; ifxeo eVire- 
Xeofievcov (f>aviJT(o Kal i/toi /^c^pt 8c tovtov tq 7ra- 
17 peovcrji yi/(ofirj ^prja-o/xaL. roaavra etnas *Aprd/3avos y 
ikir^cov Uep^v airohe^eiv \eyovra ovScV, eiroiei to 
KeXevofxevov • ivSvs 8e rrjv Bep^ea) iadrJTa Kal i^o/xepos 
is top ^aaiKrjiov Qpovov <hs /xcra Tavra koltov cVoicito, 
rj\6e oi KaTunvcofieva) towto oveipov to Kal irapa *Eep£qv$ 
i<f>ovra, virepaTav 8c rov 'ApTafidvov etne rdSc* *Apa 
aif 8r) Kelvos eis 6 dnoo-TrevScov Hep^iqv arparevecrOax 
iirl ttjv 'EXXdSa a>9 S77 K7)86fievos avrov; dXX* ovre is 

8. 30. 8. — 8. 4s to<to0t6 v€ c*ti- 

Mip: cp. is rovro 7. 9 . y 3-- ™ E DREAM VISITS ARTABANUS ? 

9. 8 r, 8<j koW 4m : qualecunque HE ASSENTS TO THE ****** 
est. — 1 1. ct : whether, hence ovlwl TI0N ( CC I7 ' l8 > 

is allowable. GMT. 667, 5. — cv 17. 2. B<p{t|v . . . oWv: A* 

ovScvl X6«ycp iroi^o-crai : as 7. 1 4. 5. show that Xerxes says nothing, 

Cp. 7. 13.2. — 13. o-c 8c 4iri<J)oiTf|- *'.*. is wrong. — r6 kc\cv6ju vov : 

o-€i : note ace. here, dat. above. — impf. ptc. implying repetition. — 

16. o^k old T€ : = dSiWra, i.e. ov be- 4. koitov tirotcfro : = iKOtfjuaro. — 

longs to the single word, not to the 6. vrrcpordv : as Horn. B 20 <rri} 

prot. — 17. <Hf*: well, like Horn. 8' ap' vrrcp K€<f>a\r}<:. — apa o^ 

aye — c| ipk: see on 7. 1 1. 15. 8ij : are you then, — 8. «*8^j: <w 



18.i6] HERODOTUS VII 113 

rb fiereiretra ovre cs rb irapavruca vvv Karanpotijecu 
artorrpdmav rb XP € ° U y^^ccr^at, Qep^rjp Sc ra Set avrj-io 
18 Kovariovra waOelv, avrto iiceivQ) ScS/jXcorcu. ravrd re 
&7 eSd/cei 'Aprdfiavos rb ovtipov direikelv Kal depfioun 
<ri8r)piaLcrL £kk<xUiv avrov fieWetv rovs b<f>da\p.ov<;. 
Kai os afifi&o'as fieya avadp<oaK€L Kal irapitfiiievo*; 
Bep^jjy a>s ri)v oxftLv oi rov Ivxmviov 8l€^tj\0€ dirqye6r$ 
fi€vo<; y Sevrepd oi \eyei ra8c • 'Ey<w fiep 9 a> fiacrikevy ola 
dvOpojiros ISatv rj8r) iroWd re Kal fieydka neaovra 
npTfyfiara virb rjaaopcoPy ovk icov ae ra irdvra rjj 
y]\iKLji ec/ceti/, imordfievos a>s KaKov tvq rb noWcop 
itriOvfieivy fi€[ivrj[ia/o<s fikv rbv inl Mao-aayeras Kvpov 10 
orokov a»5 eTTprjije, /xc/uj/ij/i,ci>os 8c Kal rbv in AWioiras 
rbv Kafiftvaea), arvorparevofiepos 8c Kal AapeCto iirl 
%Kv0as. i7riardfiQ/os ravra yv(ofir)p efyov drpefiitflvrd 
ae (JLOKapLcrrbp etvai npbs Trdvrcov di/dp<bir<ov. inel Sc 
Saifiovirj Tt? yiverai bpfiij, Kal "EW^i/as, a>s oikc, <f>0oprji$ 
tis KaraXafi/Sdvet derjkaroSy iy<* fi€v Kal avrbs rpdno- 

thoughy ironical. — 9. vHv: pleo- man who has seen. — 8. (nrd r\<nr6- 

nastic after to TrapavrUa. — Kara- va>v : agent const, on account of 

vp6t(«u : get off free. Colloquial pass, force of irtaovra. — 10. rbv 

form of threat. Only in fut. and 4irl Mcuro-crylras . . . ardXov : pro- 

with neg. Freq. in Hdt., not in leptic ace. This expedition against 

Att. prose. — 10. rb \ptbv ^cW- the Massagetae occurred 529 B.C. 



what is fated to be. — 11. rbv kr AlOCoiras : cp. 3. 25 if. 

18. 4. Kal tt: dem. (= Kal — 12. crv<rrpaT€v6|uvo$ : the impf. 

ovros), as freq. in Horn, and ptc. is descriptive. For the matter, 

found in Xen. and Plato. — &|iP<&- cp. 4. 1-4, 4. 83-144. — 14. irpds 

<ro«: for am/Soleras. — 6. Scvrcpa: irdvrwv : see on 7. 2. 12. — 15. Kal 

= hrura. Cp. brSavra in 21 be- "EXXtjvas . . . Oc^Xaros: note the 

low. — pU Mpwrof JWy: as a Sophoclean irony. 0«yAaTos is a 



J 



ii4 HERODOTUS VII [18. 17 

fiai Kal ttjp yvcofirjv fierarlOefiaL, aif Sc arrJiLiqvov fiev Hep- 

G-JjO-L TOL €K TOV 0€OV 7TC/X 77 O/ACPO,, XPV (r ^ aL ^ Ke\€Ue TOUTl 

€K ceo TrpdrroMTi 7rpoeipi)iLevoicn cs rrjp TrapavKevrjv, 
ttoUl Se ovto) okcds rov deov 7rapa8i86vros rtav cq)V €i>8ct£- 2 
aei p.r)8ev. tovto)v \e)(devro)v y evdavra erraepdevres rp 
oijjLy a>s ypepr) eyevero ra^tcrra, Hc/ofijs re xmeperidero 
ravra Tlc/ocnycn,, Kal 'Aprdfiavos, 0$ irporepov a7ro<T7r€v- 
8cov fiovvos icjxiLveTOj rore iiriGTrevScov <f>avepb<; rjv. 
19 'Opfirffieva) 8c Sepfr; arpar^Xaretp fierd ravra rpirrj 
ot/«,9 ev t<3 V7rva> eyevero, rrjv ol p.dyoi eKpivav dicov- 
aavres <f>epew re ewl irao'av yrjp 8ov\evaeLP re ol 
irdvras dvdpdmovs. 17 Se ot/as rjv rj8e • eSoVcci 6 Eep^Tjs 
iarecfaavato-ffai e\alr)$ 0aXXa>, dnb Sc rrjs e\aCrjs tov? 5 
fcXaSovs yrjv iraaav C7rtcr^cti/, fxerd 8e d<f>avio-0rjvai, 
irepl rfj Ke<f>a\rj Keifxevov rbv are<f>avov. Kpivdvrtav 8c 
ravrrj ra>v fidycop Ile/ocrcW re r&v crvk\e)(6evr(i>v av- 

poetical term. — 20. okos . . . t»v of the Magi. — Iicpivav: inter- 

cwv IvoYtfjo-ci jxt|8^v : that on thy preted. Cp. 1. 120. 3. — 3. +4- 

part nothing shall be lacking. pciv tc *irl irdcrav yfy : pertain to 

Object clause after verb of effect, the whole world. <f>lp€iv cs is more 

GiMT. 339. Cp. 7. 8. a 11. — common. Cp. 6. 19. 3. — 5. Ifrrc^ar 

22. vnrtpcrCOcTO : see on 7. 8. a 18. — v&cOai . . . KcCpcvov tov ortyavov: 

23. dirocnrcvSwv . . . *iri<rrr€v8«v : a quasi-*cv*Aos or variety of 
note the paronomasia. — 24. 4+aC- chiasm. See Hermog. 171. For 
vcto, <j>av€po$ rjv : for variety. Greek readers the reference would 

be to the sacred olive tree on the 
Acropolis at Athens (8. 55), whose 
destruction was followed by a 
speedy reversal of Xerxes' fortunes. 
— 8. IIcp<rla>v T€ t»v crvWcxOfo- 
19. 2. ol po/yoi : here = ova- rtav : dependent on was avqp. with 
poiroAioc i. 107. 8, a^epecial class change of const, from gen. aba. 



XERXES HAS A THIRD DREAM. 
EXTRAORDINARY PREPARA- 
TIONS FOR THE EXPEDITION 

(cc. 19-21) 



20. n] HERODOTUS VII 115 

ruca nas diri/p €5 tt)v 0LpXV p r V v £<*>vtov dnekda'a^ €t^€ 
irpoOvfiirjV iraaav irrl rolai elprj/jLa/oiGiy 0ekcov alrbs 10 
eicaoTO? rd irpOK€Lfieva 8a>pa Xafielv, k<u Hc/of^s rod 
arparov ovrco iirdyepcriv iroieirai, x<s)pov irdvra ipevvwv 
20rrjs rjirelpov. airo yap Alyvirrov akaxrios iiri fiev 
riccepa erea Trkjjpea irapapretro crpanrjv re /cat rd 
irp6a<f>opa rjj arpanrj, Triinrro) Se eret dvofievo) iarpa- 
nqkdrei X ei P l H-^V^V ^X^eos. (ttoXcjv yap rfov fjfieis 
iSjxev 7toXX<3 877 fieyio-To^ ovros iyevero, cwcrre fiifrc top 5 
Aapeiov tw C7rl 2/cu#as 7ra/oa rovroi/ paqheva <$>aive<rdai 

[LTJT€ TOP ^KvOlKOV, OT€ %KV0 ai KtjLt/UL€/0tOV5 Slto/COITCS €5 

t^i> MrjSucrjv ^PW iffftaXovres a\^ov irdvra rd dixo 
rfjs 'Aalr)$ KaraarpeifjafxevoL ive/iovro, rcov elveicev 
vorepov Aapeto? irLficopelro, fxrjre Kara rd Xeyopeva rov 10 
'ArpctSccw^ C5 *IXioi> pyre rov Mvo-<ov re /cat TevKpwv 

— 9. itxc irpoOv)iCT)v ir&o-av ... no importance. Cp. 7. 14. 5. — 
ctpi)|iivouri : const, of liri {for the 7. 5rc SkvOcu KippcpCovs ktc. : the 
accomplishment of) as (nrov$d£eiv Cimmerians were driven by the 
hrirm. Cp. 7. 146. 13. — 12. ovrw: Scythians from their seats north 
here looks forward. Cp. a>8e 7. of the Euxine and passed south- 
15. 15. — tir&ycpo-iv iroiciTcu: cp. easterly into Asia, in the middle 
cirotetro oryxrrrijs ayepaiv 7. 5. 3. of the seventh cent. B.C. — 8. rd 

20. I . 4irl \ikv T&ro-cpa iTca : 484- avo» t4\s 'Ao-Ctjs : upper Asia, i.e. 

481 B.C. — 2. irapapTftro : = Att. the territory from the Tigris to the 

7apc<r#c£va£ero. — 4. X €l P^ H-^Y^Ml Indus, iy Kara) 'Ao-ta, lower Asia, 

«\4)6cos : with a very great body being the territory from the Tigris 

of troops, i.e. a band great in mul- to the coast. — 9. t«v €*v€K€v : un- 

titude. x*lpi like manus in Lat. usual for the simple gen. of cause 

Cp. 7. 157. 14; Thuc. 3. 96. 12. with TifuapeTo-Oai. — 10. hi^uaptlro: 

— r&v 4||if £s ISjuv : favorite expres- conative impf. — icard rd XcYlpcva : 
sionofHdt. — 5. rbv Aapcfovr&vM. according to the tradition, as con- 
Zk40os: cp. 7. 18. 12. — 6. irapd: tained in the "Catalogue of the 
in comparison with. — |ii)Slva : of Ships " (Horn. B). — 11. Mvo-wv 



ti6 HERODOTUS VII [20. i* 

top irpb t<op Tptoucwv yepojiepop, 6t SiajSavres is tyjv 
Evpcowqp Kara Bocnropop tovs re ®pyj teas icarcorpe 
xftaPTo rrdpras /cat, inl top 'Iopiop ttoptop KaTeftrf- 
aav p>€XP L T€ nijvctov iroTafiov to irpbs fi€(rafi/3pirjs 15 

2lrjka<rav. avrat at iracrai ovS* erepcu npbs Tavrgai 
yepofiepat, or/oaTTjXao-tat fufjs TrjaSe ovk a£tat. Tt 
yap ovk rjyaye 4k ttJs *AaCrjs idpos €7rt ttjp 'EXXaSa 
Ucp^r/s ; Kolov Se TTLPOfxepov ynv vScop ovk ifreXnre, 
nXr/p t<op (xeydkeov Trorafx&p ; oi jiep yap peas nap-s 
€i)(opto, 61 Se is iretfip ereraxaTo, toutl 8e Imros 
TrpoaereraKTO) toIctl 8e hnrayvya irXota afia (TTpaTevo- 
Ilcpokti, Tolai 8e is Tas ye<f>vpas fiaKpas peas irap€)(€ip, 

22 Tolai Se o*tra re /cat pea?, /cat tovto pep, a>s npoa- 
Trrai<TapT(t)P tS>p irpdrcop Trepwrkeoprtop wept top A0<op> 

7r/0O€TOt/xa^€TO €K TpiSiP iT€(OP KOV /LtClXtOTa C? TOP 

"Adcop - ip yap 'EXatouiTt rfjs Xepaopyjaov op/xeop 

tc Kal TcvKpuv : tribes of Asia while taking part in the cxpedi- 

Minor. — 12. irpo r&v TpwiK&v: Hon at the same time. — 8. roto-i 

before the Trojan war. — 15. to Sc kt4. : sc. irpocrercVajcro. 
irpos |u<ra)ippCT|s : southward, 

strictly adv. ace. M* part toward the canal at athos (CC. 22-25) 
the south. Cp. to wpos rrjv rj<a 7. 22. I. to{*to |ic*v: cp. 7. 6. 6. 

126. 5. There is no corresponding tovto 

21. 1. o48* : = Kal ov, anticipa- 8c, and tovto /licv is reiterated in 

tion of the following ovk. Cp. 7. Tavra /ma> 7. 25. 1. — 2. t&v vpA- 

101. 9-1 1, 4. 28. 19. — 2. a£icu: tmv ircpiir\ctfvr«»v : the expedition 

sc. curt, comparable to. — tC ^dp ofMardonius. See 6. 44. — 3. vpo- 

ktI. : for the rhet. questions, cToipdtcTo : sc. Bc/9^9. — ck rptAir 

cp. 7. 9. 12. — 4. juv: Hcp^T/v. . . . liAXiora : /br (lit. since) about 

— 6. cs iregdv 4TCTdx aT <> : «w* three years, ex denotes the start- 

assigned to the infantry. Dial, ing point. — 4* tov "AOmv : against 

§ 4. 3. — 7. &pa 9rpaTcvo|ic*voMri : Athos. — 4. Tfjs XcpcoWjo-ov : cho- 



23. 4 ] HERODOTUS VII 117 

Tpirjpeis, ivOcvrev 8c opfuofievot, wpwaop virb /xaoTiyaw 5 
TravrohaiTol rrjs arparifj^ SiaSo^ot 8* i<f>oiT(op • a>pva- 
<rop 8c Kal oi irepl top ¥ A0cop Karoua) [10/01. Bovftdprjs 
8c 6 Meya/3a£ou Kal * kpra)(aur)<z 6 'Apraiov dphpts 
Hepacu hreoTwreov rov epyov. 6 yap "Adas earl opos 
fieya re Kal opofiao-rop^ is Oakacrcrav KarfJKOv, oIktj-io 
fiepop vwb avdpamojp. ty} 8c reKevra is ttjp rjirtipov to 
opos, xepaoprjaoeiSis re ian Kal ia0fxbs a>s SvwScica 
oraSUop - ireStop 8c tovto Kal koXojpoI ov fieydXoi c#c 
0aXd<rj"rjs ty)s *AKap0l(op em 0d\a&aap ttjp dvriov 
Toptajrqs* ip 8c rS icrdfiw tovto), is top reXevra 615 
*A0a>s y XdpT) nokis 'EXXds ouojTai, at 8c ipTos ^dprjSj 
ccrai 8c rov ¥ A0(o qiKiqpLepai^ tcls Tore 6 Jlepo-rjs p^ctko- 
TtSa? optI r}7r€t,pQyr($(op ^p[xr t ro woielp • eial 8c a?8e, 
23 Atop, 'OXcx^v^bs, *AKp60<pop, Svggos, KXeojpai iroXies 
fiep avrai at top "AB(op p4p.opTai y wpvcraop 8c <58c* 
Saadfiepoi top x&pop ol fidpfiapoi Kara eOpea, Kara 
Xdprfp tto\ip axoiporepes Trotijcra/xcrot, C7rcirc iywero 

rographic gen., or descriptive gen. 9aX6or<rf)s . . . Topc&vt]s: i.e. from 

of place, freq. in Hdt. — 5. vwb the Strymonic gulf on the east 

|ftO0-Ttyt*v : cp. 7. 56. 2, 7. 103. 23, to the Singitic on the west. — 

7. 223. 14; Xen. A nab. 3. 4. 25. 16. 'EXXAs : used adj. freq. in Hdt., 

— 6. vavroScMrol rfjs arpanijs: = as in the poets and even in Thuc. 

iravro&HTOi OTpaTtwTcu. — 7. Bov- — oIkt)tcu : = kcitch. — al & : sc. 

fttfnp: cp. 8. 136. 5. — 8. ApTa- ciai others. — bnbs . . . "A0«: i.e. 

XcUt|t: see7. 117. — 9. *irt otAtiov : between Sane to the north and 

= ivurr(urav, only here in Hdt. — Athos to the south. The stand- 

"Afctt : 6400 feet in height, and point is between the two. 
displaying in its flora every variety 23. 3. icard 20vca: nation by 

of climate from tropical at the nation. — 4. o^oivot€V€s iroit|o-d|ic- 

base to frigid at the summit. — voi : having drawn a straight line. 

13. Tpfrrv: i,e. this district. — 4k For adj. as subst., cp. 6. 133. 15. 



118 HERODOTUS VII [23. 5 

/faded rj 8ia>pv£, oi (xev Kara>Tara corcaires wpvcrcrov, 5 
ere/oot Sc 7ra/oc8tSocrai/ rov atet e£opvo*o"d/ui€i>oi/ ^(ovv 
aXXotcrt Karv7r€p0€ eoTcaJo-i iirl fidOpcov, oi 8* a3 e/c- 
SeKOfievoi eripoisi, eiws anucovro es rovs dpcurarco • oSrot 
Sc efe^dpeoi/ re /cat i£ef3aWov. toitl \l4v vvv aXXotcrt 
tt\j)v $>oivik<ov Karappiqyvvfjievoi ol Kprjfjivol tov opvy 10 
/maros ttovov 8nrkyj&ioi> napel^op • arc yap tov t€ 
dvo) (TTo/JLaTos Kal rov Karco ra avra fierpa 7roi€Ofi€i/<op 
e/xeXXc cr<£t rotovro aTrofirj(T£<Tdai. ol 8c <I>oti>t/ce9 
<ro<j)Cr]i> ev re TolcTL aXXotcrt epyoicri diroheiKvvvrai Kal 
8r) /cat ci/ iiceCvcx) • d7roXa^dz^rc9 yd/o fiopiov ocrov avrolai 15 
c7rc^8aXXc, (opvaaov to fxev dvco aTOfxa rf}s 8id>pv)(os 
TroieovTes hnrkrjcriov fj oaov eSct avry}v ttjv 8t<opu;(a 
yeveadai, irpofiaivovTos 8c tov epyov avvrjyov atct* 
Kara) re S77 iyivero /cat cfiwroSro rotcrt aXXotcrt ro epyov. 
ivffavra 8c XeifKov eort, ti>a cr<£t dyoprj T€ cyti/cro /cat 20 
irprf)Tr\piov • crtros 8c cr^t 7roXXos e<£otra 4k r/79 'Aeries 
24 dXTjXecr/Ltci/05. a>5 /xei/ c/xe avfx/3a\\6fJL€vov evpicnctiv 

— 6. aUC: in attrib. position regu- wont to fall to them, — 17. 8i«r\Vj- 
larly for the moment, at the time, o-iov tj : construed like a compara- 

— 7. 4irl pdOpuv: //r/0// scaffolds, tive. — 19. k<5.t« Tt . . . Kal 4{i- 
on steps placed against or cut in o-ovto : Homeric parataxis = #card> 
the wall. — 8. diKicovTo : sc. 01 tc 817 y€v6fi€vov ij-tcrovTo ktL — 
7ra/)a8i8ovTcs. — 10. ol KpTjfivoC: i.e. 21. irprrWjpiov : bazaar, not else- 
the perpendicular walls of the where till Plut. — 22. o\t)\co-|i4vos : 
canal — 11. arc : as a>s 7. 22. 1. note the emphatic position of the 
— 12. plrpa: obj. of 7roico/u,a/a)v ptc 

(sc. avTO)v) and governing tov oto- 24. I . «s |*cv £pc . . . evpCo-Kciv: 

ftaros- — 13. qicXXc: it was going, abs. inf. S. 2012 d; GMT. 782. 

was likely. — 14. Kal 8t| kcU : cor- Cp. 7. 173. 22, 7. 229. 17. fiev, with 

rel. to tc, as 7. 153. 3. — 15. 00-ov unexpressed correlative clause. 

avTowri MpaWc : as much as was leaves room for ether opinions. 



25.6] 



HERODOTUS VII 



119 



fieyako<f>pocruvr)<; elvtKtv avrb Eep^qs opvoraeip e/ce'Xeve, 
iSeXcav re SvvafiLP aTroheiKvvcrdai Kal fivr)p,6orvi>a 
Xi7T€o-0(u • rrapebv yap [irjSei/a rrovov Xaftovras top 
iadfibv ras vea$ Stetpvaa^ opvao-eiv oceXevc Stcupu^as 
rr} 6a\axro"y evpos a>9 8vo rpirjpeas nXeiv ofiov eXa- 
orpeofievas. rolat Se avrolcri tovtokti ToiaC irep koX 
to opxryfia, rrpovereraKTo Kal top Xrpvfiova norafibp 
25 ^evfjairas y€<f>vpa>aai. ravra pev vvv ovrco iiroUi, 
irapeaKevd^ero 8e Kal oir\a 65 ra? ye<f>vpa$ fUvfikivd re 
Kal \evKo\Cvov, imrd£a$ ^oivi^i re Kal Aiyvwrioio'i, 
Kal atria rg arpanfj KarafidWeiv, Iva p,rj \iprjveie 17 
or parvi) /x,7j8e ra xnrolpiyia ekavv6p.eva em rrjv 'EXXaSa. 5 
avairvdopievos 8e tovs xcopovs KarafSdWtw e/ccXeve Iva 



Cp. 7. 50. II. With cru/xj8aAAd/xc- 
vov cp. conicere. — 2. afrrd: *'.*. to 
opvy/xa. — 3. KMXwv « : note the 
position of tc with the governing 
verb instead of with Svvapuv, where 
it belongs. — pvi)|i£<rvva (Att. p.vrj- 
Iuul) : poetic pi. referring to a 
single action, as in 2. 148. 1, 6. 109. 
II. — 4. tov UrOu&v t&s Was 6i€ipv- 
<rai: the first ace. dependent on 
oW, the second on the verb proper. 
Hdt. may have had in mind the 
ship transfer at the isthmus of 
Corinth, where lighter vessels were 
conveyed across the isthmus on 
rollers over an artificial roadway. 
— 6. tJ •aXac-o^ : f or the sea - — 
cfipos: in width, defined by the 
result clause following, as if ovtw 
€vp«av were written. Exactly this 



const. 2. 158. 5 cvpos oc &pvxOy 
wort Tpirjpeas Svo irXciv 6/aov 
eXaorpco/uicVas. — «s : = axrre as 
freq. in Hdt. — c'Xotrrpcouc'vas : = 
i\avvopL€vas. — 8. rhv 2rpvu<Sva: 
which empties into the gulf of 
Strymon, north of Athos. — 9. fccv- 
(javras: by joining (yoking) the 
opposite banks by means of boats. 
The ace. instead of dat. because 
of the inf. yc<£vp<oorai. 

25. 2. 8irXa: ropes or cables. 
Horn. <f> 390 mentions a rope of 
Egyptian papyrus. — pvpXivd tc 
Kal XcvkoXCvov : note the coordina- 
tion of adj. and gen. of material, 
as in 7. 34. 3. — 4. Kal o-irta . . . 
KarapdXXciv : parallel with oVAa as 
obj. of 7rapco7cci>af cto. — Xiu^vcic : 
= 7rctva)iy. Cp. 6. 28. 7. — 6. tva*. 



120 HERODOTUS VII [25.7 

iirLTrjSeorarov elf), aWov akXjj dyiviovras oXkoutl tc 
icat 7rop0fir)ioLaL etc rfjs 'Aeries iravra^od^v. rov Sk Zv 
TrktiaTOV is AevKr/v aKTrjv Kakeofievrfv ttjs %piQK7]s 
ayiveov, ol 8e is Tvp68i£av rrjv Hepivduov, ol 8e is 10 

AopLCTKOP, ol Sc €5 'HlOVCL TTjV C7TI ^TpVflOVL, ol 8c 

is Matcehovirjv Sia/reray/xexH. 
26 'Ev (5 8e ovtol rov TrpoKeipevov ttovov ipydtpvTO, iv 
tovto) 6 7T€^o5 a7ra,9 orvWeXeyfievos dfia Bipiy iiro- 
peuero is SapSis, e#c KpiraXXwz/ SpfirjOels tcov iv Karr- 
TraSoKLrj • ivdavra yap eiprjro <rvWey€<rdai irdvra rov 
tear T]7r€Lpov /neXXoi/ra a/xa avraJ Be/>£>? Tropeveadais 
orparov. bs p>£v vvv t<ov \mdpywv arparov KaXXiora 
i(TTa\)L€vov ayayojv rd TTpoKeifieva irapd ySacrtXeos 
eXa/Je 8<wpa, owe e^w <f>pdaai* ovhe yap apxqv is 

KpLCTLV TOVTOV 7T€pL IkdoVTaS OtSa. Ol 8e C7T€tT€ 81a- 

wherever. — 7. aXXov: j£, arrov. and the harbor of the (later) Am- 
— &Yiv6>vras: Att. ayovras, the phipolis. — 12. Sta,TfTa<y|ilvoi : as- 



acc. agreeing with the implied signed to different posts. 
subj. (avrovs) of Kara/JaAAav. — 

8. 84 iv: at any rate. -9. irXct- MARCH TO celaenae. wealth 

crrov: sc. crtrov. - AcvkV AktV OF PYTHIUS (CC 26-29) 

•His 0pt) K1 1s : tne promontory on 26. 3. 4k KpirdXXwv : site not 

the Propontis is thus distin- definitely known, but at any rate 

guished from that of like name somewhere on the royal road to 

in Euboea. — 10. TvpdSifcav : not Susa east of the Halys. — 4. cv- 

otherwise known. Doriscus, Eion, Oavra : eh KpvraXXau — 6. r&v 

and Therma in Macedonia were vir£px«v : see on 7. 6. 3. — 7. tA 

the next halting places of the anny irpoKcCpcva . . . Swpa : see 7. 8. 8 5, 7. 

to the west (cp. c. 58, 113, 127). — 19. 11. — 8. oi>Sk &p\4jv: see on 7. 

1 1 . 'Hi6va tt)v lirl 2tpv|mSvi : as 8. 9. ft 7. — 9. icpf<riv : certamen, as 

118. 3; Thuc. 1. 98. 1, 4. 50. 5, to 5. 5. 3. Cp. KptvecrOai 3. 120. 

distinguish from 'Hiaiv in Chalcid- 11. — 4X06vTas : sc. Tins vjrdpxovs. 

ice. It was a colony from Athens Supplem. ptc. in indir. discourse. 



27. 5 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



121 



ftdpres top "X\vv Trora/xop ojfiLXrjaav tq <f>pvyCy, 81 10 
avrrjs Trop€v6fiepoi napeyepopTO es KeXcupas, lpol nrjyal 
dvaSiSovcn MoudvSpov worafiov Kal erepov ovk eXacr- 
<rovos fj MaiapSpov, ra> ovpofia royydpzi ibp Karap- 
pT]Krr)^ 05 c£ avrrjs rrjs ayoprjs ty}s Kekaipecop 
apareWcop e$ top MatapSpop ckSiSoc • iv rg Kal 6 rov 15 
^ikrjvov Maparveco dovcos \iv ry 7rdXi] avaKptfxarai, 
top virb <&pvy£>p \6yos e^ei xmo 'AttoXXcoj/os efcSapera 
27 avaKpefia(T0r}vai. ip ravrrj ry 7roXt vnoKarijfiepo^ 
Tivdios 6 v Arvo5 dvfjp AvSos i^eipiae rrjp /JacriXcos 
arpaTLrjv iraxrap izeipiouri fieyCcrroLai Kal ovtop Beptjrjp, 
\prjfjLard re inayyiWero {$ov\6[jl€po$ cs top iroke/iov 
7rap€)(€LP. iirayyeWofiepov 8e xpyjfiara Tivdiov elpero 5 



S. 2106; GMT. 904.— 10. ty.(\i\- 
o-av: reached; of place, as 7. 214. 
1 1 ; usually of meeting with per- 
sons. The usage is poetical. Cp. 
Pind. O. 12. 19 ofxtXewv Trap oi- 
kcuus apovpais. — 11. h KcXcu- 
vA§: where Xerxes is said on 
his return march to have built 
a palace. Cp. Xen. Anab. 1. 
2. 8. — 13. KaTapptfjKTi)s : doubt- 
less so called from its falls ; Mar- 
syas in Xen. Anab. 1. 2. 8. — 
15. &var&Xt*v ( = dva8i&>vs) : as 4. 
52. 4. — 16. HiXtjvoO : the name of 
the father of Satyrs used as a gen- 
eral term for Satyr. — &<nc6s : Xen. 
uses Stpfxa {Anab. 1. 2. 8). — [iv 
tq voXi] : see App. — 17. t6v . . . 
Xrfyot 2x <i: = os Aeyerai, hence 
vjto c. gen. 



27. I. vrroKa-HjfMvos : i.e. to 
wait for the king. Elsewhere of 
awaiting an enemy, as 8. 40. 9. — 
2. IIvOios 6 "Atvo« : possibly the 
son of that unfortunate son of Croe- 
sus whose tragic fate is told by 
Hdt. 1. 34-45. The great wealth 
of Pythius lends color to this con- 
jecture, for in Cyrus' time it was 
not yet the custom to deprive con- 
quered houses of their private pos- 
sessions. But it is difficult to 
suppose that so interesting a fact 
could have escaped mention either 
by Hdt. or by any other ancient 
writer. In Plutarch {Moral. 263 f.) 
Pythius is owner of gold mines. — 
4. \pi\\kar6. tc . . . irap^xciv: jSov- 
XofAtvos may be construed as inten- 
sifying €7ray€AA.cTo, offered of his 



122 HERODOTUS VII [27.6 

Bep^rfs Uepcrecop tov$ napeopras ris re icop dpSpZp 

Uvffios Kal Kocra xPVH' aTa iKTrjfiipos iirayyeWoiTO 

ravra. oi Se &nap • *X2 ^SacnXcv, oirros ian 05 rot top 

narepa Aa/oetoi/ iScopTJcraTo rjj TrXaraviara) rfj XP V(T V 

. Kal rfj apLTrikto* 05 Kal vvv cori npcoTos avOpcontov 10 

2&Trkovr<*> t£>p rifieis i8fi€P fiera ae. Ocofidaas 8e t£)p 

€7reW to TeXevralov Ecpf^s avrbs Sevrepa etpero 

Tlvdiop oKoaa ol elr) xpyjfiaTa. 6 8e efare • *X2 /JacriXd/, 

out€ <re a7TOKpvijja) ovre CKijifjofiai to fir/ elhevai ttjp 

ifiecovTOv ovcrirjPy dXX* c7rt(rra/Lt€i/o5 rot arpe/cew? Kara- 5 

Xc£co. C7T€tr€ yap ra^tcrTa <re kiroQoprqp iirl Odkacraap 

KaTaf&aiPOPTa ttjp 'EXX-y/jaSa, /3ov\6fi€PO$ toi Sovpai c$ 

top Trokefxop xP 7 ll JiaTa ^e/iadop, Kal evpop koyt,£6fi€POS 

dpyvpiov fi€P hvo ^tXtaSa? eovcras fioi TakdpT(ov> XP 1 ^ 

aiov 8e TerpaKoo-ias /mir/naSas aTarrjptop AapeiKcop, 10 

€7rt8eovcra5 €7rra ^tXtaStoi/. Kal tovtomtL ae iyco 8<o- 

own free will (cp. 7. 29. 4, 5) ; or vfuvovfxivqv av xpvarjv ^kdravov 

we might render, he offered money oty Ikclvtjv eivai l<fyq rernyi ctkiov 

wishing to furnish it for the war. irapex*w- They were melted down 

Cp. 7. 28. 7. The same const, by Antigonus (Diod. 19. 47), but 

6. 139 9. — 6. t£s tc 4«v 4v8pwv: their fame lived on even in the 

cp. Horn, a 170 rts iroBtv ets traditions of the middle ages. 
dvSpcov. — 8. toi: poss. pron. Cp. 28. 2. avrds Scfotpa ctpcro: 

01 7. 16. 2. — 9. t^ irXaravUrrcp Pythius had presumably been ques- 

... Kal rfj apir&cp : works of tioned before by the courtiers. — 

Theodorus of Samos, of the time 4. oCtc <r€ &iroKpv\|/« : sc. rrjv c/dlcow- 

of Croesus, famous for their artistic rov ovcrirjv. Note the chiastic 

excellence and for the costly pre- arrangement of the whole sent. — 

cious stones, esp. for the grapes 5. arpaclus KaraX^w : Homeric 

of smaragdus. Xen. quotes a de- reminiscence. — 6. ©dXeunrav -rtpr 

predatory remark of Antiochus of € EX\t|vt8a : i.e. the Aegean. — 

Arcadia, ambassador to Artaxerxes 8-1 1. The whole wealth of Pyth- 

Mnemon (f/ellen. 7. 1. 38) rqv ius was, then, about $24,000,000. 



29.16] HERODOTUS VII 123 

peo/xai • avTcp 8e fioi dirb dv8pairo8cov re /cat, yecoire&icov 
29 dpK€cov iarl ySto?. 6 fiev ravra eXeye, Eepfqs 8c 
^cr0ei$ Totcri eipyjfiei/OLai etire • Ecipc Au8e, iyco entire 
i£r}\0ov tt)v Hepafiia X ( * ) P n l v i ovScpi dvhpX crvviya^a e? 
rd8c ooTt? -qOikqa-e £eiVia irpoOeivai arparco rq> ifito, 
ov$€ ootis €5 oi/itr t^ e/jt^i/ #caraords atrcTrayyeXros 5 
C5 toi/ TroXefiov ifiol r)de\ri(r€ crv/x^aXecrflai ^prjfiara, 
e£(o aeo. <rv 8c ical itjetvicras /leyaXais arparbv rbv ifibv 
KaX xPVf iaTa /**yaXa cTrayyeXXcat. crot a>*> iyco dvrl 
currant yepea roiaSc SlSco/jll • i*eiv6v re <re Troieofiat ifibv 
KaX ras rerpaKoaias fivpidSas rot r£>v ararrjpcov dno- 10 
ir\7J<r<o irap 9 ifietovrov Sovs ras C7rra ^tXtaSa?, iW /A77 
rot C7ri8€ets eaxxi at rerpaKocriat, fivpidSes errrd ^tXta- 
Saw, aXXa $ rot airaprCKoyiyf \nf ifxeo TreTrkyfpcuiievyf. 
€Krr)<r6 re avros ra irep (tiros iicnjcTG), C7rtorao"o re elvai 
alel roioSros • ov yap rot ravra iroieovri ovre cs ro 15 
rrapebv ovre 6$ yjpovov /xera/LteX^cret. 

— 12. yHMrtSfov: diminutive of 1 18-120. — 5. avTtirdyytXTOs . . . 

ycawrcSov, only here. — 13. ptos: t|9&t|o-c : see on 7. 27. 3. — 7. o-4o. 

= ftforos, as freq. in Hdt. and the <H> : epanastrophe. — 11. irap* 

poets. 4|ua>vTo3 8oiis: cp. 2. 129. 9, 8. 5. 

29. 3. 4{f|X8ov i4jv Ilcoo-CSa 3. — 13. dirapriXo^Cij : a round 

X^pt)v: rare const, for Ik c, gen. sum. Cp. Bekk. Anecd. 416 

as 5. 104. 10 i£c\06vra to aoru. dVapriAoyta, dvTiTovdTnypTioyia'os 

Cp. 7. 58. 3 2£a> tov "EAAiyorwov- *cat TrXrjprjs apiOfAOs. — 14. cktt)o-o 

tw 7rAcW, 5. 103. 9 €K7rAa)(TavTC5 . . . 4k-Hjo-» : note repetition and 

e£o> tov "EAAiJo-ttoktov, Liv. 1. contrast of tenses. See on 7. 19. 

29 egressis urbem. — dvSpl <n>W- 5. — 4-irtarao-o ctvai toiovtos: for 

|u{a : cp. 7. 153. 3 (rvufigovTes inf., see GMT. 915, 2(a). — 16. 4s 

TeXawi. — 4s rdSc : see on 7. 1 1 . 24. XP* V0V : in posterum. Cp. 9. 89* 

— 4. {fhaa irpoOctvai : for the enor- 18 qv yap vfitv is "xpovov ravra 

mous expense involved, see 7. tkkcowi p^Tap^Xrjaei. 



124 HERODOTUS VII [30. i 

30 Tavra Se et7ras /cat e7rtTeXea 7roi>;cras itropevero atet 
to irpoa'd). v Avava Se KaXeofiev-qv &pvya>v ttoXlv irapar 
fiei/Sofievos /cat XI[ivy)v e/c tijs aXes yivovTai, dirucero es 
KoXocrcras iroXiv fieydXrjp &pvyir)s • iv rfj Av/cos irora- 
fto? €5 xacr//,a 7*1* €cr/JaAAa>i> cu^ai/t^erat • enretra Stas 
araStW a>s newt [idXiaTd K-g ava<\>aiv6fievo^ e/cStSot 
/cat ouros es 7w MaiavSpov. e/c Se KoAocrcrea>i> 6 
oT/oaros opfuofievos hit tovs ovpovs rcov ®pvy5)v /cat 

Av8(0V dlTLK€TO €S KvSpapCL TToklV, £v0CL (TTTJXr) KOTOr 

7r€7r7fyvta, ora^etcra Se vno Kpotcrov, Karap/qyvei Staio 
3iypafifiar(ov tovs ovpovs. a>s Se e/c tijs <PpvyCr)s eo*e 
/JaAc es tt)i> AvStrji/, cr^i^ofiar^q rrjq 6Sot) /cat T75 ficv 
es dpKTTeprjv iirl KapCr)? <f>€pov<rr)s y r/Js Se es Se£t^i> es 
£a/)Sts, r^ /cat iropevofia/a) ZiafirjvoLi top Maiav8pov 
TTorafibp 7racra dvdyKt) yiverai /cat to/at irapd KaX-5 
Xdrrffiov ttoXlv^ iv Tjj aVSpes SrjfiLoepyoi fieXt e/c //,i//>t- 



ADVANCE TO SARDIS. HERALDS 



Ko\o<r<rla>v : cp. Xen. Anab. I. 2. 6. 

St. Paul's Epistle was addressed 

sent to Greece (cc. 30-32) to the christians of this city. In 

30. 1. cirircXla iroc/jo-as: cp. that region the river Tschuruksu 

7. 11. 7. — 2. rh irp6<ro>: = cs to still falls into a deep chasm. — 

7rpoo-(i) 7. 223. 15. — 3. ck rfjs &\cs 8. otfpovs : Att. opovs. — 9. K*- 

yCvovtcu : still true of this lake. Spapa: otherwise unknown. — 

yivovrat = pass, of iroUta. — 5. h KaTaircirTryvla, oraOcto-a Si: note 

X&o-|&a yi\s co-pdMwv . . . dva<j>aiv6- difference of tenses : standing' 

ncvos : cp. 6. 76. 5 cs \axTfjua. agaves fixed, set up. For force of 8c, see 

CKStSovtrav dva<£aiv«r0ai iv'Apyu. on 7. 8. /? II. 

— Sid: through, i.e. after an inter- 31. 3. 4s dpurrcrfv: j£. x**/* 1 * 

val of. Cp. 6. 118. 13. — 6. (iAXt- — iirl KaptTjs: toward Caria. — 

<rrd icg : cp. kov pA\icrTa 7. 22. 5. KaXXdrr|pov: site unknown. — 

3. — 7. Kal ovros: as well as the 6. dvSpcs 8-q|uo€p-yol . . . iroiiovot: 

KaTapprJKTrjs 7, ?6 ? 15. — fa $« apparently a kind of sirup made 



33.2] HERODOTUS VII 125 

K7)$ T€ KCU TTVpOV TTOUOVGL) TOLVTYjV l(DV 6 He/O^S TTjV 

68 bv edpe ir\aTdvi<JTOv> rrjv icaXXeos elveKa Scoprjad- 
[lo/os KoafZcp xpvaio) koX fiekeScovw ddapdrw dvSpl 
emTpetyas Sevreprj rjfiepr) airticero es rcov AvScov to ro 

Z2acrrv. /am/cd/ze^os 8c cs SapSis npcora fikv direnefiTre ' 
mjpvKas €? rr)v c EXXa8a cunfo-oi/ras yrjv T€ kcl1 v§<op 
teal Trpoepeovras Selni/a /Sacrikel irapaaKevdl^eiv • 7r\y)v 
ovre C5 'Adrjvas ovt€ c? AaKtSaCfiova a7T€7rc/i7rc cVt yr}<; 
avrqciv^ rrj Se aXXiy irdvrrj. rcovSe 8e et^e/ca to Scvtc- 5 
pop direiT€[nre €7rl yip tc ical vScop "<■ ocrot wporepoi/ ovk 
cSoaav Aapeuo 7r€fi\fjavTi, tovtovs irdy^y e'Sd/cei totc 
heuravras hoxreiv • fiovXofievos 3>v avrb rovro iK/xaOelp 
die/H/Seco? eire/iire. 

33 Mera 8e Tavra 7ra/oeo7ccva£€To a>s cX<Sv cs *A)8v8oi/. 
01 8e cv tovtco toi> 'EXXtj otto j>toi/ c^cvyvvcra^ c/c t?Js 

by confectioners (fy/uocpyoi) from submission. Cp. Arist. Rhel. 2. 

the sap, as from the sap of the 23 T £ ^Uvai yrjv koI v&u>p Sovkevav 

palm tree 1. 193. 28. Cp. 4. ^94- cVriv. — 4. o«rc Is 'A0^vas kt*.: 

3 iroXXw 8* 3ri ttXcov [sc. /xcXt] because before they threw his mes- 

Xeycrot &7/uo€pyous av8pas Troiav. sengers into a pit or a well and told 

— 7. TafrrnvUfcv: referring to r^s them to get earth and water (7. 
& & 8e£iqv €5 2ap8t 5 (3)— 133). — Iirl 7fjs atTt|<riv: cp. atVi/- 
8. KdXXios ctvtiea : modern travelers owras yrjv 7. 133. 2.-5. t^ aXX^ : 
have found plane trees of wonder- elsewhere as 2. 116. 8, 3. 61. 15. 
fill size and beauty in that region. Note the Herodotean, un- Attic, 

— 9. |uXcS»vf dOavdry: as per- use of the article. Without art. 2. 
petual curator, i.e. whose place at 79 . 5> 6 . 48 . 3 . _ 6 . ^^v : 6. 48. 
death was to be taken forthwith 

by another appointee. /acXc&dvos THE bridges over the helles- 

= Att. iiryukrrrrp. p ONT (CC. 33-36) 

3a. I. trpwra piv : correl. ftcra 33. 2. ot U: i.e. the Phoeni- 

Sk ravra 33. I. — 2. alrtfjo-ovras cians and Egyptians to whom this 

ifyv Ti Kal v8o>p: *>. as tokens of task had been assigned (7. 25. 3, 7. 



126 



HERODOTUS VII 



[33.3 



'Ao-fys es ty]v EvpQmr)v. coti Se ttJs Xcpaovrjaov rfjs 
iv c EXX>;o"7rdvTa>, S^otoi) re 7rdXi,os fiera^v /cat Ma8u- 
rov ? dicr*) 7ra^ea cs ddkaacav KarrJKovaa *A/8u8§> icar^s 
avTiov, evOa fiera TaSra, yjpov<$ varepov ov 7roXX$, 
em HavdiinTov tov ' Api<f>povo<z orpaTrjyov 'A0r)paL<op, 
'ApravKTrjv avhpa Heparjp XajScwrcs Stjcttov vnap^ov 
£JWa 7r/oos crcwiSa Sie7rao-craXei/o-cu>, 05 icai cs tov 
IIpo>T€(rtXca> to ipo^ e9 'EXcuoiWa dyiz>€d//,€i>os ywai-10 
34/cag adifiidTa [c/oya] epScoTce. es ravrrjv a>p ttjv 
d,KTY)v i£ 'A/3v8ov opjMOfiepoi iye<f>vpovp toIctl irpoae- 
iccito, ttjv [lev XevKoXivov Qoipuces, ttjp Se /3v/3\Cp7)v 

AlyVTTTlOl. €OTl 8c ilTTOL OTaSlOl c£ 'A/SvSov €5 Ttyl/ 



34. 3) . — 3. rfjs Xcpo-ovfjo-ov : part, 
chorographic gen. or descriptive 
gen of place. S. 1311. — 4. {uraffi : 
between its two dependent gens. 
— 5. dKTT| irax^a : a hilly, wooded 
projection flanked on either side 
by the bays of Sestus and Koila. 
— 'ApvStp KaravrCov: the prep, 
elsewhere with gen. 6. 103. 17, 6. 
118. II, 8. 52. 2. Cp. xmtvavTia 
with dat. 7. 39.9, with gen. 7. 153. 
22. — 6. xf>6v<a wrrcpov: after the 
victory at Mycale 478 B.C. See 9. 
1 1 6- 1 20. — 9. SuircunrdXcvorav : sc. 
oi "EAA^vcs, i.e. nailed with out- 
spread hands and feet. — 10. IIpw- 
rco-CXcu : who first leaped from the 
Achaean ships upon Trojan soil, 
as an offering- to the Greek cause. 
Horn. B 698-702. His tomb and 
sanctuary were at Elaius on the 
Thracian Chersonese (9. 116. 6). 



See Wordsworth's Laodatnia. — 
11. IpSco-Kc: poetic and Ionic verb 
= liroUi. 

34. 2. rourt irpo<r6eciTO : to 
whom the task was assigned ( = 
pass, of 7jy>oori077fu). Cp. 7. 39. 17 
Towrt irp<XT€T€TaKTO. — 3. i4|v \Uv, 
ttjv 8* : sc. ytyvpav from the verb. 
— XcvkoXCvov, pvpXCvrjv: coordina- 
tion as in 7. 25. 2. — 4. Ioti Si lirrd 
crrdSioi : note the sing, verb (a^jfia 
HtvSapiKov), with which a general 
subj. (the interval) is felt, defined 
by kirra. ora&tM. Cp. 1 . 26. 6 lari 
8c fjLCTcdjv riys tc imXairjq voXms 
. . . Kal tov vqov cirra ora&ot. 
S. 961 ; HA. 605. At 4. 85. 18, as 
here, Hdt. gives the width of the 
Hellespont between Sestos and 
Abydos at seven stades, and in- 
deed this narrowest part was called 
by the ancients rb cwTaoTa&ov 



35. io] 



HERODOTUS VII 



127 



amavriov. /cat 8?) i^evyfievov tov iropov inLyevofievos 5 
yeipicbv fieyas (TVP€KO\fj€ re iKelva iravra koX SieXvo-e. 

35 COS 8* ilhj0€TO Sep^TJS, Set^Ct 7TOtCOjLt€|/05 TW 'EXX^CTTrOZ/- 

toi> eiec'Xcvcrc rpvqKoaia^ iiriKicrdai \idcmyi TrXrjyas 
/cat Kartivai C5 to 7rcXayo5 7rcSea>z/ ^euyos. 77877 8e 
^/covtra a>s koX ore/yeas a/ia tovtcho-i aTr€7r€fi\jJ€ ari^ov 
ra? tw *EXX>7(r7roi/Toz/. e^ereXXcro hk 2>v pamtpvra^ 5 
Xeyciy fidpfiapd re icat drdaOaka' *£l iriKpov vSojp, 
8c(T7roTi75 rot Slktjp iTTLTL0€L nf^Se, on /uz> ^SiV^o-as 
ov8ei> 7rpo5 4k€lvov dSiKOV iraOov. Kal /JacriXevs- //,«> 
Sep^T}? hiafSrj<reral &€, yjv T€ cru yc /3ov\r) rjp re fit] • 
(jot oc Kara oucrjv apa ovdcis avup(07r<ov uvei cos co^rt 10 



(Strabo, p. 125, 591). Recent 
measurements make it ten stades, 
a difference which is to be ascribed 
to changes in the conformation of 
the shore line in the lapse of cen- 
turies. 

35. 1 . 8uvd iroic6ucvos : see on 
7. I. 5. — 2. tmKtVGai uocrriyi: 
to come down with the lash = 
ftocrrtyuxnu, and so taking ace. of 
person ("EAAiy<r7rovTov) and cog- 
nate (wXi/yas). — 3- ir&aYos: of 
the Hellespont, as 7. 54. 13. — 
vcS&v {ctiyos: fair of fetters, as 
3. 130. 13. Hdt. seems to take 
the matter literally, while Aeschy- 
lus regards the fetters as symbol- 
izing the bridges. Cp. Pers. 747 f. 
vc&u? (T<f>vpyjkaToi<; \ irtpifiakhv 
T0AA.T7V kcXcvOov rfwcrtv ttoAAw 
<rrpar£. — jjStj : etiam, as 7. 55. 13. 
— 4. oroyfat : the Hellespont was 



to be branded as a rebellious or run- 
away slave. Cp. 7. 233. 16. With 
the punishments here inflicted by 
Xerxes, cp. Cyrus' punishment of 
the river Gyndes for the drowning 
of one of his sacred horses (1. 189). 

— 5. 8c wv : at any rate, i.e. how- 
ever it may have been about the 
branding. Cp. 7. 9. y 7. — 6. &to- 
o-GaXa : i.e. v/?piori#ca, for Xerxes' 
conduct impressed Hdt. not as 
childish, but as impious and inso- 
lent toward the "sacred Helles- 
pont." — « iriKp&v v8»p : expressing 
the Iranian feeling for the salt 
water of the sea as compared with 
water that was sweet and fresh. 

— 8. irpds cxcCvov: see on 7. 2. 12. 

— cLSikov iraGdv: pass, of cLSlkov 
7rotctv. — 10. apa: then (i.e, as 
your conduct shows). Cp. 7. 130. 
8, 8. 8. 7. — Met: as to other 



128 



HERODOTUS VII 



[35. II 



Kal doXepco Kal ak/Avpcp TrorafLq. njp t€ S-q 6d\acra , av 

ip€T€\\€TO TOVTOICTI ^rjflLOVP Kal TOiV €7T€OT€c3t<WZ/ Tj} 

>£cvfi rov 'EXkrjcnrovTOv d7rora//,cu> ras icc^aXa?. Kal 
ol fiev ravra inoUop roiai irpociKeiTO avrr) 17 adapts 
Tifiijj rds 8^ aXXot ap)(iT€KTOP€s i^evypvaap • i^evypv 

€TaV 8e 58c • 7r€PT7)KOPT€pOV<S Kal T/Onf/OCaS <TVV0€PT€S 9 
VTTO fl€P T7)P 7T/)05 TOV Ev£cU>OV HOPTOV i^KOPTa T€ Kal 5 

T/OMj/cocnas, virb Sc ttjp eriprjP TCcro-cpcovcaiSc/ca Kal 
TpiriKoaias, rov fiev Hoptov iiriKapcrias, rov 8c 'EXX-qcr* 
ttoptov Kara poop, h/a ai/a/cco^cvg top topop t£>p 
ott\<op ' o~up0€pt€S 8c ayiaipas Karf/Kap 7r€pL(iT]K€as, 
tols /i€P irpbs rov Hoptov rfjs crepes t<op dpcfi&p 10 
eipocep tg>p ia"(o0€P iKTrpeoPTcop, rfjs he ereprjs 7rpos 



streams. Cp. 7. 113. 10. — 11. 
irorc&|L$: so called on account of 
its strong current. Cp. Horn. 
B 845 *E\XiyoTrovTOs ay dppoos. — 
12. r&v hncm&rav t{j {cv{i: dat. 
here, gen. with the same verb 7. 
22.9,7. 117. 3. 

36. 2. roto-i irpo<rlicciTO : cp. 
7. 34. 2. — 3. rds &: sc. yt<f>vpa<;. 
— Hcirywo-av t£c6yw<rav: note the 
epanastrophe. — 4. o-w01vtc$: *>. 
placing in line, doubtless with inter- 
vals between the vessels. — 5. wd 
l&cv H\v : sc. ye<f>vpav, the boats be- 
ing regarded as the supports for the 
real bridge, the shore-cables. — 
7. toO |&cv ndvrov {i.e. rov Ev£ci- 
vov, 5) : dependent on eTriKapaca^ 
at an angle with, as rov 'EXA^o-- 
vovrov depends on xara poov, 



down stream, i.e. parallel with. 
— 8. tva dvaKft>x<^D • • • &irX«»v: 
that it might relieve the tautness 
of the cables. The subj. of the 
verb is implied in the ptc. clause 
irevrrjKOvrepovs . . . awObrrtS) 
i.e. rf ovvOeais iw ircmyKovrc- 
piDV koX Tpirjpioiv or to wSe crw- 
duvax. rov tovov t&v ottXcdv = ret 
T€Tap.€va on-Xa. — 9. o-wMrrft 81 : 
resumes from line 4. — 10. rf|t 
£rlpT|$ : sc. ye<f>vprp, dependent on 
Tas fiev and defined by irpos rov 
Hovtov. The statement to be 
quite exact needed to mention a 
double row of anchors, since every 
ship must have been anchored, of 
course, at both ends. — 11. Ivw 
0cv: i.e. from the Propontis and 
the Euxine. — rfjs Si irlpip : short 



36. i6] 



HERODOTUS VII 



129 



€(T7rcpTj5 re /cat rov Atyaiov £e<f>vpov re /cat VOTOV 
eivc/ca. 8l€ktt\oov 8c v7r6(f>av(Tii> Kari^nrov tS>v Trevrrf 
Kovripoiv /cat Tpirjpiwv, Iva /cat cs top U ovtov exjj 6 




*.!■ NWTIS SdBiH M^ KJi 






povXojxe^o? rrXct!/ 7rXototcri Xc7rTotcrt /cat c/c rov Ilovrov *5 
W ravra Se 7rot>/cra^TC5 Karertivov c/c y^s or/oc- 

f °r Tis & tJ} s frcpi;?. — 12. M>*- 
(*» « K al v6rov ctvciea : the direc- 
tion of the Hellespont is here 
northeast and southwest ; but it 
ls difficult to see why winds from 
both quarters should be mentioned 
°nly in connection with the second 
"ridge. Hence most editors emend 
fywof the Mss. to £e<l>vpov. See 

HERODOTUS — 9 



App. — 13. SilieirXoov 8c W6<^av<riv 
KareXiirov : as a passage through 
they left an opening below, vzro- 
<l>av(Tiv, which is found only here, 
governs the gens. These open- 
ings were for the passage of small 
craft, with masts down, of course, 
since the cables and upper 
framework must remain intact. — 



130 HERODOTUS VII [86.17 






/3\ovvt€$ opolctl £v\CvoiTi ra o7rXa, ovKen X'vpi'S cicarcpa , 
T(U;avTe<z, aXXa Svo //,«/ KcvkoXlvov haadfia/oi cs cicare- 
/dt/z/, reaaepa Sc tg!z> /3v/3\iv<ov. Tra^uriy? //,cz> 17 avr>) 
Kat KaXXoi/q, Kara Xoyoi/ Sc ^1/ ifi/Spidearepa ra Xu>ea, 20 
rov TaXaz/ro^ 6 irrj^y^ clXicc. C7rciSr) 8c iy€<f>vp<A9r) 6 t \ 
iropos, Kopfiovs £v\(ov Karon pi<Tavre<; Kal TroLTjaavTes 

iCTOV? T7?S a^cStTJ? TO) CVyOCt KOCTfJbCp krW^TaV KCLTVTTepde 
TCOV Oir\(OV TOV TOVOV, 0€VT€S Sc €7T€^9 ivOdVTOL dUTlS 

€7rc£cvyz/i;oi\ iroirj a avrts 8c ravra vXtjz/ c7rc<^opijcrai/, 25 
k6(T[1(o 8c Oanes Kal tyjp vhqv yr\v i7re<f>6pr)(rav, Kara- 
vd£avT€<; 8c /cat tt)j> y^i^ (fypayfibv napeCpvaaP evdev 
Kal evOev, Iva fir) (fyofjrjrai ra virotpyia rr)v dakaacrav 
37 vTrepop5>vra [/ecu ol 4777701]. a>s Sc tcl tc t<Sz> y€<f>vp€<ov 

KaT€<TK€Va(TTO Kal Ta 7TC/01 TOV ¥ A0(OV, OL T€ ^VTOl 7TC/H 
TO, (TTOfiaTa TtyS SlCW/Ol^OS, Ot TXJS PVXfy* €IV€K€V C7T061J- 

drjcrav, Iva fir/ 7rC[nr\r)rai ra GTOfiara rov 6pvy/iaro^ 9 
Kal axjTY] r) 8i(opv£ 7ra^TcXca>5 TrenoL^fievrj ayy4Wero,$ 

17. ovouri {vXCvouri: windlasses. 24. t»v frirXwv rov t6vov: = rwv 

— ovkIti . . . rd£avrcs : no longer oir\<ov rerafievtov. — torn* Si 4«- 

arranging each kind (of cable) {fjs : repeating Koafxtp crt&oay. — 

separately, as before (c. 34) . Now 25. 4irc&cv<ywov : fastened them on, 

each bridge is to have six immense /.*. prob. with cross beams (cp. 2. 

cables, two of white flax and four 96. 8). — 26. vXtjv: boards, or 

of papyrus. — 20. koXXoWj : as 3. possibly brushwood, — 29. vmpo- 

106. 12, rarer form for xaAAos. p&vra : looking over at. See. App. 



ECLIPSE OF THE SUN 



— icard \6yov: in proportion. — 

21. toO: 0/" which, referring to 

tov \cvko\lvov oir\ov implied in 37. 2. rd iripl tov"A6»v: /A* 

Ta Xtvca, ^«j/. ad sensum. — works at Athos, in appos. to which 

rdXavrov : prob. the commercial follows ol tc yyrroX . . . if b\5>pv(. 

(Aeginetan) talent, about 82 lbs., — xv™^ breakwaters. Cp.gfya, 

not the Attic of about 58 lbs, — 3. 60. 12. — 5, irciro^jUi^ hpf&r 



•4] 



HERODOTUS VII 



131 



IvOavra x&fiepira? afta t<5 eapi napca-Kevaafia/o^ 6 
(TTyoaro? 4k t£>v XapSuov opfiaTO ikon/ c? "Afivhov. 
6pfJL7)fjL€va> £4 oi 6 17X105 c/cXt7ra>i/ rrjv 4k tov olpavov 
tSprjv d<f>avr)<z rjv ovr iiTivtfyiXwv iovrcov aWpur)s .re ra 
jxaXto-ra, avrl fificpr)? re vi>£ iyeveTo. lBovtl Sc icalio 

fLaOoVTl TOVTO TCO He/O^JJ C7T(,ftcXc5 iy€V€TO, KCU €ip€TO 

tov? fidyov^ to 64Xoi Trpo<f>aiV€LV to <£a<x/x,a. oi Se 
€<f>pa£op a>5 v EXXt/o-i wpoSeiKpiiei 6 ffebs e/cXeiuW tcov 
ttoXuov, XeyovTes rjXiov elvaL 'EXXyjvcov irpoSeKTopa, 
(reXyjvrjv Se <r<f)€(ov. raSra nvO^nevos 6 Ecpfr/s irepi-is 
38%apr)$ iav iiroielro tyjv ZXacriv. a>s 8' itjrjXavve tyjp 
orpaTirfv, HvOios 6 AvSos Ka.Tappo&iqa'as to ck tov 
ovpavov (j>dapa c/racp^ct? T€ Tolai ScDpyfiao'L iXOav 
irapa Bepfyv eXeyc ruSc* *fl SecnroTa, XP r )^ cra ^ * v TL 



Xf-ro : here, as in 6. 69. 23, the ptc. 
construed with dyyfAAw as with 
a verb of perceiving. 7r€iroLrjfitvrf 
should strictly be neut. in agree- 
ment With TOL 7T€pl TOV * 'A0<DV, but 

by a slight anacoluthon is con- 
strued with the nearest appositive 
t) o\S)pv£. — 6. 4v0avra : begins 
the leading clause. — &ua r$ capi : 
480 B.C. — 8. ttjv 4k tov ovpavov : 
for iv c. dat.j by attraction after 
€kA.i7jw, which is usually intr. in 
this serue. — 9. ovrc . . . tc : see 
on 8. a 2. — alOpfojs: temporal 
gen. in clear weather, or sc. iov- 
0-779. — IO. tSrfvri Si Kal ua06vrt : 
note the pleonasm. — 12. to 04\ow 
*po+aCv€iv : what it wants to por- 
tend) attributing will or choice to 



something inanimate (to <j>da-fm) 
as often in Hdt. to (rel.) for 6 ti 
or rt, as freq. in Hdt. — 1 3. 6 0c6$ : 
i.e. 6 77A.10S. — 14. irpo&KTopa : 
foreshower, only here. Compare 
the soothsayers' assurance to the 
soldiers of Alexander alarmed at 
an eclipse of the moon in Quint. 
Curt. 4. 10. 1, solem Graecorum, 
lunam esse Persarum; quoties 
ilia deficiat, ruinam stragemque 
Hit's gentibus portendi. 

PETITION AND PUNISHMENT OF 
PYTHIUS (CC. 38, 39) 

38. 2. t6 4k tov ovpavov 4>ao*ua : 
Ik for iv to indicate the place from 
which the phenomenon appeared. 
— 4. ti o-4o • . . tvxcIv : cognate 



132 HERODOTUS VII [3d. 5 

<T€0 f3ov\OLfLT]V TV)(€lv, TO (Tol fl€V i\a<j>pOV TVy^dv^l 

ibv' V7rovpyr}<rai, i/xol Sc fieya yevofievov. Hc/o^tjs 8e 
7rap fiaWop So/ccW fiiv xpr)L(T€Lv rj to iSerjOr), ecf>r) T€ 
vTTovpyrj(T€iv koX 8^ ayopeveuv c/ccXei/c orco Seotro. 6 
8c iireure Tavra rjKOvae, ekeye OapoTJaas t(£8c • *fl 8e 
<nroTa, royyavovdi fiou TralSes coi/tcs newe, kclC <r<j>easio 
KaTa\a[i/3di/€L TravTas a/ia crot o m TpaTcv€O'0ai iirl Trjv 
'EXXaSa. <rv 8e, a> /JacriXei), c/ie cs toSc 17X1*1175 
rJKOvra ot/crctpa? 7W jlloi 7ratSa>^ cVa irapakvaov Trjs 
(TTpaTifjs tov irp€<rf$vTaTOV) u>a aurov tc e/^eo icai tw 
Xprj/jLaTtoV rj /AcXeSawog. tov<; 8c Tco-crcpas aye dfia^ 
39O*ca>vT0) icai irprji;a<z tol voeis vo&Trjcreias owlctc*. Kapra 

T€ idvfKoOr) 6 Sc/> f rj? KCU OLfl€L^€TO TO(,0"t8c ' *fl KOJCC 

dvOpwire, crv croX/z/r/cras c/ieo CTpaTevofievov avrov im 
tyjp 'EXXaSa /cat ayoyros 7ratSas ifiovs kclI aScX^cou? 
/cat oIktjlovs kolI (frikovs fivrjaacOai irtpl ado 7raiSds, 5 
ia)P i(ib<; SovXos, tov XPV V ttwolkuq avrrj yvvaucL avve- 
TT€(rdaL ; ev vvv toS* c^C7rwrracro ? a>s cV Totcrt axrl t£>v 
avOpdmoiv oIk€l 6 6v[i6s 9 05 ^pijora /icV a/cowra? Tip- 
xfjios ifnrnrkel to <x<S/za, virei/avria Sc tovtouti a/cowra? 

ace. and gen. of source. — 5. rba-oX f«>i iraC8»v: the dat. is poss., as 

. . . yevdpevov: .the rel. is subj. of rot 7. 27. 8. 

rvyxavei, the inf. being explanatory 39. 5. trtpX crio trcuhds: atout 

and the ptc. yevd/u.cvov conditional, a son of yours, for irf.pl ttcuSos <rco^ 

Cp. Theog. 14 aol fiev tovto, Ota, to contrast emphatically with ifito. 

afxiKpov, ifwl §k fteya. — 7. rh The usual emphatic order o-e'o irepl 

4Sc4)0t] : cogn. ace. ; usually gen., 7r<u8ds is avoided on account of 

as just below. — 11. KaraXapPdvci : fivrjcracrOai. — 6. iravoiKC-g : adv. as 

it chances, Cp. 7. 155. 2. — 12. k 8. 106. 12, 9. 109. 8. — crtrjj -y»- 

t68c t)\mc(t]s: to this time of life. vchkC : wife and all. S. 1525; HA. 

Cp. €s rdSc 7. II. 24. — 13. t&v 774. — 9. farfvavrCa tovtowt.: for 



40.8] HERODOTUS VII 133 

avoiSei ore fiii/ vvv xprfora iroirjaas itepa rotavraio 
C7njyy€\Xco, evepyecr i-gai /Sacnkea ov Kav^rjaeai virep- 
j8aXco*0ai • incur*. Sc cs to dvaihiaTtpov irpdneo^ ttjv 
fiev a£Cr)P ov \dfi\fjeai, ikdcraa) Sc rrjs a£ir)<$. ere [iev 
yap teal tovs rco-crc/oas tcov Trafowv pverai ra fcuna • 
tov Sc ivos, tov irepii^eai /AaXiora, Tjj $VXV &lfu<*>cr€ai. 15 
a>s Sc ravra v7rc/c/otVaro, atri/ca c/cc'Xcvc Tola Trpocrerc- 
tclkto raCra Trprjco'eiv, t<ov livdiov 7raiSau> cfcv/ocWas 
tov wpeo-fivTaTOP fiicov Stara^ct^, SiaTa//,6Was 8c ra 
rjfiLTO[ia oiaueivai to [lev em ocgta ttj? ooov, to o C7r 
toa/Horcyoa, zeal raurjj SicfieVai toj> CTpaTov.f Trovqadv 
Ttov 8c toutow roSro, jLtCTcl raOra Sicfjyc 6 oT/oards. 
TjyeovTO Sc irpoyroi fiev oi aicevocfropoL T€ /cat ra v7ro£i/- 
yia, ftcra 8c tovtous crrparo? iravToiayv iQviw dvafiC^ 9 
ov SiaKeKpifievoL • T77 8c vireprniuret^ qcav, IvOavra 5 
SteXcXct7TTO, zeal ou o-vpefiiayop ovtol /JacriXci. irpor)- 
yiovro fikv 81) vmr&r ai \i\ioi c/c Hepaetov irdvTwv diro- 
Xckeyfia/OL • //,erd 8c ai^jio^opoi yikioi, /cat ovroi c/c 

dat. see on 7. 33. 5. — 10. dvoifct : 

sc. X 6K V . Cp. Horn. 1 646 otidvtra,. 0RDER 0F MARCH < CC - *>> + 1 ) 

KpaSCrj X^V* ~~ ^"P* Toiowa : *.*. 40. 3. irpwrot : pleonastic after 

Xprjord. — 12. Is to . . . iTodirco: ^yeovro. — 4. o-Tpards: Jr. $u£f}e. 

cp. 7. 16. /? 2. — 13. \d|u|rcai: — &va)&((, ov SiaKCKpipivoi : i.e. the 

Dial. § 4. 8. — 14. fd {cCvia: cp. several nations formed separate 

7.27.^2. — 15. lr\\u&cr€a\.: flit. mid. corps, but these marched without 

with pass, force. Cp. Darius' any regular order. Such juxtapo- 

similar conduct on a like request, sition of positive and negative ex- 

4. 84. — 18. Siara|utv, Siarapdv- pressions is frequent in Hdt. Cp. 

Tat hi : epanalepsis or repetition 4. 161. 2 x«A.ds tc cwv kcu ovk apri- 

emphasizing the immediate sue- 7rovs. — 6. SicX&ciitto : an inter- 

cession of events. Cp. 7. 43. 7, val was left, impersonal, as 7. 41. 

7. 56. 2, 7. 60. 12. 14. Cp. 6. 112. 1. — 7. limrfrai: 



134 HERODOTUS VIJ [40. 9 

ttAvtwv auroXekcyfiii/OLy tcls \6y\as kolto) cs rr/v yrjv 
Tpfyavres • fiera Se Ipol tiv/aaioi KakeofitvoL imroi 10 
Se/ca, K€KO(Tfir)fia/OL a>s /caXXiora. Nrjacuoi Sc icaXe- 
ovrai lttttol in l rovSe • cirri 7rc8u>z> /icy a rrjs MrjSiKrjq 
TO) OVVO/ld COTl NtJCT(UOI> • TOV5 a>z> St) Imrovs rdv? 
fieydkovs <f>ep€i to ireDiov tovto. omcrde. 8c tovtcov 
tcov Sc/ca i7nra)z> a/3/xa Atos ipoy €7T€Tera/CTO, to 17^0115 
/x,cz> cl\/coz> Xcv/col 6kt(o } omcrde 8c av tcoz> XinriDv eltreTO 
7T6^ ^pto^o? i)(6[i€vos t£)v xpXivwv • ovScls yap 8t) 
C7rl tovtov tov Qpovov dvOpamcov avafiaivei. tovtov 8c 
omcrde avros Hcjo^s eir apfiaTOs 177770)1/ NTjcrawwi/ • 
irapefiefirJKei Sc 01 rjvio)(o<; tco ovvofia fjv UaTipd[ji<f>r)<;,2Q 
'Orai/ea) 7rcus avSpbs Hepcrea). 
41 'E^Xacrc //,ci> ovrco 4k Sapbicov Sc/0^5, //,erc#e- 
/SaiveaKe 8c, okgds /up Xoyos alpeoi, 4k tov ap/ia/ros 

Att. t7T7rct5. — 9. kAtw: as a sign tovSc: as 7. 83. 4, more freq. in 
of especial respect. Cp. 3. 128. 18. Hdt. with verbs of naming than 
— 10. IpoC : i.e. sacred to Mithra. a-rro (cp. 7. 74. 7), which is the 
NT)<ratoi: mentioned also 3. 106. Attic const. — 15. Ai6s: Ahura- 
8, 9. 20. 5 ; famous for size, speed, mazda. — 18. 0p6vov: for Sfypov, 
and endurance. The Niyo-cuov chariot-seat. Cp. Horn. £ 48 'Hws 
wcSlov was, perhaps, the Nicaya ivQpovos. — 20. irapcPcfHjicci ol (lit. 
mentioned in the inscription of i had mounted ') stood beside him. 
Behistun, which was prob. in Cp. Horn. A 522 "E/cropi Trap- 
southwestern Media, for in that /?€j3a<os. Usually distinction is 
region were royal stables where made between the warrior (rwpa- 
the most excellent horses were /?ar^s) and charioteer (1/ videos), 
raised (Strabo 525 ; Diod. 17. no ; Cp. Pollux 1. 141 cVi/Se/^Kcun Sc 
Arr. Anab. 7. 13), and where still tov apfjua.Tc.lov $i<f>pov rjvioxos ko1 
on the plains great herds graze. 7rapa/?aTi^. 

But nothing is certain about the lo- 41. 1 . pcrcicpaCvcoricc : iterative 

cality, and the name was applied to impfs. in <r#c regularly omit aug- 

several other quarters. — 12. cirl meht. — 2. &k»s |hv \dyo« aipcot: 



42. 4 ] HERODOTUS VII 135 

€5 dppdpa^av. avrov 8c ottktOz alxpo<f>6poi Ilc/ocrcW 
ol dpiaroi re Kal yswaivraroi ^tXtot, /caret vopov t<xs 
\6y\as exovres, perd 8c imros dWtj x L ^V * K Hc/ocrcW 5 
a7ro\€\€.yn€vr), pera 8c ttjv Imrov c/c tcov \oittu)v IIc/o- 
<reo)v diro\<e\eypa/oi pvpioi. ovros 7rc£6s rjv • Kal tov~ 
Ttav x^toi pkv iiri toZcti Sopaai avrl tcdp (Tavpwrrjpoiv 
poias el)(Ov x/n/crcas Kal irepii <tw€k\7jop tovs dXXovs, 
ol 8c €xvaKi(T)(iKioi evros tovtwv iovres apyvpias poias 10 
el)(pv. el)(OP 8c ^pi/crcas poiag zeal ol cs r^ yrji> 170a- 
novres ras Xay^a?, /cat ///fJXa ol a/y^ara ewopevoL 
BcjP^tjl rotcrt 8c pvpioi(Ji iirereraKTO tWos Il€/oo"cW 
fivpur). perd 8c tt)v linrov 8icXcXct7rro Kal 8vo crraSious, 
42 /cat circira 6 Xowros 0/11X05 #c dvapi£. iiroieiTO Sc 
rr)i> 68ov 4k rfjs AvSitj? 6 or/oaro? inC T€ irorapbv 
Kolkov Kal yrjp rfjv Mvo*£rjz>, 0,77*0 8c Kat/cov oppdipevos, 
KdVr/? 0/005 c^w*' «> apicTTeprj, 8ta fov 'Ara/o^co? cs 

<w <?//V# *w reason persuaded him, pres. ptc. here indicates the custom. 

*>. whenever there was ground for — 12. jifjXa: (j*. xpwa) hence 

it. o#ca>s with iterative opt. as 7. called fnjKo^opoi. Cp. Athen. 12. 

6. 20. — 3. dpuduofav: a covered 514 C7rt twv orvpaKwv piyAa xpvaa 

traveling carriage. — afrroO 8c £iri- exovres. — 14. SicX&ciirro : cp. 7. 

a*€: cp. 7. 40. 18. 2«rtJ/-prepo- 40. 6. — Kal 8*o: kcu, vel, thus 

sitions have much freedom of often with numerals — 15. ftpiXos: 

position. — 4. wwd vdpov : i.e. Ionic and poetical, though freq. in 

ava> in contrast with Kara) (7. Thuc. 
40. 9) . — 7. (rfptoi : the so-called 

dfldmroi (7. 83. 4). -8. <ravp«- MARCH T ° ILIUM AND ABYDUS 
rfjpvv : spikes on the butt end of ' cc ' 4 2? 43 >) 

spears. Homer's term is ovptax°?> 42. 2. iroTa|idv Kducov: re- 

Attorvpaf.— II. itxov. ctxovSt*: verse of Attic order.— 4. Kdvrp 

note the epanastrophe. — Kal ot Spos : rare gen. for Kavry opos. 

. . . Tpdiro vt€$ : cp. 7. 40. 9. The S. 1322; HA. 729^. — Sid toO 



136 HERODOTUS VII [42. 5 

Kapyjvrjv irokiv. diro 8c Tavrrjs 81a (Bb^Srjs 7rc8ibv5 
iiropevero, 'Arpafivrreiov re iroKiv /cat * KvravSpov rfjv 
IlcXaaytSa 7rapafi€i{i6fL€PO<;. tt)p ¥ l8r)p 8e Xaficov cs 
apLcrTeprjP X € W a V € * s T V P IXiaSa yV p ' Ka ^ irp(*>ra 
fiev oi vtto ttj *\§rj vvktol avafxeivavTL fipovrai re Kal 
7rpr)OTf)p€s iirecnTLirTovcri Kai tip a ovtov ravrg trvyyov 10 
4t3ofLi\ov f>i€<j)0€ipav. amKOfievov 8c rov arparov iirl 
TTorafibv ^Kdfiav8pov y 05 irp&Toq 7roTa[iS)p 9 entire 4k 
Xaphiojp 6pnr]0€PT€<z iire)(eipr)(Tap t-q 6Sa>, C7rcXi7rc to 
peWpop ovS* air€)^py)(T€. ttj arpaTLrj re Kal toIotl kttJp£<ti 

TTlPOfiepOS, C7TI TOVTOP 8^ TOP TTOTajXOP 0>S a7Tl/C€TO Hc/> 5 

(P7S, cs to Hpidfiov THipyafiop dp€J3rj Ifiepop i^cov 
OeTJaraaOaL. derjcrdfiepos he Kal irvdofievo^ eKetPcov 
cicacrra ttj 'Adrjpair) 777 'iXiaSi edv&e /Joi/s ^tXta?, x ^ 
8c oi fidyoL Tolai rjpwcri c^cai/TO. Tavra 8e TrotTjcrafte 
POMTL PVKTOS <f>6/3o<; C? TO (TT paTOTTthop €^C7rco*c. a/ia IO 

'Arapv&s 4$ Kap4jvr)v: cities of 43-3* br&iirc to £cC0pov: sc. 

Mysia. — 5. Sid 0^pTj$: near the ttjv OTparirjv. Cp. 7. 21.4. ropct- 

Adramyttian Gulf, birthplace of Opov ace. of specification. — 5. bc\ 

Andromache. Horn. Z 397. — tovtov . . . H^of^s: resumption of 

6. "AvravSpov: cp. Verg. Aen. 3. first clause with changed order, 

6. — 7. ttjv w I8t]v . . . x ct P a: *•*• subject, and construction. — 6. Is 

along the eastern side of Gargaron, rh Ilpidf&ov IRp<ya|M>v : i.e. the cita- 

the highest peak of the ridge of del of Troy (Horn. IIcpya/Aos 5*/^) 

Ida. Cp. Xen. Anab, 7. 8. 7, on Hissarlik. — 7. 4kc£v»v iKeurra : 

where the Ten Thousand take the i.e. the legends of Troy. — 8. Tfj 

same course in the opposite direc- 'A6r|valxi : cp. Horn. Z 297 ff. For 

tion. — 9. ppovrcU: see on 7. 10. other notices of the continuance of 

8. Cp. Horn. © 75 f. avrbs 8* i£ this cult, see Xen. Hellen. 1. 1.4; 

*I8t7$ p-*yaX €ktvtt€, Sato/xcvov 8c Arr. Anab. I. II. 7.— x°*« • • • 

I f)KC creXa? p,cra Aadv 'A^aiaiv. — roto-i t)pa><ri : /.£. libations to those 

10. irpT]<rTfjpcs : Att. Ktpavvo{. who fell at Troy. — 10. ^60os: as 



i 



46.i] HERODOTUS VII 137 

VP^PV ^ eiropevero ivffarrev, ip dpiaTepy ficv direpywp 
'PoiTCtou irokw Kal *O<f)pvP€i0p Kal AdpSavov, tj irep Stj 
/A/8vSa> ofiovpos corn, ip Sc£i# 8c TipyuOas Tcv/cpovs. 
44 'Eire! 8' iyevero ip 'AjSvSw, rjOeXyja-e Bepdrjs ihevdai 
irdpra top arparov. Kal irpoeireirourjTO yap iirl ko\cd- 
H vov cVit^Scs avT(p ravrrj irpoe£i8pr) \fflov XevKov 
(iiroCrjcrap 8c 'AfivSirjpol ipTetXa/iipov irporepop fiacri- 
Xeos), ipOavra a>s i^cto, Karopcop iirl rrjq tjlopos idrfeiros 
Kal top ire^bp Kal Ta? peas, Orjeofiepos 8c ipipOrj rcop 
p€wp ajjiiXkav yipofieprjP ISiaOai. iirel 8c iya/ero re 

Kal iPLK(OP &OLPLKCS SlS(OPLOL, fjcT07) T€ TTj CLfJLlWr) Kal 

45177 (TTpaTir}. a>s 8c a>pa irdvra fiep top 'EWijcriropTOP 
virb t<op pccop diroK€Kpvfifi€POP 9 irdcras hk tols d/cras 
Kal ra 9 A/3vSrjpo)p ireSia iirCir\ea dpOpwircop, ivdavra 6 
Hcp^Tjs iwvrop e/za/ea/Hcre, fiera 8c tovto ihdKpvcre. 

46fia0(ov 8e flip 'Aprdfiapos 6 iraTpax;, 65 to irpwTOP 

7. 10. c 7. — 11. Airlpyctv : keeping, the hill Mal-tepe on the promontory 

as 7. no. 3; commonly used of ofNagara. — 3. 4irtTT)$€s a$r$ : ex- 

boundary mountains, rivers, etc. — pressly for him. — ravr^: repeat- 

12. 'PoCthov ktI. : cities on the ing and emphasizing cVi koXwvov, 

Hellespont. — 13. T^ryiOas Tcv- unless Abresch's conjecture av- 

Kpovs: the people of IVpyis (or tov be adopted, ainov Tatfrn, 

TcpyiOos or TipytOa) are called right there. — irpoc£&pr| : elsewhere 

TevKpot because they claimed de- irpothpiq. Cp. Darius viewing the 

scent from the Trojans. Cp. 5. crossing of the Bosporus (4. 88) 

122. 8 ctXc 8c TipyiQas tovs vtto- and Xerxes at the battle of Sala- 

Xa<f>Ocvras twv apyaimv TevKp&v. mis (8. 90). — XCOov Xcvkov : i.e. 

of marble. Gen. of material. — 

XERXES REVIEWS THE HOST $. Mr^s favos: jjltv = alyui\6s. 

WITH CONFLICTING EMOTIONS __ 6> ^^ . = ^fl^o^ as 3. 

(CC. 44, 45) 123.2,6. 120. 4. — 9. rfj expand: 

44. 2. fcrl koXwvoO: doubtless the fleet, as 7. 97. 5. 



138 HERODOTUS VII [46. a 

ypw/irjp cwrcSefaTO ikevOepcos ov av/ifiovXevtov Bcp£y 
orpaTevecrOai inl ttjp 'EXXaSa, ouros a>vr)p <f>pa<rdel<z 
Ueptjrjv ScucpvuravTa eipero rdSe • *fl /SatnXa), a>$ 
iroWbv d\Xi]\(ov K€)(oipicrii4va ipydo'cj vvv re kcus 
okiyco irporepov • fiaKapicras yap cecovrbp Sa/cpvet?. 6 
8c elire • 'EcrfjXOe yap fie Xoyicrd[iepop Karotfcretpat a>s 
fipaxys elrf 6 7ras dpOpdmwos )8tbs, et tovtodi/ yc eovrcov 
TocrovTWP ouSels cs kKaroo-rbp eros irepiicrrai. 6 Sc 
a/iei/Jero Xeyw "Erepa tovtov irapa ttjp lfn)V 7T€7rdu-io 
dapev olicrporepa. iv yap ovrco /3pax& /8ta> ouSels 
ourcu dpffp (ottos icjv evSaifKOP ire^vKe, ovre tovtwv ovre 
tcop dXXwp, T(o ov TrapaorrjO'erai ttoXXokls /cat ovkI 
aVaf redpdpai ftovXeaOai fiaXXov rj tfittw. at re yap 
avjJi<f)opal Trpoo'TrinTova'ai /cat at pov&ol awrapdaaov 15 
crat /cat fSpaxyp iopra fiaicpbp hoKelv elvai ttouovcti 
top ftiov. ovto) 6 fjikp Bdparos fio^ffrjprjs coveys rfjs 



CONVERSATION BETWEEN XERXES 



— irapd tt|v l&i\v: in the course 
°f tif e - C P« !• 3 2 « l & 'rapa ra 

AND ARTABANUS (CC 46-52) .,,« / * ,T 

46. 3. ovtos wvtjp 4>pa<r9c(s: gnomic perfect. — 12. ovra: em- 
resuming imOiov Si piv ' A . — 4. as phatically separated from cvSaifumr. 
iroW&v . . . irpdrcpov: how differ- — 13. irapao*rij<rcT<u : will occur } \\t. 
ent from one another were your i stand by.' Cp. iirijXdt above. — 
acts just now and a little before. iroAAdius ical ovkI &ira( : for juxta- 

— 7. &rfj\0c «ydp |&c : for it came position, see on 7. 40. 4. — 14. Tt0- 
upon me, i.e. into my mind. With vdvou povAccrOcu jiaXXov r\ {6uv: 
the whole sent. cp. Eur. Afed. 931 cp. 1. 31. 17. For similar senti- 
elcrrjXOe fi oiktos el yevrjaerai tclSc. ments, cp* Theog. 425 ; Bacchyl. 

— 7. ws Ppa\vs etij kt4. : depend- frg. 3; Soph. 0.C. 1225; O.T. 
ent on Aoywra/u.€vov. — 9. oi&Cs: 1186; Aj. 125; Plato, Axioch. 
after ci,see on 7. 9. 1 1. — 10. tov- 366 ff. ; Cic. Tusc. 1. 48. — 
tov : depends on the comparative. 17. ovtm & \uv ddvaTOs ktL : cp. 



48.2] HERODOTUS VII 139 

£017$ Karcufwyrj aiperayrdrrj tgJ dvOpamcp y&yove, 6 Se 
0€o$ ykvKvv ycvtxas rbv alcova <f>0ov€pbs iv airco evpi- 

47 (TK€T(U i(&v. Ecp£*?S 8c d/iei/Hero key<ov • 'Apra/Save, 
jSiorijs /ACy i/w av0pG)7n)ir)s 7rc/H, iovarjs ToiavTr/s, 
oitji> 7TC/0 crv Siai/oc'ai cXpou, iravacofieda, /x/yjSc kolkwv 
fi€pvco/x€0a xprjara c^oircs tt pr\y fxara iv X € P <r ^' 
<f>pdarov 8c /uloi rdSc et rot 17 ot/as rov ivwrviov fir) $ 
ivapyrjs ovt<o i<f>dvrj, cl^cs av t^j> apxauqv yv(opr)v, 
ovk £5>v fie arpareveadai irrl ttjp 'EXXaSa, fj fieTcaTTf^ 
dv ; <f>epe tovto fioi drpcKeo)^ €t7T6. 6 Sc dfiei^ero 
\ey(ov • *Xl /JatxiXcv, otyis /xc*> 17 eTTifyavelcra rov ovtipov, 
C05 /3ovk6[i€0a dfJi(f)6T€poi 9 TcXcinfcrctc • eya> 8' en ical 10 
C5 toSc Set/maro? ci/u u7ro7rXeo5 ov8* eVros ipewvTOv, 
aXXa tc 7roXXa c7riXcydfL€i>o$ ical 8^ kolI opcov rot 8vo 

48ra fieyLora wdvrajv iovra noke/iKoraTa. Hcpfijs 8c 
7T/)05 Tavra d/xcijScro tomjiSc • Aai/xdpic aj/Spw, icota 

Aesch. frg. 343 a)9 ov &Kaia»s Odva- fi€fiv€o 5. 105. 13. — xf >T l " r * • • • 

rw iySovfn fipvrol \ oWep ftcyt- *v xcfxrt : when matters are pros- 

orov fivfia r&v woAAtov kcucwv. — perous, — 7. |ict6ttt)s : J£. tt}s 

19. •yXwcw ycWa* tov al&va: hav- yvtofirjs = ficrtyvtos (7. 15. 6), as 

ing given a taste of the sweetness 1 . 118. 10. — 11. Ivtos t|&c<ovrov : at 

of life (life as sweet). For the myself compos mentis. Cp. 1.119. 

sentiment of the passage, cp. 1. 32. 25 i8o>v oc ovtc ijjeirXdyrj, ci/tos tc 

50 voAXourt yap &y viroSc&is o\fiov cawrpi) ytvcrat. — 12. £iri\cy6>cvos : 

6 fleos irpopptfovs averpet^e, and considering, freq. in Hdt. — ical 8t| 

Prat. il/<?r. 1 107 Tots cv8o/ci/xctv ica(: after aAAa adds something 

&Mcovo-t 8e\cop Am Avm7« to with esp. emphasis. Cp. 7. 23. 14, 

rfim ycvoficvois wv aTcp-qaovTai. — 7- I 53- 3- — Wo tA pi-ywrTa : note 

h **ry : therein. the order, as 7. 129. 10, 7. 149. 15. 

47. 3. Suuplat: see on 7. 16. 48. 2. 8<u|t6vic dv8p«v: as 4. 

y 2. — 4. |M|u^|uOa: as if from 126. 3. Cp. Horn. £443 oai/xovtc 

fUftvofuu, us Horn. ( 168. Cp. fetVwv. — Kola Tavra \*yci$ : short 



140 HERODOTUS VII [48. 3 

ravra Xeyct? elvai 8vo fioi 7roX€fiL(orara ; Korepd tol 6 

7T€^05 /UL6/UL7TT05 KOLT(L TO 7r\r}06s i(TTL> KCU TO 'FXkr/PLKOV 

(TTpaTevfia <f>aivercu TToWairXrja'iov iaeadai tov fi/iere-s 
povy fj to vavTiKov to rjfierepov XetyecrO at tov eKtivwv, 
fj Kal (Tvvafx<f>6T€pa ravra ,• ei yap tol Tavrjf <f>aiv€Tcu 
iv8eeaT€pa elvai tol r/fieTepa TrpyjyixaTa> orpaTOv av 
aXXov ns rfjp Ta^LCTr/v dyepaw ttol4olto. 6 8* dfiei- 
49 fiero Xeycjv • *fl /JacriXcv, ovt€ dTpaTov rovroi/, ocrns 

y€ (TVVeCTLV C^Cl, fl€fX(f)OLT OLV OVT€ TO)V V€WV TO w\f}0O$. 

rjv T€ irXiovas crvXXefjys, ra 8vo tol to, \eyco 7roXXa> eri 
iroXe/juayrepa yiverai. ra 8c Svo ravra iari yrj re Kal 
Oakacrcra. ovre yap ty}s 0aXacr(rr/9 carl \ifirjv toctov- 5 
tos oi8afi60i> a>5 iyco ei#ca£a>, ootis iyeipofievov ^€1/xg>- 
1/05 hetjdfievos aeo tovto to vavriKov (frepeyyvo? corat 
8tacr(3crat ra? i/cas. #ca trot ov#cl ei/a avrov Set elz/at 
[roi> Kifieva'jj dXkd irapa iraaav ttjv rjirtipov Trap fjv 
8rf KOfjLi^eou. ovk 2>v 8t) iovTtov tol Xifievcov inroSeguov, 10 
fid0e otl at (rufK^opal t5>v dvOpwircov dp^ovaL Kal ovkI 

for nova. iart. ravra a A eyas. S. when deictic freq. omits the art. in 

2647; HA. 1012 a. — 3. Korcpa: Hdt. — 5 . otfrf : correl. in changed 

utrnm. — 4. |M|urr&s K<vrd to irXf)- form at 14. — 7. ^cp^yyvos fcrrcu: 

60s: cp. 1. 77. 3 fJLCfi<f>OeU Kara to will be sure (lit. * security for'). 

irkrjOos to wvrov arpdrevfia. — Cp. 5.30. 16; Thuc. 8. 68. Ionic 

5. iro\\air\4j<riov : construed as and tragic term. The fear was 
comparative. Cp. 7. 23. 17. — justified later (7. 188, 8. 12, 13). 

6. Xctyco-Ocu tov iiccCvcav : cp. Horn. — 8. Jfva avTov : one only. Cp. 
\F 522 to<t<tov $rj Mcvc'Aaos afxvfxo- 7. 130. 4. — 10. «v Wj : cp. 7. 
vos 'AvTtAdxoto ActVcTo. — 8. t& 40. 13. — viroScgfov: only here, = 
rj^Tcpa irp^j-yiiaTa : = Svvafiis. — VTrobeKeaOai 8uva/xeVcoi>. — II. on 
9. ttjv ra\Urn\v : sc. bhov. — a-yep- ai <ru|i<t>opal . . . r&v o-u|uf>opl<i>v : cp. 
o*iv itoicoito: see on 7. 5. 5. Solon's remark to Croesus, 1. 32. 

49. I . orpaTov tovtov ; the dem, 22 irav i<rn av6parwo% vvfi^opnrj, — 



50. 5 ] HERODOTUS VII 141 

wvOpamoi t£)v (rvfuftopewv. teat S77 t<ov Svo tol tov 
erepov eiprj/xevov to erepov ep^ofxai ipewv. yrj 8r) 
TToXe/jLir) rjjSe tol icartWarat • el 0e\eL tol /xrfSev avri- 
i*oov KaTacrTfjvaL, Toaovrco tol yiveraL woXefXLayreprj 15 
oca a> Trpo/SaLvrjs eKacrTepa) y to wpoaco aid Kkeirro- 
fievos • €impri£ir)s 8e ovk Iecttl avOpamoLCL ovSe/iia 
ifky}6^pr). /cat 817 rot, w? ouSci/os ivavTLOVfia/ov, Keyo) ttjp 
X&pyv irkcQva Iv irkeovL yjpovtp yLvo^4vr)v Kl/jlov Te£e- 
crdai. avrjp 8c ovto) ai/ eliq dpiaro^ el fiovXtvofievos 20 
(jl€v appcoSeoi, wav hriKeyofJLevo^ ireia-eadaL XPVf 1 ^ * v 
5o8c t<5 epy<*> Opaavs €117. dfJL€L^eTaL Ecpfqs TOtcriSe* 
'Apra/Jcwc, oikotgjs /xev cv ye tovtq>v c/caora Siai/oeai, 
dra/o /X7JTC ttolvtol (f>o/3eo fii]T€ wav o/aoiojs cViXeyco. ci 
ya/> 8^ fiovXoLO iirl t<o alel eTreafyepoixeva) TrprfyfiaTL to 
irdv 6/xouo? eirikeyeadaiy Tronfcreias ai> ouSayua ouSa> • 5 

12. Kal W| : and now. Cp. wv 817 tolctlv. — 18. ir\i)Q<apr\ : term bor- 

just above. — 13. Spxojicu ip&ov: rowed from medicine. — «s: sup- 

I am going to say, Cp. 2. 40. 4, posing that, — tt|v \c&pT|v . . . 

3. 80. 25, 7. 102. 9. — 14. 6&ci : T^corOai : i.e. the distance from his 

cp. 7. 10. 8 7. — &vt(£oov : Att. base of supplies in Asia becoming 

havTiov, — 15. iroXfjHwWprj : cp. even greater, famine will ensue. — 

Aesch. Pers. 792 avriy yap 17 20. ovrw: explained in the fol- 

yrj (vfifiaxp9 icctvois ir£\ei . . . lowing el clause. — cl f3ov\cw5|icvos 

KTCLvwcra \ifup roivs vrrcpiroAAovs ktI. : cp. Sail. Cat. 1 . 6 prius quam 

ayav. — 16. r&irp6<ra> aUl ic\cirr6|ic- incipias consulto et ubi consulue- 

vos : always beguiled on, i.e. while ris mature facto opus est. 
getting past difficulties not observ- 50. 1 . &|ic(p€Tai Shifts : with 

ing that the situation becomes al- verbs of saying when the subj. fol- 

ways more perilous. — 17. ciirpTj- lows asyndeton is the rule in Hdt. 

{fop 8i . . . irXt|0^pt| : there is no and Xen. — 4. 4irl t$ aUl iirco-^c- 

satiety of well being to mortals. pop4vq> irp^-yiian : 7^0/z each mat- 

Cp. Aesch. Agam. 1330 to /acv cv /*r that further occurs. On atc£ 

Tpaaauv dfcopcarov l^v waai /8po- see 7. 23. 6. — rh irav : used ap- 



142 



HERODOTUS VII 



[50.6 



Kpecraov Se iravra dapcriovra rjfiiav t<ov Setvcov ird- 
o*X€t^ fxaWov f/ nap xprjfia TrpoheifiaivovTa /MTjSafxd 
/irfSev waOeiv. el 8c ipt^cov irpbs irav to Xeyojxei/ov fir) 
to fSifSaiov d7roScfci5, (r<f>dk\€(j0 at o^ciXcis cV airrouri 
ofAOLcos kolI 6 virevavTia Tovroiai Xcfas. tovto /acV wv io 
cV *<rr)<; e^et • ciScVcu Sc dvdpamov iovra kg>9 x/otj to 
fSejUaiov ; Soiccgj fiev ovSa/xai?. toicti toiwv /JovXo/mc- 
voiai iroieiv a>9 to liriirav (frikel yivecrOai tol jcc/qSco, 
roicri 8c cViXeyo/xcVoio-i re iravra koX oKveovai ov fidka 
£94\ei. opas tol II c/ntcW wpTjy/iaTa cs o 81W/A10915 
wpoK€)((opr)K€. el toiwv iKeivoi oi wpb ifieo yevofievoi 
/JacriXets yvdbfiri&i eypetovTO OfioirfaL Kal <ru, rj fir/ 
Xpedbfievoi yp(Ofxr)(rL Toiavrycri aXXov? crv/i/JovXovs 

ct^Ol/ TOIOVTOV5, OUIC dv KOT€ ClScS aVT<X €5 TOVTO 7T/)OcX- 

96vra* vvv 8c #ai>Swovs avappunreovres c? rovrd cr<f>€a2o 
TTporiyayovTO. fieydka yap irfyrfyfiaTa /xeyaXoiox #ai>- 



parently for variety, and not as 
differing in force from irav (3). — 

6. irAvTa 6ap<r&vTa: having all 
confidence. Trdvra is cogn. ace. — 

7. fi&XAov: pleonastic after icpeo-- 
<rov. — 8. cl 8c . . . AiroSc'gcis: the 
cond. is monitory. S. 2328 ; GMT. 
447. — £pti>v irp6s: quarreling 
with, objecting to. — 9. iv avTouri : 
therein, i.e. in your objections (ipi~ 
fa>v). — 10. ofjioitDs kcU : see on 7. 1 5. 
14. — II. cV &rqs c\€i : sc ' ^PV^9 
is 0/ like part, i.e. amounts to one 
and the same thing. Cp. 1 . 74. 7. 
— cl&vai . . . k&s xrt : periphra- 
sis for dubitative subjv. — 12. 80- 



Kiu \Uv : with unexpressed correl. 
clause; see on 7. 24. 1. — 13. &t 
tA 4-irCirav: in general, as 7. 157. 
23. Cp. ws iirlirav 2. 68. 23 ; ro 
iwiirav 6. 46. 1 3. — 1 4. oi \v6Xa 
40&ci : it is not very likely, sc. ytve- 
cOai ra Ktp&ta. iOeXu for variety 
after <£iAct. — 15. Is 5 Swdfuot 
gen. of degree. — 19. vpocXOtfvra 
suppl. ptc. in indir. disc. S. 21 12 b 
GMT. 904. — 20. Ktv8vvov$ &vap- 
piirrcovTcs : risking dangers. The 
phrase is after the analogy of 
Kvflov dvapptfrrciv, to cast the 
dice. Cp. Thuc. 4. 85. 13 KtVSvyor 
TocrovSc dveppufmLfuv. — o*c^ca : for 



51.ii] HERODOTUS VII 143 

Swotcri c#cXci Karaipeicrdcu. T^/meis tovpvp bp.oiovp.epoi 
iK€ipoL(TL (opiqv re rod crcos Kakkia'rrjv iropevopeOa Kal 
KaTa(TTp€\pdfi€V0L waaap rf/p J&ipdmr)p poaTTjcropep 
onuro), ovre \t/£<£> ipTV^opre^ oi8ap60i ovt€ aXko d^apt 25 
ovSkp iradovres. tovto pep yap avroi ttoWt/p <f>opfir)P 
<f>epopepoi wopevopeda, tovto 8c, t<op dp kov eiri^etopep 
yrjv Kal edpo% tovt<op top <tItop i£ofi€P' eir aporfjpas 
51 Sc Kal oi i/o/xaSa? aTparevopeda dpSpas. Xeyci 'Aprd- 
fiapos (JLtTOL Tavra • *fl /JacnXcS, entire dppcohelp ovSep 
C0J5 npfjyiia, <rv 8c fieo avp{iov\ir)p epSeijac • apay- 
jcauo? yap i^ev wept ttoWcop 7Tp7jypaT(op nXeopa \6yop 
€KT€LPaL> Kvpos 6 Kapj3v(r€co 'icjplrjp irdaap Tr\r)p$ 
9 A0rjvai<op KaTearTp&jjaTO Saapo^opop elpai Hep<rr)<n. 
tovtovs 2>v Toi>s dvhpas orvpfiovkeva) tol pr)hepirj 
pwiX av V <*ycii> cm tovs 7raTepa<; • Kal yap dpev tovtcop 
otoi T€ eipev t<dp e^dpSiP KaTviriprepoi yipe&daL. fj yap 
<r<^ca?, rjp €7r<oprai y Set dSt/cajrarovs yipeadai Karahov- 10 

\0VfL€P0V<; T7)P ptfTpOTToklP) Tj SlKCUOTaTOUS avpekevOe- 

variety after avra. — 22. Karaipct- freq. in Horn, and Hdt. Cp. 7. 
viaxitobewon. Cp. Thuc. 1. 121. 103. 10, 7. 153. 15. Syn. §2. 8. 
17 o 8* ciccivot iirurnqfiy irpowxovai 3. — dva-yicatos 8\ €t : = way Kaiov 
KOJ$aip€T€OV rjfuv ion. fJL€\€Ty. — ioriv. — 4. irXfova \6-yov iicrctvai : 
— 23. &pf|v: the ace. as 2. 2. 12. — to make a very long argument 
Cp. 7. 125. 3, 7. 151. 6, 7. 181. 4, = firjKvvetv \6yov 2. 35. 2. Cp. 
7. 203. 6. — 27. &irif!&>|icv yf\v : Soph. Track. 679 fiei£ov €ktcv(i) 
rare ace. for gen. after Homeric Aoyov. — 5. itXt|v 'AOrjvaCcov : reek- 
precedent. Horn. H 226, c 50. oned, as mother city, ethnograph- 
Cp. Soph. At, 144 \eifxwv €7rt- ically with Ionia. — 6. 8curfio<t>6pov 
Pdvra. For form, see Dial. § 1. ctvcu: explan. inf. after /caTcorpe- 
I. 2. — 29. oi vopdSat: like the i/raro. — 8. tovs iraWpas : as 8. 
Scythians 7. 10. a 10. 22. 6. Cp. 7. 9. a 2, where the 
51. 3. vv 81: Sc in apod., as Ionians are called irai£e? of the 



i 4 4 HERODOTUS VII [51. 12 

povvras. dSt/cctfTarot pAv vvv yivopevoi ovhev /ccpSo? 
fieya r)p2v irpoafidWovai, St/catorarot 8e yivopevoi 
otoi re hyjjKrjaaadai ptydXcos Trjv <rr]v arpaTLTjv ytvov 

TOLL. €5 dvflQV 0)V /Jd\cO KOLl TO TTakatOV C7T09 d>5 c3 15 

eiprfTaty to fir) dpa dpXV ^ v reXos KaTa^alveardai. 
52 d/xetjScrat tt/oos raCra Ec/ofr/s * 'Aprdfiave, t£)v a7rc^rj- 
j>g> yvo>pji(i>v cr^dXXcat /card tolvttjv 8f) /xdXtora, 05 
"iawas ^o/Je'at prj /xcra/JaXaxTt, t<3i> ^xopev yv£>pa fie- 
yiaTov, tcov av T€ pdpTvs yiveai /cat ot avaTpaTevad- 
fxepoi Aapeicp dXXot €7rt 2/cv0as, ore €7rt Tovroiai 175 
7racra IIc/jcTt/a) CTpaTirf lyivero hia$6elpai /cat ttc/h- 
7rot>70"at • ot 8c Slkouoovvtjv /cat TnaTorr/Ta ci>c8(o/cai/ ? 
d^a/ot Sc ov8ev. irdp^ 8c tovtov, iv rfi ij/utcrc/)^ Kara- 
\nr6vras TtKva T€ /cat ywat/ca? /cat xpVl xaTa ou8* iirike- 
yeaOai \PV vecarepov tl Tronjcrtiv. ovt(o /utr/Sc rovro 10 
(frofieo, dWd dvpov ix (0P dyadov crai^c ot/cdi> re roi/ 
Cftoi/ /cat TVpawiha ttjv i/njv • crot yd/) eya> /iowo) c/c » 
irdvroiv aKrJ7TTpa Ta ifia imTpeino. 

Athenians. — 14. ST)\4j<ra<r9<u . . . may stand for TrprjyfmTuv implied 

ttjv <ttjv o-Tpan^jv : as at Mycale (9. in yvCjfjui. — 5. Sn . . . mpiiroifj- 

103 f.). — 15. is 6v|*6v pdXco : cp. <rai : pers. const, with explanatory 

Horn. A 296 ivl <f>pe<rl /3aWeo 077- infs., where the Eng. const, takes 

criv. — 16. rh. . . KaTa<t>aCv€<r8cu : ex- the noun (o-TpaTiiJ) as obj. of the 

planatory of to 7raAatov €7ros. The infs. For €7rl tovtokti see on 7. 

art. belongs to the whole clause. 10. y 11. — 7. tvc'Stticav : exhib- 

52. 3. |UTaPd\axri : change po- tied. Cp. ev3i8oVai /joAa/cov ovScy 

sition, i.e. revolt, as 8. 22. 18. — 3. 51. 9, 3. 105. 11. — 9. tmXI- 

yv&iia : like yva>pto-/*a = TtKfirj' -yca-flai : with dependent inf. as 7. 

puov, token or proof ". The yvw/xa 49.21. — 10. vc»TCf>6v ti iroiVjo-civ : 

is explained in the oti clause. stock expression for political inno- 

— 4. t«v: both rels. stand for vation or revolution. — 13. o'lcflv- 

tS)v 'Iwvwv. Or the second tuv rpa : plur. as in tragedy. 



54.2] HERODOTUS VII 145 

53 Tavra cwrag /cat *Aprdj3avov dVooTCtXas €? Sovara 

8€VT€pa fl€T€W€fl^jaTO Hcp^^ Tl€p<T€<DV TOVS 8oKt/XG)Ta- 

tovs • €7rel 8e ot irapfjaavy e\eye a<f>i raSc ' *I2 Ilepcrat, 
tw8' ey<w vfjL€(ov XPyZ* 01 ' crweXeija, dvSpas re yivtadai 
aya0oi>s /cat [irj KaTaiaxyvtiv rd irpoaOe ipyaafievas 
TliparjO'i, iovra fieydka tc /cat woWov dfta, dXX* cts re 
e/caoros /cat ot (rvfnravres wpodvfiCrjv ix<s)p.ev • ^vvov 
yap iracri tovto dyadov cirevherai. iwSc 8e elveica 
irpoayopevco avre^aOai tov woXifiov ivTerafiei/o)^ • a>9 
yd/) eya> Ttvv0dvo\Lai^ in avBpas CTpaT€v6fie0a dya-10 
Boys, t£)v fjp KpaTTjccDfieVy ov p.r\ rts rjfjuv dXXo? orpa- 
' to? avTiOTjj /core dp0p(oira)i/. vvv 8e 8taj8ati/a)/ut€^ iirev- 

y^afiepoL tolcti deolcri ot Ilc/ocrtSa yrjv XeXoy^acrt. 

54 Tavnp /i€i/ ttji> fjfieprjv irapeaKevd^ovro e? t^i/ Std- 
fiao'iv, rjj 8c varepairj dvifievov tov rj\iov idiXovrts 

subjugation of Greece is the com- 

XERXES EXHORTS THE PERSIANS; moQ gQod< ^ {s 1qj ^ ^ 
AFTER WHICH SACRIFICES ARE poetic _ ^^v** : M 4 . I4 . 
OFFERED AND THE BRIDGE IS , 2> g J2 g 2 . _ n . * ^ . . . 

CROSSED (CC. 53-55) - dvTurrfl : strong denial. S. 2755 ; 

53. 2. MTfpa: as 7. 18. 6.— GMT. 295. —13. ot . . . \c\6y- 

4. xj*lft» v: with gen. of person X a<rt: ^ whose lot Persia has 

and thing, as freq. 8fo/*at. Cp. fallen. Such allotment of cities 

8. 144. 29 T(uv cicetvos fjfiiwv irpoa- or countries to special deities was 

cScircx iwSc is carried out in the an idea prevalent among the 

inf. clauses. — 6. AM* . . . lx°H kCV : Greeks from the earliest times. Cp. 

transition from inf. to independent Horn. O 190; Aesch. SuppL 704; 

const, for more direct appeal. — Thuc. 2.74. 9; Plato Critias 109 b ; 

7. fwov ^dp . . . <nrc4ScT<u : for Theocr. 7. 103. The proof for a 

as a good common to all, this is similar conception among the Per- 

striven for. tctvto refers to av- sians seems to be meager (inscrip- 

Spas tc yivecrOai . . . Hipo'rjo'i tions at Persepolis). 
above. Or perhaps the purposed 54. 2. tov tJXiov , , , &v(<rK>>m*.\ 

HERODOTUS ~ TO 



i 4 6 HERODOTUS VII [54. 3 

i8ca*0cu dvioyovTOLy dv/jurffiard t€ iravroia inl r&v 
y€(f>vp€(ov /carayt^ovrc? Kal iivpcrivrjai aTOpvvvres ttjj> 
6S0V. a>5 8* €7rai/6T€\\€ 6 ^Xto?, anei/Scov 4k XP V(r $S5 
<f)ia\r)S Ec/ofty? es T7)i> dakaaaav ev^ero npbs toj/ t^Xiou 
fji/qSefiiav ol vvvTvyyr\v TOiavTt]v yevio'dai, rj p*iv navaei 
KaTaaTpexjjaa'daL rrjv Jbvpwrqv nporepov rj inl repfiacrv 
Toiai ii<elv7)s yivryrai: evtjdfievos 8e iac/SaXe rr)v <f>id- 
\r)v C5 top t J$X\ri<nrovTov Kal xpvcreov Kprjrrjpa Kal 10 
HepaiKov tjtyos, tov aKivaKiqv /caXeovcri. ravra ovk 
i)((o aTp€K€cos hiaKplvai ovtc el r<5 17X10) aVartdei? icaTTj/cc 

€5 TO 7T€Xay05 OVT€ el /XCTC/ULeX^CTC Ol TOV 'J&XrjO'TrOVTOV 

liaoTiycaaavn /cat dVrl tovtcjp ttjv ddXaaarav ihapeiTo. ' 
55 a>s 8e TavTa ol inenoirjTO, hiefiaCvov Kara fiev vr/v eripnqv 
T(ov ye<f)vpda)v tt/v 77/005 tov Hovtov 6 ne£6<s t€ Kal rj 

the Persians were sun-worship- instead of usual suppl. ptc. (S. 

ers, hence the sacred moment of 2098; GMT. 879). For differ- 

sunrise was awaited for the cere- ence in meaning, see S. 2 140; 

monies introductory to the cross- GMT. 903. 5. Cp. 5. 67. 4 

ing. So the choice of king was pcu/wSovs CTrawc iv Sticwovi dya>- 

connected with the sunrise, 3. vtjco-flai. — 8. irpdrcpov § . . . yt- 

84. 15. — 4. |ivp<r(vfl<ri . . . Tt|v vryrai: as 7rpiv iq, followed by 

686 v : as was done at Susa when subjv. without av in Hdt. See 

the news came that Xerxes had on 7. 8. /? 8. The necessary pre- 

reached Athens (8. 99. 3). crrop- ceding negative is contained in 

wfu poetic by-form occurring in firfitfiiav. — ri^ktun. : poetic term 

Horn, p 32.-5. <rirlv8ttv: since = opois. — 11. &Kivdici)v: a short 

the Persians did not use wine liba- Persian cavalry sword. — 14. i4|v 

tions (1 . 132. 4), Xerxes was prob. 6d\cur<rav IScapctro : as 1. 54. 4 AcA- 

following here the custom of the <f>ovs SoypeiTai. Cp. 5. 37. 4T<SAa- 

region. — 6. cUxcto irp6s t6v tJXiov : peios M.vTiXrjvrjv eSuyprjaaro. The 

for the usual dat. — 7. irav<rci Ka- Attic const, is SiDpelcrOai tivl t*. 
TcurrptycurOai : const, of verbs of 55. 2. irp6s toO . . . irpfe 

hindering (S. 2038; GMT. 807), t6: variety without distinction. -* 



56. 7 ] HERODOTUS VII 147 

MT7T09 airaxra, Kara 8e jty wpbs to Alyatov tol vno£vy 1a 
/cat rj 0€p<nrr)ir). r/yeovro 8c npcora p.kv ol fivptoi 
Heparan, i(TT€(f)av(0[iQ/oi, 7raj>res, fiera 8c tovtovs 6 (rufi- 5 
fiiicros ot/dcitos TrcwToCa)v idviotv. ravriqv fiev tt)v 
f)fi€pr)v ovToty Tjj 8c va-TepaCrj npcoToi /jl€v ot re imroTai 
/cat oi rets Xoy^a? /caret) T/oaVoircs • £<TTe<f>ava)VTo 8c 
/cat ovrot. fi€Ta 8c oi re ?7T7rot ol Ipol /cat to a/>/ma TO 
Ipov, C7rt 8c avro? re Bep^s /cat ot ai\fjio^)6poi /cat 10 
ot t7T7rdrat ot ^tXtot, C7rt 8e tovtomti 6 aXXos oTpards. 
/cat at i^ccs a/ma avrjyovro cs r^ airtvavriov. r}8r) 8e 
Tj/covcra /cat vararov Sta/J^at /JacrtXc'a tt<lvto)v. 
56 Ecpf^s 8c inetre Ste/fy c? t^i/ JLvp<o7rr)v, iO-qeiro tov 
(TTpaTov vtto fiaaTiycoi/ Sia/SoLivovra. Stc'/fy 8e 6 aTpa- 
tos avrov ht eirra rifiep-jjo-i /cat ey C7rra evcfrpov'QO'i, 
cXiwcras ovSei/a ^povov. ivdavra Xeycrat Hc/)£cg> -37817 
Sta/Jc/fy/coros toi> c EXXT/o , 7ro&'Toi> avhpa eiireiv e EXX^-5 
OTroVrtoty *fl Zcu, rt 8^ wSpt ctSo/xcws Hepajj /cat 
ovvofia avrl Atos Eeptjrjv 94p.evos avaaraTov rr)v e EX- 



XERXES THE ZEUS OF THE PER- 
SIANS 



4. -f| 9cpain)(T|: &?dfy 0/* servants, 
retinue ; abstract for concrete. — 
jftfovTo Sc vp&ra : see on 7. 40. 3. — 

ol|*6ptoi: 7.41.7. — 7. ovtoi: sc. 56. 2. faro |ia<rT(-y<uv : cp. 7. 

tU&ifpav. — 9. tinroi ol IpoC: cp. 22. 5. — 4. IXivwras: Ionic and 

7- 40. 10. — II. linrdTai ol \CXioi : poetic verb = irawafievos. — Xfyc- 

cp. 7. 40. 7. — 12. 4s Tt|v direvav- tcw: impersonal c. ace. et inf. 

tCov: sc. dicTiJv. — *j8t| : etiam, used The stress is on the remark, not 

here, as several times elsewhere, the person. — 6. cl86>cvos: epic 

to introduce a variant tradition term, as 6. 69. 5. — 7. AvtI Aios 

(2. 175. 25, 7. 35. 3, 9. 84. 3, H^pfrv: cp. Gorgias (apud Long. 

9' 95- 3)- Q?' A™"- dnab. 6. Zte £#£/. 1. 3), Hcp^s 6 twv 

28. I vfirq Sc Ttvcs Kal rouLSe <W- Ilepow Zcv's. — AvdoraTov: A»V/ 

ypaaJKiy. waste; of cities, destroyed; of 



i 4 8 HERODOTUS VII [56.8 

XaSa 0cXcis Troiyjaai, dyw wdvTas dvOpcoirovs ; Kal 
yap dvev tovtcov itjfjv rot iroieiv ravra. 

57 e f2s 8c hiefirjo-av irdvTes, is 6Sov opfjLrjfxevoLcri ripas 
cr^i i<f>dvr) ficya, rb Bep£r)s iv ovSevl koyco iironjaaTO 
Katnep evavpfiXrjTov iov • 4777705 yap cre/cc Kay op. 
evavfj f$kr)Tov S)v TrjSe tovto iyeseTo, otl c/uicXXc fiev 
i\di/ (rrpaTLr/p iirl rr/p 'EXXaSa Sc/0^75 dyavporara /cat 5 
lAeyakonpeireaTaTa, oniao) 8c nepl icovrov Tp£)(Q>v rj^eiv 
cs tov avrbv x<*>pov. iyivero 8c /cat irepov avr<S rcpa? 
iovTi iv SdpSuri • rj/jiiovos yap ctckc r/fiiovov 8i£a 
fyovcrav atSota, tol fiev epcrevoSj rd Se drfXeqs • Kara- 

58 nepde 8e 771/ ra roi) epaevos. tS>v dfuftorepcov \6yov 
ovS&sa TTOL7)<rdfi€vo<; to npoao) iiropeveTO, avv 8c 61 6 
7rc^o5 arpards. 6 8e vovtikos ££0* tov 'JSWyjairovTov 
7rXcW 7rapa yfjv iKOfiC£eTO> ra efxiraXiv irprjaaoiv tov 
ne^ov. 6 fikv yap 7T/0O5 ia-rrepyfv C7rXct, C7rl SapirrfS 

people, driven out, as 7. 1 18. 4. — Aayws tov ttc/oi twv icpcwv [.$£. 
8. irdvras dv6p£irovs : cp. 7. 157. 8. 8po/xov] Tpc^ct. — 8. Sifd: Att. 

Siaad. — 9. Td |mv kt£ : the portent 

MARCH FROM THE HELLESPONT signified that he went forth ^ a 
TO DORISCUS. PRODIGIES (CC. man> ^ fled home ^ ft woman 



57, 58) 



58. 3. 2£<o . . . irX&ov: sailing 



57. 2. Iv . . . ciroi4j<raTo : cp. out of the Hellespont. For const. 

7. 14. 6. — 4. cvo-ujipXiyrov : cp. see on 7. 29. 3. — 4. Td cjiirc^Xtv: 
Aesch. Prom. 801 ^8' oviccr' cv£u/a- z« M* reverse direction, governing 
/3\rjro<; y xpi/crficpSca. — 5. d-yav- the gen. as 2. 19. 11. Regularly 
pdTdTa: cp. Hes. Theog. 832 adv. in Hdt. — irp^o-o-wv: ,«:. icc- 
ravpos dyavpoV — 6. en-bra: with \cvOov (as found in Horn.), mak~ 
ffcuv. — irepl iwvTov Tp^x»v: as ing its way. — 5. irpds tarfpip 

8. 102. 13, 8. 140. 21. Cp. rpc^cov tirXci: the course was first west- 
irepl rrjs <Avx5 s 9- 37- 9? Horn. war*/ (through the Hellespont), 
X 161. A Greek proverb was then northward. — kn\ Zapmi)Sor(qi 



59. 4 ] HERODOTUS VII 149 

SoiHTJS aKpTJS 7TOl€0/X€J>0$ TTjV dVt£«>, €? TTfV aUTft) 

irpoeiprjTo amKOfieva) Trcpifievetv • 6 8c icar* rjireipov 
orparos 7T/0O9 r}<S re ical r/Xtov d^aroXa? c7rot€tro rip 
6801/ 8td ttjs Xepaovrjaovy iv Setjifj fiev ^\(av rov 
*EXXr/$ T(i(f)op rfjs ' AOol/jlolvtos, £v apurTtpyj 8c Kap§ir)v 10 

TToXtl/, 8t<X /JL€CTr)S 8c 7TOj0CU0/JlCJ>O9 770X105 777 ovvofia 

rvyx c " /ct ^^ 'Ayopr;. ivffevrev Sc Kdfnrrcjp top koKttov 
top McXai/a KakeofLtvov kcu McXai/a nora/iov, ovk olvti- 
<r)(6vTa rare rfj arparLrj to peldpov dXX* C7rtXt7rdi>ra, 
tovtoi/ roi/ TTOTapLOv 8ta/Jds, cV ov /cat 6 /cd\7ro$ o5ros 15 
T7/j> iircoirufJLvqv €X eL > V € ^pos eairepTjv, Alvov T€ ttoKiv 
AtoXtSa /cat SrwroptSa XCfivrfv Trape£ia>v, es o diriKeTo 
59 cs AoptorKOv. 6 Sc AopicrKos ccrri rrjs ©/ogjcr/s atytaXds 
re /cat 7rc8tW ftcya, 8td 8c aurov pet Trorafib^ /uteyas 
*E/fy)09 * «> r<5 rct^d? tc cScS/utr/To /?acxiXr/toj> tovto to 
8tj AopCcrtcos KcicXr/rat, icat Hepaecov (fypovprj Iv avnS 

• axpr]s : now Cape Paxi, the north- because, situated on the bound- 
west limit of the gulf of Melas. — ary between the Chersonese and 
6. iroic6)icvoc Ttjv &iri£iv : = dm- Thrace, it became a neutral mar- 
KvcicrOai. Cp. Dem. 5. 8 rr/v tot ket. — 13. ovk dvTwrx^vTa . . . dXX* 
a<£t£iv C15 tovs iroXefiiovs en-oiiy- 4mXiir6vTa : cp. 7. 43. 3. to petOpov 
aaro. — 8. »pos r\& tc ical r\\iov ace. of specification. — 15. tovtov 
dvaToXds: as I. 201. 4, 3. 98. 5, t6v iroTapov : takes up Mc'Aava 7ro- 
4. 44. 8, after the analogy of the Tdfiov. — 4» ov: see on 7. 40. 12. 
Homeric irpos rfta t rfikiov T€ — 17. Si-cvTopCSa X(|ivt|v : near the 
(M 239, v 240). Cp. nobs rju> tc mouth of the Hebrus. — k 8: un- 
icot f)\iov dvaTcXXovra 1. 204. 3. — ///, Herodotean const. GMT. 616. 
9. tov "EXXtp tA+ov : near Pactye 

on the Chersonese. According to counting ok the host (cc. 

tradition, Helle was drowned near 59> ' 

by in the strait that was named for 59. 3. tovto to . . . K^KXrjTai : 

her. — 12. 'Ayofrij : near the mouth explanatory of rctx * fiaaiKrjiov. 

of the Melas, and so-called prob. — 4. 4v avT$ : note transition to 



i 5 o HERODOTUS VII [59-5 

fcarccrrrjicet vwb Aa/octou c£ iiceivov rov xpovov intCres 
inl %Kvffas icrrpaTevero. cSofc £>v ra> Uep^j) 6 x<S/0O5 
cu>at imTrjSeos e^8tara£ai re /cat itjapidiArjaai tov arpa- 
tov, Kal inoiei ravra. ras /utc^ 8^ vias ras 7raVa9 airt- 
KOfxevas cs AopCaKov oi vavap^oi KeXevaavTos Bepijta) 
€? toj> atytaXoj> roi> 7r/)ocrc^ea Ao/hotco) iKOfiurav, ivio 
to> SaXrj re ^apodpr/Kir) 7rc7rdXtcrrat 7rdXts icat Zcovrj, 
TekevTair) 8c avrov Seppeiov aicpr) ovofiaaTt]. 6 8c 
X&pos o5ro? ro 7raXatoi> ^i/ Kt/cdi>G>*>. cs rovrov roi' 
atytaXoy KaraarxovTes ras yeas aveyjwxpv aveXtcvaravres. 

6 8e CJ/ TO) AopLCTKO) TOVTOV TOV \pOVOV 7TJ5 (TTpOLTirjS 15 

eoaptOpov inoieiTo. 6<rov p.iv vvv c/caorot irap€i)(ov 
nXrjdos €? apiOpov, ovk e^a) elwelv to dr/)€/ces (ov yap 
Xeyerat 7r/)6s ov8apa)v dv6 ^payrrotv), (rvpiravros 8c tov 
(TTpaTov tov we^ov to irkfjffos itfrdvrj i^SofirJKovra Kal 
eKOLTov pvpidhes. i£y]pi0p.7]crav 8c rd^Sc tov Tpoirov • 5 
(rvvayayovTes cs ci/a \S>pov pwpiaha avOptoiraw Kal 
<rwvd(javTes TaiHrrjv a>s /xaXtora cl^oi/ Trepieypatycw 
e^(o0ev kvkKov • 7T€piypd\ljavTe$ 8c /cat aVercs rovg 

personal pronoun. Cp. auroi) be- here by Thracian women. — 13. tA 

low (12). S. 2517; HA. 1005. — iraXcudv: cp. Horn. B 846, t 39. 

5. IitcCtc : cum, as 9. 26. 8 ; usually — 14. &vtyv\ov : refreshed, the 

ore. — 8. iirotci TavTa : proceeded ships being personified. Cp.Xen. 

to do this. Cp.7. 100. 4, 7. 128. 10. Hellen. 1. 5. 10. 
— 11. 2a|u>6pQic(ii : Samothrace 60. 3. irp&s odSap&v: see on 

had several walled towns, on the 2. 12. — 4. ipSoprijicovra Kal fca- 

opp. Thracian coast. Cp.7. 108. 7. rhv (ivpioScs: Ctesias (Pers. 22) 

— 12. TcXcvTah) 8c avTov : sc. cori'v, gives the total of the foot at 

at the end of it. — ovofioorH) : on 800,000 ; Aelian (V.H. 13. 3) and 

account of the legend of Orpheus, Nepos {Them. 2), at 700,000. — 

said to have been torn to pieces 5. t6v8c tAv rpdirov : cp. tovt^> t<£ 



61.6] 



HERODOTUS VII 



151 



fjLvpiovs al/iao-cr/v irepiifiakov Kara top kvkXov, taJjos 
avrJKOV<rav avhpl cs rov 6fx<f)a\6v. ravrrjv Se iroirjaavT^ 10 
dXXovs i(T€l3if}a£ov cs to 7repiOLKo8o[ir)fi€i/oi/, ^XP l °*> 
iramas tovtw t<jJ Tp6ir<p i£r)pldfir]0'av. apiOfirjaavre^ 
8c Kara eOvea Steracrcrov. 
61 Ot 8e oTpaTevofievoi oi8e fj<rav, Tlepaai p&v S8c 
iaKevaa/ievoi,' irepl [lev 7770*1 KefaXyjai el)(ov rtapa? 
Kakeofievovs, irlkovs airayias, nepl Se to crai/xa KtdS>va<z 
X<eipi§ayrov<; ttoikiXovs, XcmSo? (riSrjprjs oxfjiv t^^voct- 
Seos, 7T€/)l 8e t<x cr/ccXea ava£vpi8as, avri Se do-7rtSa»>5 
yippa • vtto Se cfyaperpecoves iKpe/iavro • at^/xd? 8c 



Tponrtg below (12). — 9. kcwA t&v 
k^kXov: #&#£• M* a>r& which 
they had drawn. — 11. (i^XP 1 °* : 
in Hdt. = simple /xeypt. 

CATALOGUE AND EQUIPMENT OF 
ARMY AND FLEET (CC 61-99). 
FOOT FORCE (CC. 6 1 -83) 

The following enumeration and 
description is, with the list of vo/xot 
or tax districts (3. 90 ff.) insti- 
tuted by Darius, the most im- 
portant source of ethnographical 
knowledge of ancient Asia. It 
includes 61 tribes in 4 groups : 
1. from the Tigris to the Indus 
(cc. 61-68) ; 2. southern tribes 
(cc. 69-71) ; 3. from Asia Minor 
and Armenia (cc. 72-80) ; 4. from 
the coast and islands of the eastern 
Mediterranean (fleet, cc. 89-95). 
Herodotus does not give his au- 
thority, but it is fair to suppose 
that he had access to the official 



lists made by the royal scribes 
(ypafifiaTioTai, cp. 7. 100. 5). 

PERSIANS 
61. 2. ndpas, irCXovs dira-y^as : 
turbans, soft (lit. • unstiffened ') 
felt hats. These were round caps, 
felling forward at the top. The 
king alone wore the stiff, upright 
tiara (Xen. Anab. 2. 5. 23). 6 
rtapas, as 1. 132. 7, generally 
rf Tidpa. — 3. ircpl rh <n»fia : note 
change for variety from dat. (irepl 
rfja-i Ke<f>a\rj<n). — KtOwvas xcipi- 
8<oro6$ : the adj. only here. As Hdt. 
distinguishes klOuv from Ouprjjj 
(9. 22. 12), possibly some words 
like vto Sk QuyprjKas 7reiroLr}fi€VOv<s 
have been lost from the text be- 
fore Ac7rt8o5. — 4. XcirC8os <riSr|pfjs 
&|av lx6vociSlo« : of iron scales 
fish-like in appearance. Gen. of 
material and ace. of specification. 
— 6. ymh %i : the shield when not 



i 5 2 HERODOTUS VII [61. 7 

fipaxeas elx op > T °£ a &* fteyaXa, oiorovs 8e jcaXa/upov?, 
irpbs 8c cy^a/nSca napd top Scgtov /ir/pop TTapaicopeo- 
[itva €K r^5 C<ovr)<$. /cat dpxovra TrapetyovTo 'Orarca 
toi> 'A/xTjcrr/oto?, irarepa rfjs Eepgea) yvvaiKos. c/caXe- 10 

OJ>70 8c 7TCtXai V7TO flCI> 'EW)^^ Ky/(f)7JP€^ V7TO p.€VTOl 

a<f)€(ov avrtov Kal tcov irepioitccov 'Apraioi. C7rct 8c 
Ilcpcrcvs 6 Aavdrjs T€ kolI A109 dmK€TO irapd Kr)<f)€a 
top B77X0V Kal ccrxc avrov ttjv Ovyarepa *Av8pofieSrjv 9 
yiverai avra> 7rat? t<S ovvo/ia edero Tl4p<rqv, tovtov 8c 15 
avrov KaraXeinei • eTvy\ave yap awais iwv 6 Kr)<f>€vs 
epaevos yovov. eiri tovtov 8^ ttjp incovviLiriv ccr^oi/. 
62 M77S01 8e ttjv airrfjv Tavrqv ioTakpa/oi iorpaTevovro • 
Mr/Siicr) yap avrq 17 aKevq cart *cat ovHeporiKij. oi 8e 
MtJSoi dpxpvTa fiev irapei)(ovTo Tiypdviqv dvhpa 'A^at- 
lL€vi$r]v, eKokeovro 8e irdXai wpbs wdvT(op ¥ ApLoi 9 dm- 

in use hung over the back and cov- 'Apra^ep^?, "Apra^pooy?, 'Afrrd- 

ered the quiver. — 8. tyx €l P& ia : /Javos. For a fabulous Persian 

= d/ava/cai 7. 54. ii. — irapd t6v district *Apraua, see St eph. s. v. — 

8c£i6v |U|plv: confirmed by the 13. Ilcpa-cvs 6 Aavdip kt4. : for 

monuments ; contrary to the Greek the genealogy cp. 7. 150. 6-9. — 

custom. — li. Kr]<t>f)v€s: likeness 14. layjt'. sc. yvvalica, ingressive. 

of name caused II cpcn/s, tribal — 16. &irais Spo-cvos y6vav: child' 

father of the Persians, to be re- less of male issue, as 7. 205.4. For 

garded as the son of Ilcpcrcvs, and gen. with amus, see S. 1428; 

Ilcpcnys being maternal grandson HA. 753 c. The expression is 

of Krj<t>€v^ led to the identification Herodotean and poetic, 
of the Uepcrai with the Krj<f>fjves, 

so named from Kiev's. The lat- MEDES 

ter was really a mythical appella- 62. 1. ttjv afrniv Tcrtrrtjv: sc. 

tion of a people once dominant in aroKrjv. Cp. 7. 72. 6, 7. 84. 2. — 

Asia Minor. — 12. 'ApTaioi: prob. 3. Ti-yp£vT]v: son of Artabanus. 

only a nomen appellativnm from He fell as leader of the Persians at 

aria (Skt. rta), high, mighty. Cp. Mycale (9. 96, 9. 102). — 4. "Aptot : 



63. 5 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



153 



KOfxevrjs 8c M^Scfys rfjs KoX^iSos i£ 9 A0r)v€(ov cs tovs 5 
'Aptbvs tovtovs fi€T€/3a\ov Kal ovtol to ovvofia. avroi 
irepl cr<f>ea)v oJ8c \eyovcri M77S01. Ktcro-tot Sc crrparevd- 
/acpoi ra /ulcj> aXXa icara irep Hepaai ccrjccvaSaro, ai>ri 

8c T&V TTlktoV IXLTp7)(f)6pOL tfaOLV. Kt OTCLtoV 8e ^/>X € 

'Ai/a^Tj? 6 'OraVca). 'Tpicavioi 8e icara 7rc/) EEcpcrcu 10 
co-ccra^aro, 7}y€fi6va irape^oyievoi Meydnai/op top Ba- 

3 j8vX<£l/09 V(TT€pOV TOVTOiV eTTlTpOTTeV<TOLVTa. 'AcTCTV/HOl 

8f oTpaT€v6fjLevoi wept pkv TJjai Ke^aXjjcrt ci^oi/ \d\iced 
T€ Kpdvea Kal ireTrXeyfieva Tpoirov Tivd fidpfiapov ovk 
evamjyriTov, do"7TiSas 8c /cat at^/xa? /cat iy^eipihia 
irapaTrXrjaia t^Jcl AiyvTrrirjO'L cT^oi/, 77*^)09 8c p6naka$ 



prob. to be distinguished from the 
tribe mentioned 7. 66. 1. It 
means the worthy, noble (Skt. 
drya), and was an appellation as- 
sumed by all Irano-Median peo- 
ples. In comparative philology 
it is applied to all Indo-European 
cognate nations. — 5. Mt)Sc(T|$ 
rrt : after her flight from Corinth, 
Medea bore to Aegeus at Athens 
a son named Medus ; afterwards 
detected in a plot against Theseus 
she fled to Asia with this son, who 
became the eponymous hero of 
the Medes. Pausan. 2. 3. 8. — 
7. mSc: here looks backward. — 
EUro-iot : from Kissia, later called 
Susiana. — 8. Td aXXa : cognate 
ace. — knccvoSaxo: Dial. § 4. 3. 
— 9. |UTpT)^6poi TJo-av : where we 
should expect fiirpas i<l>6povv. 
— 10. 'YpKdvioi : on the south- 



east coast of the Caspian Sea. — 

1 1 . &rco-dxaTo : were equipped, as 
7- 70. 9> 7- 73- 7, 7- 86. 4.— 

12. 4iriTpoircv<ravTa : with gen., as 
7. 7. 8 ; with ace. 7. 78. 9. 

ASSYRIANS 

63, 2. \d\icca Kpdvea : helmets 
of bronze or iron, quite similar- 
to the Homeric, are seen in the 
monuments and found in ruins. — 
3. ircirXcypiva : prob. i$ Ifxavrayv 
is implied. Cp. 7. 85. 7. — Tpdirov 
Tivd pdpfiapov: adv. ace. Cp. 7. 
89. 5. — ovk cvcmt^tjtov : not easy 
to describe. Herodotean and late 
Greek. Dial. § 2. 3. — 5. Tfjon 
Aiy\mrlx\<ri : agrees in gender with 
first two nouns. — fWiraXa {v\a>v 
TCTv\a>jUva o-iS^pw: clubs of wood 
knobbed with iron, i.e. embossed 
with large-headed iron nails. — 



i 5 4 HERODOTUS VII [63.6 

£vk<ov T€Tv\a)fi4va aihrjp(fi /cat \iveovs d&prfKas. ovtol 
Sc vtto /x€P 'EWtJvwp KaXiovrai Svpioi, wo 8e t£>v 
fiapfiap(Dv 'AaavpioL eKkijOrjaav. [tovtcov Sc fiera^v 
XaXSatot.] ypX € ^c (rfacov 'OracrTnjs 6 'A/ara^atcc*). 

64 Ba/cr/otot 8c irepl fiev ttJctl /cc^aXgo-t ay^oTarai tS>v 
Mr)8iK(ov €\ovre<; ioTparevovTO, rofa Sc KaXdfi iva cVt- 
X(opia /cat at^as ^/Da^cas. £a/cat Sc ot 2/cv#at 7rcpt 
/xci/ T#crt /cc^aXrJcrt /cup)8acrtas €5 dfv dTrrjy/jLei/as opdas 
eX)(ov 7re7rr)yvias, avatjvplhas Sc cVcScSv/cccra*/, rd£a Scs 
€7rt^co/ota /cat cyxct/otSta, 7r/oos 8c /cat a^tVas craya/ots 
cT^oz/. Tourov? 8c cobras Sfcv^as 'Apvpylovs 2a/ca? 
c/caXcop • ot yap Ilc/ocrat ttolvtols tovs 2/cv0as /caXcovcrt 
Sa/cas. BaKTpLcov 8c /cat 2a/ccW rjpx* 'ToTacririjs 

65 6 Aapeiov T€ /cat 'ArdcrcrTjs 777s Kvpov. 'ivSot 8c 
ct/xara /xcV eVScSv/cdrcs a7ro £v\cov 7TC7rotT7/xcVa, rd£a 
8c KaXdfiiva ct^oi/ /cat di'crrovs /caXa/xtPOV? • C7rt 8c 
crtSrj/oos yv. coraX//,cVot /tci> 8t) ^crav ourai 'Ij/Sot^ 
7r/)ocr€rc7a^aro 8c avcrrpaTevofievoL &apvat i aOp'Q t<&$ 

6. XiWovs OAptjicas: as already in tie-axes. — 7. SkvOos 'ApvpyCovs : 
Homer (6529,830). — 8. [tovtwv Amyrgian Scythians. Amyrgion 
ktQ : see App. wa s a plain in the country of the 

Sacians. 

TRIBES NORTHEAST AND EAST OF -. w , T c . 

, , , ox 65. I. IvSol: tt. coToaTcvovro, 

MEDIA AND PERSIA (CC. 64-68) , r 11 1 * 

v ^ / general name for all peoples east 

64. 1. twv MtjSikov : .wr. ruLpiov, of the Indus. — 2. diri JvXwv : short 

dependent on ayxorrarta ( = ofxoio- for owr' cpiW cwro £vAov (3. 47. 12), 

rara). — 2. t6 Jo ica\d|uva : i.e. of /*.*. cotton (cp. baumwolle). Cp. 

bamboo. — 4- KvppcwHas: = rid- 3. 106. 11 ff. — 3. lurl Si <r(Si)pot 

pas. — fe o{v airwiUvas : running fjv : and thereon was iron, i.e. the 

to a point, as 2. 28. 7. — 6. afCvas reed arrows had iron points. — 

(roydpis: the first as explanation 5. irpocrcTCTdxaTo <rv<rTpaTcv6|uvoi : 

of the foreign term a.ayapis, bat- had been assigned to serve with. 



69.i] HERODOTUS VII 155 

a'A/orajSaTcw. * A/not 8e rdfotcrt pkv i&KevaxriMO/oi 9j(Tav 
M^Stfcoto't, ra Sc dXXa /card 7TC/9 Bd/cT/otot. 'Apicov Sc 
ifPX 6 Stcra/xm75 6 e TSd/)i>cos. Hdpdoi Sc /cat Xopdayxtot 
ml SdySot re ical Tavhdpioi /cat AaSt/cat r^i> avr^v 
crKexrrjv c^oircs ttjv /cat Bd/cT/otot ea-jparevovTo. tovtojv 5 
8c rjpx ov ol8e y lldpdcov pjev /cat Xopaafiicov 'A/ord^Sa^os 
6 <J>api>d/ccos, 2dySa>z> 8c *A£dvr)<; 6 'A/Qratov, Tav$api<ov 

678c /cat Aa8i/ceW *Aprv(f)Los 6 ' Aprafidvov. Kdcrmot Sc 
vuTvpvas re cvScSu/cdrcs /cat rd£a iinxwpia Kakdyuva 
€)(ovt€S /cat d/cti>d/cas iarparevovro. ovtol fih/ ovtq> 
ecr/ccudSaro, r/ye/jiova 7rapc^d/x€i/ot y Api6p,aphov tov 
*ApTv<f>tov dSeXfaov, Sapdyycu 8c ct/xara /xci> fie^afi-5 
ftci/a £)(ovt€s Ivitrpenov^ 7rc8tXa 8c cs ydi/u dvareCvovra 
€tj(Oi/, rdfa 8c /cat at^ftds M^St/cds. Xapayyecjv Sc 
1JPX C ^epc^Sdr^? 6 Meya)8d£ot>. Ild/crvcs 8c ai<rvpvo- 
(j>6pov T€ rjcrav /cat rd£a cm^to/Ha cl^oi/ /cat ey^eipihia. 
Ild/CTVC5 8c dpxpvTa 7rapct^oi/ro * ApTavvTrfv tov '1 0a- 10 

68/urpccu. Ourtot 8^ /cat Mv/cot tc /cat Tiapiicdvioi ccr/cev 
ao-jxcpot T7<rav /card 7TC/9 Ild/crvcs. tovtov Sc fjpxov 
otSc, OvtCcov fiev /cat Mu/cwz/ 'Apca/ievr)*; 6 Aa peCov, 

Wllapt/cai/tG>j> 8c HipOfiLTprjs 6 Olof$d£ov. *Apdf$ioi 8c 

66. i . "Apun : prob. inexact 67. 2. <rt<H»pvas : garments of 

for 'Apccot. See on 7. 62. 4. sheepskin. Cp. schol. on Plato, 

They dwelt southwest of Bactri- £iry^. 400 to ck twv kcd&W pairro- 

ana. — 6. 'Aprdfb&tos : ace. to Hdt., /acvov d/ATrcxdwov. Cp. 4. 109. 1 1 . 

the most clear sighted of the Per- — 6. Ixovtcs iWirpcirov : as 7. 83. 

s 'an generals (8. 126 fF., 9. 41, 9. 66, 10. Cp. the Homeric fieTairpt- 

9* 89). He conducted later, as ttciv. — avoTcCvovTct : intr. in Hdt. 

satrap of Dascyleum, the nego- and late Greek. — 8. ndirrvcs : in 

tiations with Pausanias (Thuc. northeastern India, on the Indus 

1 • 1 29) . (modern Afghanistan) . 



i 5 6 HERODOTUS VII [69. 2 

£ct/oas vne^cofxevoL f}<rai/y to fa 8c iraXivrova €x%ov 7r/oo? 
8c£ta, fxoLKpd. AidioTres 8c 7rapSaAcas re /cat Xcoi/rcas 
evajjLjievoi, Tofa 8c ^l)(ov c/c (bolvucos arrddrjs ireiroLr)- 
l±€i/a, jxaKpdy TeTpairqyiojv ovk iXda&a), cVt 8c icaXa-5 
/uj/ovs oi'crrovs afjuKpovs, dvri 8c aihrjpov iirijv \iOos 
ofus TTenoirjii evos, t<S /cat t<xs afypyyy&as yXv^ovcn • 

7T/0O5 OC OLLXflCLS ^X 0V y €7TL " 6 K€ P a ^ OOpKCLOOS C7TTJV OgV 

ireTTOvqixivov rpoirov XoyxV* ' € *X 0V ^ Ka ^ poiraXa 
TvKiord. tov he crcu/xaro? to /zcy rjfiLav itjrjXcfyovTO 10 
yt/i/«y toi/rcs cs /xa^Tjz/, to 8c rjfiLav /jllXtq). 'Apaf}i<ov 
8c /cat AWiottwv T(ov imp AlyviTTOv olfcrjixa/tov J}px € 
*A/9cra/xT75 6 Aapeiov re Kal *ApTvcrT(6vr)<; r>?s Kvpov 
OvyoLTpos, ttjv fid\i(TTa crreptjas tcov ywaiKtov Aapetos 
70ct/ca> xpvarjv a^vprjXaTov iiroujcraTo. rcov [ih/ 8tj 
U7rep Atyv7rrov AWlottcov /cat 'Apaj3C(ov rjpx e 'Apadfirjs, 
ol 8c a7ro ijXtov dvaroXecop AWioires (8t£ot ya/o 8tj 

as 3. 41. 5, 3. 128. 6, seal stones, 

ARABIANS , j , , 

joto; 3. 41. 10 and freq. seal 

69. 2. tctpds: long cloaks, &cc. rings. — 9. frhroXa tvXwtA: see 

retained with pass. — rd{a iraXCv- on ;# 6s# 5 __ , 4# ^ v: construe d 

rova : back-stretched bows. They with ^^a^. _ r&v ^vaucfiv : six 

consisted of two half-moon-shaped in ^ ( 3> 88> ;# 2> ?# 224 ^ of 

pieces or horns held together in whom Atossa was most influ . 

the middle by a cylindrical bar. e ntial. — 15. cIk£: (sc. a{rnp) 

In stringing the bow, the ends poe tical form. — ^o^o-aro : had 

were drawn in the direction op- made . Causative middle. S.1725; 

posite to the natural bend. — irpAs jjA. 815. 
Sejio: on the right side. Usually 

they were carried at the left side. Ethiopians 

— 4. iic 4>o£vikos o"irdOT)s irciroiTj- 70. I. r&v frircp Aiyvtrrov At0t6- 

piva : made out of a strip of palm, irwv : Homer (a 23 f.) divides the 

hardened in the fire (Strabo, p. Ethiopians into Eastern and West- 

822). — 7. Tds o-^prrytSos : here, «ern. Hdt. keeps this division, 



72. 8] HERODOTUS VII 157 

iorparevovTo) irpoj-ererd^aTO roiai 'Ii>Sotcrt, StaXXriV- 

(TOITCS CtSo$ fl€V OuScV TOtCTt CTCjpOlCTt, (jxovrjV 8c /Cat 5 

Tpixofia fiovvov • ot /xcz> yap dwb r)\iov At0tO7TC9 t#v- 
T / ot X cs c ^ crt > °* $' ** T1 7 s AtjSifys ouXdraroz/ rpi)((opa 
expvai 7TavTa)v dvOpancov. ovroi Sc ol c/c ttjs 'Aortas 
• AWCones tol /xa> 7tXcg> Kara wep 'ivSol ecrco-a^aro, irpo- 
/x€ra>7rt8ta Sc Xttttcov ei)(ov iirl Trjai K€<j>a\fjai <rvv rcio 
rotcrt <ocrt c/cScSap/xcVa /cat ttJ ko<f>ifj ■ /cat dWt /xcv 
\6<f)Ov fj \o<l>ir) KCLTexpr), ra 8c cSra t<3i> iTnrwv opdd 
ireirqyvra efyov • TTpo^krjfLara 8c aW d<nri8(ov eiroii- 

Tlovro yepavtov SopaV ACfives 8c <TK€vr)v fiev o-kvtlvyjv 
rj&av expires, d/coirtotcrt 8c cVi/caurotcri ^/occ5/xG/ot. 

12ap^ovra 8c irap€i)(0VT0 Ma<r<rdyr)v tov 'Oapil^ov. Ila- 
<£Xaydz>cs 8c iaTparevovro iirl /ikv ryo-t /cc<£aX$crt Kpdvea 
ireirXey/jiG/a c^oircs, do-7rtSas 8c a/iucpas at^/id? re ov 
/xcydXas, 7r/oos Sc d/cdirta /cat cy^c t/9t8ta, 7re/ot 8c tous 
7ro8a9 7rc8tXa imx^pia eg p.€(rqi> Kinjfirjj/ dvareivovTa. $ 
Aiyvcs 8c /cat Mart^ot /cat Maptai>Swot tc /cat £v/>tot 
r»)i> avnp empires IIa<£Xaydcrt ioTparevovro. ol Sc 
XvpLoi oStol vnb Uepaecov Ka7T7raSd/cat /caXcoi>rat. 

designating the Western Ethio- sufficed, as i. 164. 3, 4. 118. 15 = 
pians, however, as " those beyond airiypa 1. 66. 5. — 13. irpopXtfjpaTa 
Egypt," or "those from Libya." . . . yepdvuv Sopds: cp. 4. 175. 
A remnant of the Eastern or Asi- 6 h tov iroXcpuov arpovOSiv Kara- 
ite Ethiopians is to be found in yaiW 8opa? <f>opeovcn 7rp0pX.ripua.Ta. 
the black Brahui of Beloochi- 

stan. — 4. irpoo-f rcrdxaro : cp. 7. LIBYANS 

65. — StaXXdo-o-ovrcs : with dat. ; 71. 1. The tribes between 

gen. is more usual. — 5. <|>a>Wjv: Egypt and Cyrene. — 2. iiruccrf- 

ge. — 9. irpoprrairCSia : skin TOtert : i.e. burnt on the surface 



of the forehead, — 12. Kar{\pa: and thereby hardened. 



158 HERODOTUS VII [72. 9 

Tla(f}\ay6pcDV [iev wv kcu MaTuqvobv Aanos 6 Mcyacn- 
Spov ?}px € 9 MapiavSvvcov Sc kcu Aiyvcov kcu Svpicovio 

73T(o/3pvr)<; 6 Aapeuov T€ kcu * ApTvcrTdnrqq. <J>pvy€s 8c 
dyxoraTO) rrjs Ha<j>\ayovLKrj<; aKevrfv ci^ou, okiyov 
TrapaWda<rovT€s. ol Sc &pvy€S, a>s Ma/ceSoVes Xeyovm,, 
eKokeovro Bptyes xpovov ocrov JLvpaynrjioi cdircs aiiuoir ' 
kol rjcav MaKcSdVi, /x,cra/}aWcs Sc cs ttji/ *Acr[r)i/ a/xas 
T V X^PV Ka ^ T0 °vvop,a [xeTefiaXov cs &pvyas. *Ap- 
pevioi Sc Kara 7rc/o 4>/9uye5 ccrccra^aro, cdircs &pvyS>v 
airoiKoi. tovtcov awa/M^oTepcov ypx € *ApTox[M)S 9 Aa- 

74/octov c^wi/ dvyarepa. AvSot Sc ay^orara) 7W e EXX?y 
vikmv &x ov onka. ol Sc AvSot M^ovcs etcakeovro to 
7raXat ? C7rl Sc AvSov toS *Atvos eo~x ov T ^l v €7rawa;/niyi>, 
/jL€Taj3a\6vTe<; to ovvofia. Mvaol Sc C7rl /x,cj> T^<rt Kc^a- 
Xycri cl^oi/ tcpavta C7ri^a5/)ta, dcr7riSas 8c cr/xi/cpas, 5 

cians). But in support of Hdt.'s . 

view see Hirt, /?*> Indogtrtna- 
vicinity (cc. 72-77) „,„ ;. I32 f . _ 6 . i, *,*,„ . ^ 

73. 2. d-yx°TdT«: see on 7. App. — 7. <t»pvy»v &trotKOt: cp. 

64. 1. — 3. irapaXXAo-o-ovTcs : cp. Eudoxus apud Steph, Byz. 'Ap- 

8taAAaor(rovT€s 7. 70. 4. — 4. BpC- yu.eVioi 8c to /acv ycVos ck $pvyta? 

•yes (or B/ovycs) : Macedonian dia- Kal rfj (JHovrj woXXa <j>pvyi£o\xn. 

lectic form = <I>/Dvyes. — Evpwirrfjiot Ace. to Stein's view, the relation- 

&vtcs : Stein holds that Hdt. re- ship is reversed here, 
verses here the direction of tribal 74. 2. Mtfovcs : Homer calls 

movement ; that the <£/ovycs were the ancient inhabitants of Lydia 

originally Asiatic, and migrated Maeonians (B 866 Mrjovas . . . viro 

(perhaps with the Mysians and T/awAw yeycuoras). Cp. Strabo 

Teucrians) from Asia Minor to 10. 4. 5. Later the name Myovtq 

Thrace and Macedonia, whence was restricted to a small part of 

they were later again driven across Lydia, the valley of the upper 

the Hellespont by tribes from the Hermus. — 3. <irl Si AvSoG . . . 

north (Macedonians and Thra- ttjv iiruw|i£i)v : cp. 1. 7. 8 ol 82 



TRIBES OF ASIA MINOR AND 



76. 5 ] HERODOTUS VII 159 

OLKOVTIOLCTL 8c €Xp€0)VTO €7rt/CavrOtC7t. OVTOL Sc ClCTt 

Av8£>v d 770 1 /cot, d^' *0\v/jlttov Sc opeos /caXcoiTat 'OXvit- 
TriiqvoL Av8<Sj/ 8c /cat Mvow ^/>X € 'Apra^/oez^s. 6 
\\pra<f>p€V€o<; 9 o; cs Mapadwva ccrc^SaXc dtta Adrt. 

75©p^KC5 Sc C7Tt /XC^ T^CTt /CC^aX^CTt aXa)7TC/CCa5 €)(OVT€S 
ioTp<LT€VOVTOy 7TC/Dt Sc TO (T(t)fia KldcOVOLS, C7Tt Sc £ctpd? 
TTCptjSc^SXrjltcVot 7T0t/CtXaS, 7T€/Dt Sc rovs 7rdSas re /cat 
Ta? Kvrjpas 7rc8tXa vejSpwv, irpbs 8c d/coVrtd tc /cat 
TrcXra? /cat cy^ctptSta cr/u/c/od. ovrot 8c Sta^8di>TCs ftci/5 
c? tt)i> 'Acrtrp iK\rjdr)<rav BlOvvol, to Sc irporepov 
c/caXcoiro, a>s avrot XcyovTt, SrputtoVtot, ot/ccoj/rcs C77t 
^Tpvfioi/L • i^avao-Trjpcu 8c <£acrt cf y)di<nv viro TevKp&v 
re /cat Mvow. <dpj)Ka>v 8c raw eV 777 'Acrt^ ^/>X € 

76 Bacrcrd/oys 6 'ApTafidvov . . . do"7rtSas S£ co/xo^Sou/as 
cl^oi' afiucpds, /cat irpo/Bokovs Suo Xv/ctoc/oycas c/caoros 
cl^c, C7rt Sc Tjjcrt K€<f)a\f)0'i Kpdvea ^dX/cca • 77700s 8c 
TOtcrt /c/od^ccrt aird re /cat /cepea irpoo"f}v fiobs ^dX/cca, 
iwrj(rav 8c /cat \6<f>0L • rds 8c /cj/77'^as /5d/cccrt <f>oivi- 5 

vporepov * Ay ptavos /3a<ri\ev<ravres Anab. 7. 4. 4. — 2. ircpl t6 crapa : 

Tavriys tj/s X^PV* V aav a-iroyovoi for variety after €7rt t\ dfo/. Cp. 

AvSov tou *Atvos, <i7r' otco 6 7. 61. — £cipds: see on 7. 69. 2. 

817/1.09 AvSto? €K\rjO-q 6 Tras outos. — 4. ir&iXa veppov : fawnskin 

For iiric.gtn. see on 7. 40. 12. — sandals. — 6. iicXtfjOT)<rav : ingres- 

6. tirviccrfTouri : see on 7. 71. 2. sive. — 8. i| tjO&dv : cp. 7. 10. #3. 

— 7. AvSuv &iroiKOi: at I. 171. — wi TcvKpwv : cp. 7. 20. II. 
28 the two peoples are called, per- 76. 2. ctxov: the name of the 

haps more correctly, Kao-iyvrjToi. nation has been lost. Most edi- 

75. I. Op^Kcs : sc. ol cv rrj tors, since Wesseling, supply Xa- 

'kcrCrf, as 9 below shows. — dX«- Ai^Ses; Stein ELo-ioai ; SitzlerKav- 

vucfat : for same costume among vioi. — irpopdXovs : hunting spears. 

the European Thracians, see Xen. Cp. irpofioXaiov 7. 148. 16. — Xv- 



160 HERODOTUS VII [76.6 

Keoixri KaT€i\Cxa>To. iv TovroLcn ToZcri dvhpdai v A/ocds 
77 con xpyi<Trrjpiov. Ka/J^Xcis 8c oi Myopes, AacroVtoi 
8c /caAcd/xcpoi, ttjv avrrjv KiAifi ctj(oi/ aKevrjv, ttjv iy<o 9 
inedv Kara ttju KlXlkop rd^iv Sic^wwz/ ycz/coitat, rare 
(rrj/iaveo). MiXvai 8c at^/xa? re )8/>a^ca5 cl^oi/ kcu 
ct/xara iveireiroprriaTo • ei)(ov 8c avrw rd£a /jLerefjeTepot, $ 
Avkml, irepl 8c r^crt Ke^aXyai 4k 8i(f)0epeo)v 7TC7ronj- 
ttcVas Kvvias. tovtcov ttolvtwv tfpx € BaS/o^s 6 'Tora- 
78^co5. Mocr^oi 8c 7rc/ol xtcz> t#ctx Acc<^aX^o"t /cwcas 
£v\lvol<; cl^oz/, d<X7riSas 8c feat ataxias criufcpa? • Xoy^at 
Se enfjo-av ttcyaXai. TLJ3aprjvol Sc kclI MdVcpawc? kclI 
Moctovvolkol Kara irep Mdcr^ot icTKevaafievoi iorpar 
revovTo. tovtovs 8c aweraaaov dpxpvres oiSc, M0-5 
cr^ous ttcz> Kal TLJ3apr)voir<; ' Apiofxaphos 6 Aapeiov re 
7rat5 jcal Tldpp,vos r>?s S/xcpSios rov Kvpov, Mdicpajvas 
8c /cat Mocrawoi/covs 'ApTavKTr/s 6 Xopdcrfjuos, 05 
79St7cttoz/ r^y cz/ c EX\7ycr7rwrco iireTporreve. Ma/>c? 8c 
cVt xtc^ T#0"i K€<f>akr}o'L Kpdvea inLX^pta 7tXckt<x ci^ov, 
a(T7rt8a5 8c Sc/oxtariz>as 07x1 /cp a, 9 /cat d/cdzria. KoXx * 
Sc 7Tcpt xccz> rgo"t KC<^aXgo"t Kpdvea £dX«/a, do"7ri8a? 
8c (biAofioivas <r/JUKpd<; at^tca? re ^Spa^ca?, 77/005 8c KCU5 
tia^ai/oas cl^oz/. Mapa>p 8c /cal KdX^a)v ^/>X C ^a/NW" 
Sdrr;? 6 Tcdcr7rios. 'AXapdSioi 8c kcu 2do"7rci/ocs icara 

7TCp KoX^Ot a)7r\L(TfJL€POl €OTpaT€VOVTO. TOVTCOV 8c Mtt" 

80 cricmos 6 SipofjLiTpea) rjpx** r< * 8c irqaKOTiKa edvea to. 

Kiocpy&s: 0/ ' Lycian workmanship. 77. 1. olMtfovts: explanatory 

Cp. To£a Avkwi 7. 77. 5. — 6. ko- of Ka/3rj\eU and designating the 

TciXCxaTo : cp. KarciAtWovTcs 7. aborigines, whom Strabo calls by 

181. 10. the more general name AvSot. 



82.5] HERODOTUS VII 161 

ck t^5 'EpvOprjs dakdacn)* eiropeva, mjacov 8c iv Tfj<n 
tow avaxrirdoTovs /caXeo/xci>ovs /caroifei£a fiacnXevs, 
ay^orarai rcov Mrjhuc&v et;(oi> icrdfJTa tc Kal 6VXa. 
Tofotov 8c tgjj> vqcriayritov ypx € MapSdurtys 6 Bayaiov, 5 
0? a/ MiwaXg oTparqyeiov Scvrc/o^ cm tovtg>i> ctcXcv- 
ttjctc a> tq p-^XV* 

81 TaSra tJj> rd kcit* rfireipov arpaTtvopevd r€ idvea kcll 
Tcray/xcva cs toj> 7rc£di>. rourov ai*/ rot) arpaTov fjpx ov 
H& ovtol ol irep eipearau kcu ol Stara^avrc? kcu i£apid~ 
fwforaiTC? ovtoi 7j<rav Kal xiXiapx a s T6 lca ^ pvpiapx&s 
airooYfcurcs, €KaTovT&pxa>s 8e Kal 8c/capx a ? 01 pvpidp-$ 
X^i. TcXccoi/ Sc ical kdv£<&v fjaav aXXot oiqpdvTopes. 

82^0-av j*ci> 8>) ovroi 01 7rc/o eipearai dpxovres, iarpanj- 

yCOV 8c TOVTG)V T€ KCU TOV O"V/X7TaVT05 OT/KlToS TOV 

frcfov MapSdfid? tc 6 Tcofipveco kcu TpLTavraixpv^ ° 
AprajSwov rov ypcopy/v Oepevov fir) oTpareveadai iirl 
tiji/ 'EXXaSa Kal S/xcpSo/xcVrjs 6 'Otcu'cgj, Aapeuov dp-$ 

TRIBES OF THE PERSIAN GULF CHIEF COMMANDERS. THE IM- 

80. 2. Ik Tf)s 'Eptrfpfjs 60X00-- mortals (cc. 81-83) 

•^It: =iy voriiy 0aAa<nra, i.e. the 81. 2. TCToyulvo Is t6v ircfcdv: 

Indian Ocean with the Arabian cp. 7. 21. 6. — 5. olovpidpxoi: sc. 

a nd Persian gulfs. Here the Per- rjaav ol aTroSefavrcs. — 6. tcXcwv : 

sian Gulf is esp. meant. — Wj<r«v larger military divisions = rafccov, 

^ : resumes nyo-icimica (= ck vif as 7. 87. 4, 7. 211. 18. — &XX01 

°*ir) of the islands, namely. Cp. oTf|odvTop€s : different command- 

®Vtyty 8c 7. 121. 4. — 3. tovs dvo- ^rj, poetical term. 
rt ^rov$ : />. those transplanted 82. 4. tov *yv(ofi^v Oculvov : see 

toother regions. — 6. Sivrlpcp 2tci 7. 10. — 5. Kal SpcpSopcvTis 6 'OTd- 

ttfrnv: in the year after these vc« : there is no mention elsewhere 

*>*ntS)i.e. 479 B.C. (9. 102). 8cv- of Otanes as brother of Darius, 

T y*{ as comparative governs gen. though Artabanus was. The dif- 

Cp. 6. 46. 1 . ficulty would be removed by as- 

IIEKODOTUS — U 



i62 HERODOTUS VII [82.6 

<f>6repoi ovtol a8e\<f>e<ov 7ratScs, E,€p£r) Sc iyivovro 

aVo/ftot, /cat Ma<rl(TTr)<; 6 Aapeiov re /cat 'Aroaarjs 7rats 

' Kai Tcpyi? 6 'A/ud£oi/ /cat Mcya^Sv^o? 6 Zomvpov. 

S3 ovtol rjaav arparrjyoL tov <rvp,7ravros 7rc£oG )(G)pL$ rail/ 
fivpicov. rcov Sc [xvpLcop rovrcjv Uepaecov rS>v anoXeXey 
jxevcov io-rparrjyeL /xev 'TSdpvrjs 6 'TSd/oycos, iKaXeovro 8c 
addvoLToi oi Hepacu ovtol itrl rovhe • et rts clvtojv i£e- 
Xt7T€ roz/ apiO/Jibv rj davdrto {$Lr)0el<; r/ vovaa), aXXos$ 
aVr)p apaiprjTO, /cat iyivovro ovSafxa ovre irXeoves /jlv- 
pt(ov ovre iXdo-aove?. koct/aov Sc irXeurrov irapei)(ovro 
Sta ndvrcov Tlepaai /cat avrol aptorot rjaav. VKevrjv 
jxev TOLavrqv el^ov rj rrep eiprjTa.1, ^cu/hs Sc ypvaov re 
ttoXXov /cat d(f)dovov exovres evenpeirov. dpp.afid£as io 
re dfia Tjyovro, iv Sc 7raXXa/cds /cat depam\ir\v TroXXrjv 
re /cat c5 iaKevaafievyjv. extra 8c a<f>L y ^cupt? t£i' dX\<ov 
<rrpaTL(OT€(ov, Kd/xrjXoL tc /cat virolpy ia rjyov. 

84 c l7T7T€i;€t 8c ravra rd edvea • 77X771/ ov rrdvTa irapei- 
\ero XttttoV) dXXd ro&dSe piovva, Hepaai fiev rfjv avrfjv 

suming that the words belong after i . 25. 6, 8. 37. 13, 8. 69. 6, 8. 142. 8. 

av&pioi. — 6. dScX<)>cov iratScs : Mar- The const, is Homeric. Cp. M 

donius was a sister's son. — 8. Z«- 104 6 8' €7rpeir€ kou Sta TravTcw. — 

irvpov: who won Babylon for 10. iroXXov Kal &4>0ovov : abundant 

Darius. See 3. 153 ff. and rich. Cp. Hes. W. and D. 

83. 2. tovtwv: in attrib. posi- 118; Xen. Anab. 5. 6. 25. — <b(ov- 

tion, S. 1181 ; HA. 673 c — twv tcs *v£irp€irov : as 7. 67. 5. 

diroXcXc vulva) v : select. — 4. 4irl ^^ v 

~c .. T ifcA CAVALRY (CC. 84-88) 

tovSc : see on 7. 40. 11. — cgcXiirc : v *▼ / 

indie, for opt. in gen. cond. GMT. 84. 1. ravra: here looks for- 

467. — 6. dpafcptyro: was chosen ward. — irXrfjv: as 7. 32. 3. — 

already. Dial. § 4. 2. — 8. 8id irapcCxcTo: impf. after pres. ; the 

irdvTwv: above all. Cp. 6. 63. 15 one is general, the other refers 

avrjp €vBoKLfX€<av Sta 7ravTa)v, and to the specific case. — 2. tijv ai- 



86. i] HERODOTUS VII 163 

i<TKeV(WfJL€VOL KOLL 6 7Tc£o$ CLVTGJV * Tr\l)V €7Tt T7JO"t 

K€<f)a\rjcri &X JV ^T€^€TepoL avr£)v /cat ^aX/cca /cat <ti- 
BsSrjpea iijeXrfkafieva Trovrjixara. curt Sc rti>cs j/o/^aScs 
avdpcairot,, %aydprioi Ka\e6fievoL y e0vo<z fxkv TLepaiKov 
/cat tfavrj, (TKeurfv Sc fiera^v e^ovcrt TreiToir)i±€vr)v rfjs 
re HepmKrjs /cat tt}s Ila/cn/i/fty? • ot irapei^ovro /xcV 
Xttttov oKTaKia-xiktiqv^ oirka 8e ov vofiL^ovat eytiv ovres 
^aXicea ourc ahrjpta etjco ey^eipihiwvy \pio)VT at Sc crct- 
pyjci venXey/iepyav cf ludvTojp. Tavryat iriavvoL c/o- 
^ovrai 65 irokefiov • 07 Sc /iayTj tovtojv tS)v dvSpwv 
rjhe - inedv cru/x/xtcrycucrt rotcrt 7roXc/xtoicTi, fidWovcri 
rag crct/oas cV a/c/>a> fipoxovs c^oucra? • orco 8* ai> 10 
™XQ> V p TC * 7nrov ^ TC dv0p(OTTOv, in icjvrbp cX/cct • ot 
8c cv €jp/c€<rt e/x7raXao"cro/x€i/ot §ia<\>6elpovTai. tovtcov 
p.lv avTTj r] p<d)(r), /cat iirereraxaTO e's rous Ilepcrag. 

86 M^Sot Se T7JJ/ 7TC/3 CI/ T<3 7Tc£<S cT^Ol/ <TK€WJV, KOL KlOXTtOt 

t^v j£. 0-Keuiyv. — 3. &nc€va«r|i4- not wont. — 6. <r€ipfj<ri : lassos. 

vot: agreeing with II ipaai, where — 7. irCo-vvoi: poetical and He- 

i<rK€va(Tfifvrp/ (Imrov) was to be rodotean ; in Attic prose only in 

expected. — 5. 4(c\T)\a|Uva iroirfj- Thuc. Cp. 7. 10. 5. — 8. Tipdx*): 

para: beaten works. Cp. cikw as 7. 9. a 1. — 10. £ir atcpw: at 

<T<f>vp-f\\arov 7. 69. 15. A kind of the end. — 11. rvxtl • sc. 6 ^aA.- 

helmet is meant, instead of rtapas Acov, transition to more vivid sing. 

(7.61.2). — oi iv KpK€crt 4piraX.a<r<r6|icvoi : 

85. 2. 30vos . . . Kal +«vtf : note //wj* entangled in the toils. The 

combination of ace. of specifica- rare verb as in Thuc. 7. 84. 15. 

tion and dat. of manner with Hep- c/jkos is a poetical term. — 13. Ittc- 

aucov. — 3. |icto£v rfjs tc . . . TCTdxewo & tovs II4p<ras : cp. 7. 

IlaKTViKfjs : the prep, phrase as adv. 81.2. 

modifier to ireiroirjfitvriv. Cp. 2. 86. 1. M^Soi : on the Median 

42. 18 <f>u)vrjv fJLerajjv afi<f>OT£pb)v and Kissian armor, see 7. 62. 

vo/xtiforrc?. — 5. ov vofiCfcowri: #/^ — ct\ov: common to both princi- 



i6 4 HERODOTUS VII [ 

axravTG)?. 'l*>8ot 8s a-Kevjj fiev iaecd^dTo ry avrg 
iv t$ *re£c3, rjXavvov 8c /ccX^ras /cat apfiara • vn 
rotcri ap fiacre vn^aav Ittttol /cat o^ot ayptoi. ] 
rpioi he covccvaSaro axravrcos /cat iv r<£ 7re££, 
Kao"7rtoi 6/xota>5. ACfives he /cat avrol Kara irep i\ 
7T€^g> • ^Xawoi/ he /cat ovrot irdvTes apfiara. & 
avrcos Kao"7Ttot /cat Ila/at/cai/iot ea-ead^aTo 6/x,ota>s 
«> t<£ 7rc£a5. 'Apd/Bioi he aKevrjv /xev eX)(ov ttjv a\ 
/cat iv tgJ 7T€£<£, ^Xawoi/ 8c 7rcu>T€s KafnjXovs ra^vi 

87 ov X€t7rofta>as i7nr<ov. ravra ra edvea fiovva lim 
apidfjibs he rrjs Ittttov iyevero oktco /xv/naSes, m 
roiv Kapxjkoyv /cat rSxv ap/xdrcov. ol p.ev vvv a 
t7T7rct5 crcra^aro /cara rcXca, 'Apa/3tot 8c ccr^ 
C7T€T€ra^aTo. are yap r<Si> Imrcov ovtl ave^o/u 
ra? KafiyjXovs varepoi eTerd)(aTo, Iva p,r) <f)o/3t 

88 to Ittitikov. lirirapxpi he rj&av 'Ap/iaptOpr)? re 
Ti'0ato? Aarto? 7rat8c5. 6 8c rpiro% <r<£t ovvlm 
Xos &apvovxr)S KaTeXeXenrro iv %dphiat vocecov. 
yap opjJLcovTo c/c Xaphicov, inl crvpL^opyjv irepve-i 
avedeXr)Tov. iXavvovri yap ol virb rovs 7ro8a? 

pal and rel. clause. — 2. lo-co-d- inferior to, cp. 7. 8. a 12, 7. ^ 
Xa«ro: as 7. 62. II. — 3. inrh ... 87. I. ratira . . . linrcvci : 

virf^o-ov : were yoked to the chariots. 84. 1. — 4. t&co : cp. 7. 81 . 

The yoke was regarded as part of 5. &tc : cp. 7. 6. 1, 7. 23. 11. — ( 

the chariot. Cp. Horn, f 73 rjfxio- |ri) 4">f&oiTo t6 liririicdv : cor 

vovs ff virayov fei5£av ^* vif the device of Cyrus to frij 

airqvrj. — 7. «s 8' afrr«$: separa- the horses of Croesus' army ] 
tion as in Homer. — 10. Kap4j- 88. 2. <r+i <rvvtinrapxos : 

Xovs . . . tirirwv: cp. 3. 102. 19 dependent on <rw. The 

KafxrjXoL t7nro)v ovk fyro-oves h ra^v- only here. — 4. Iirl <rv|i^op)| 

rrjra. For XtiirecrOai c. gen., to be piiirco*c &vc8&t|tov : unusual c 



».i4] HERODOTUS VII 165 

Imrov inriSpafie kvojv, kcu 6 iiriros ov irpo&av i<j>o/3TJ0r) 
n koI ords opdbs a7r€<r€i<raTo tov &apvovx€a, ireaotv 
8c af/xd re fjfxti Kal is fyOlaiv irtpLrjXde rj vovaos. tov 
8c Imrov avruca kolt ap\as iiroirja'av a>s iiccXeve • aira- 
yayovres oi oikctcu cs tov )(a>pov iv t<j> irep fcarcJSaXc 10 
tov h&rTranjVy iv roUri yovvaai dnirafiov tol ovccXca. 
Qapvovxrjs fiev ovro) irapekvOr) rfjs rjyeiiovCr)?. 
9 T£^ 8c Tpir)p€(ov dpiOfJibs [lev iycvero iwrd Kal 
SiijKocnai Kal xfXiai, rrapel)(ovTo 8c auras oi8c, Qotvuces 
jihf ovv SvpoLCTL tolcl iv tt} HaXaiorCvrj T/owjKOcrta?, 
«58c idKeuacfxivoi • vepl fiev Tfjai Ke<f}a\jj<rL Kvvias 
d^ov ay^oTaTco ireiroirmevas rpowov tov 'TDikrjviKov, 5 
cV8c8vkc't€s 8c 0a')pr)Ka<; Xw/cou?, do"7riSas 8c Ttu? ovk 
c^ovcra? d;(oz> Kai aKovTta. ovtol 2c ot <I>ou'ikc? to 
vakaibv oiKeov, a>s avroi Xeyov<ri, iirl Tjj 'Epvdpfj da- 
w<rg, ivdeurev 8c virepftdvres Trjs Xvplrjs oiKeovct to 
ffapa ddXacrcrav. tt)s 8c tvpir)? tovto to ^opiov Kal 10 
T0 /^XP 1 Atyv7TTOv irdv IlaXatOTt^Tj fcaXcirai. Aiyu7r- 
not 8c vias Trapeixovro Si^Koo-ias. ovrot 8c cl^oi/ 
ff€ P l ft€j/ T#o"i K€<f)akf}aL Kpdvea ^Xcirrd, doTriSas 8c 
Kotkas, ra? irus /utcyaXa? c^oiJcras, Kal Sd/oard tc i/av- 

* or dat. or dat. with €v. avediXrj- fying the adv. ace. rp&nrov tov 

T0 * as 7. 133. 9 = adapts 7. 190. 'EAA^vikov. — 6. 4v8cSvk6tcs 8<&pt|- 

H*"— 8. <J>6C<rtv: consumption. — icas XiWovs : jr. iy<rav. Cp. 7.63. 

9- airUa kot dpxas : as 7. 148. 6. — 7. cx<>v<ras ct\ov : note the 

^ 7- 220. 12. parechesis. — 8. Iirl tq 'EpvOpft 

OaXdo-o-n : the Persian Gulf. — 

• WE FLEET < cc - 8 9-9«) 9 . T4j, SvpCrp: dependent on rb 

89. I. Jirra Kal SiT)ic6<riai Kal 7ra/oa Odkaaaav. — 13. x t l^ €vra: 

X^Wi : cp. Aesch. Pers. 344 f. — = irXtKra 7.79.2. — 14. pc-ydXas : 

5« 4YX 0TaT « : very nearly, modi- pred. to ras Itvs. — 86paTo vav- 



i66 HERODOTUS VII [89. 15 

fia^a /cat ti/kovs /xcyaXous. to he Trkrjdos avr(ov dwprj-^1 

90 KO(f)6poi rjaaV) /x-a^at/oa? 8c /utcyaXas el)(ov. ovroi puev 
ovtg) coraXaro, Kw/otot he irapei)(ovTO veas ireiTrJKOvra 
/cat c/caroi>, co7ccuacr/x,ci>ot <5Se. ras [lev /c€<£aX<x9 ctXt- 
^aro fiLTpyo'L ol ^SacrtXcts avTa>v, ol he aXXot cl^oi/ 
Kidaivas, tol 8e aXXa Kara 7rep "EXX^pcs. tovt<ov heS 
rocraSc edved ctcrt, of /xci> a7ro SaXa/xttos /cat * AOrjvecov, 
ol he dnb 'A/o/caSt^s, ot 8c oVo Kv#i>ov, ol he oVo 
&oiviK7)s, ol he drrb Aldioirir)*;, a>9 .avrot KvirpiOL 

91 Xcyovcrt. KtXt/ccs 8c c/caroj/ irapei^ovro veas. ovtol 
8* av 7T€/ot /xcj> Trjcrt Kecfxtkyjci Kpdvea cm^/ota, 
\aiorjid re etyov dvr doTrtScui/, ayxo^Soeq? 7TC7rot7j/Lta/a, 
/cat Ki0<ovas eipiveovs ci/ScSv/corcs • Suo 8c a/coVrta 
c/caoros /cat £t<£os ct)(OJ>, ay^orarcu Tjjcrt Aty V7rrtt;cri 5 
fia-^aiprjo'L 7rc7rot77/ACJ>a. ovtol /xev to Trdkoubv e T7ra- 
Xatot c/caXcoif o, C7rt 8c KtXi/cos toS 'Ayrjvopos dphpbs 

|ia\a: cp. Horn. O 389 £ vara vav- according to tradition, Arcadians 

/Ltaxa- — I 5- tvkovs: battle axes, m from Tegea, led by Agapenor, on 

this sense only here. the return from Troy settled at 

90. 4. ptTpx)<ri: turbans. Cp. Paphos. Inscriptions show strik- 

7.62.9. — ol fkuriXcts : there were ing similarities between the Ar- 

nine chief cities in Cyprus each cadian and Cyprian dialects. — 

with its own king. — 6. gOvcdclo-i: 8. &ir& A10ioit(t|$: doubtful what 

plural verb, as freq. in Horn, and this means. Hdt. states in 2. 182. 

Xen. — dird SaXaptvos koI 'AOtj- 13 that Amasis captured Cyprus, 

W«v : the Cyprian Salamis was but says nothing of a colony, 
said to have been founded by Teu- 91. 3. w|u>|3oIt]$: sc. 80/3775. — 

cer when banished by his father 5. dyx ™™ ir€irotT||t4va : = djfunco- 

on his return from Troy. The /zc'va, hence with dat., though 

island of Salamis, with its Aeacid dyxorctTO) elsewhere takes gen. 

heroes, was regarded as belonging The plur. after £t<£os because a 

to Athens. — 7. diro 'Apica8(T)s : plural idea is in mind. — 7. tori Si 



*• a] HERODOTUS VII 167 

QoiviKos ec^ov ttjv eiroivvp^vqv. Ud[A<f)v\oi Sc rpwj- 
Kovra irap€i)(omo veas 'EXKrjviKourL oirXoiai covccua- 

| (Tfievoi. ol Sc UdfL<f>v\oi ovroi eial t<ov Ik Tpoirjs 10 

92 awoa'Ke&aa'OivTtov a/xa 'A/x^tXd^a) /cat KaX^ai^rt. Av- 

kiol Sc irap€L)(Opro veis irewnj koptcl, 0(oprjKo<j>6poL re 

iovres kolL Kvr)p.iho(f)6pii, el\ov Sc rofa Kpaveiva ko\ 

6i'aTOV5 KakifLivovs dirrepov^ KaX aKorrta, eirX 8c atyog 

Sep/xara 7rc/H tou? ai/xovs ai<i)pe6p.eva, irepl Sc ryciS 

K€(j)a\y(rL iriKovs Trrepoici 7rcpicaT€<£ai><o/xci>ovs • iyx eL " 

yotSta 8c /cat hpenava el^ov- Avklol Sc TepfiiXai cfcaXc- 

ojto c/c KpyJTTjs yeyovores, im 8c Avkov tov Havhiovos 

93cu'8 r >o? ^Adrfvavov e<r\ov rrjv eTTtsiwp.vqv. Aajpieis 8c 
ot c/c r^s 'Actios TpirJKovra Trapeiypvro via^ y k\ovr4s 
re 'EXXtjj/iko, 07rXa #cal ycyoi>oTcs a7ro IIcXo7row>7(rov. 
Kapcs 8c efihoptftcovTa irapeiyovro i>cas, tol /xev dXXa 
Kara 7rc/o ^EXXrpcs ccrraXttcVot, cTyoy 8c Kat hpeiravaS 
Kal cy^ct/otSta. ovrot 8c otnvc§ rrporepov cKaXcoiro, 
ev Touri TrpdroLCL twv \6ycov elpiqr ai. "iwves 8c Ikoltov 

^4 i/ca? Trapei)(ovTOy ecKevacrfievoi cos ^EXX^i/cg. v Icoi>cs 8c 
otroi/ /x.c*> xpovov ev Iie\oTTOvvrj(T(a ottceov rfjv vvv /caXco- 

KCXikos : see on 7. 40. 12. — 10. t»v the Dorian pentapolis or league of 

. . . &|ia 'AfujuXdxv : cp. Strabo, five Dorian colonies on the coast 

p. 668. A second colony founded of Asia Minor (1. 144). Ik for iv 

by Amphilochus is mentioned by by a kind of attraction, the point 

Hdt. 3. 91. 2. whence. Cp. 7. 37. 8.-6. ol'n- 

92. 5. atapc6|&cva : cp. Trapauo- vcs irpoTcpov ItcaAiovro : tfi" ///*y 
peofjutvay. 61.8. — 7. Sptaava: *.*. w*r* called formerly , i.e. Leleges 
sickle-shaped swords. — 8. IIov- (1. 171. 6). 

SCovos: son and successor of Ce- 94. 1. "Loves: i.e. the Ionian 

crops. dodekapolis on the coast of Asia 

93. 1. Auputs ol km rfjs *Aa-ir\s: Minor (1. 145). — 2. ttjv vvv ko- 



1 68 



HERODOTUS VII 



[94-3 



fianjv 'A)(aiCr)v kol irplv rj Aavaov re kclI %ovQov 
amiceaOai cs Tlekoirovvrjaov, o>9 "EXXtjj/cs Xeyovcri, 
eKaXeovro TleXaayol AiyiaXcis, iirl 8c *Ia)vos rov Hov-5 
95 6ov "Icovcs. vrfaitorai Sc iirraKafoeKa irapeixovro J>cas, 
a>7rXioyxci>oi a>s "EXX^j/cs. kcu rovro TleXaayiicbv c#i>os, 
vorepov 8c 'Icoi/fKoi/ €kXiJ07) Kara top ovtov Xoyov kol 
ol Svco8cKa7rdXi€s *Igjj/cs ot oltt 'Adrjveiov. AioXcZ? 8c 
etjyJKOvTa veas irapei)(ovTOj €07ccvaoyxci>oi re a>s *EXXr/i>c$ 5 
kcu to 7raXat KaXeofxevot HeXa&yoi, g5s 'EXX^i/a)*/ Xoyos. 
c EXXr/o"7roj>Tioi 8c 7tXt)i> 'A/3v8r)v<ov ('A/3v$r)voio'i yap 
irpoaereraKTO etc ^ScunXcos /cara X^P^ H&ovo'i <f>vXa- 



Xcoplvt|v 'AxaiC^v : the district on 
the north coast of the Pelopon- 
nese was called AfyioAcia, before 
the Ionians were driven out by the 
Achaeans(i. 145) ; hence the des- 
ignation below Ue\.a<ryol Atyia- 
Acts. — 3. Aava6v: father of the 
Danaids. — govOov: ace. to tradi- 
tion, Xuthus, the son of Hellen, 
driven from Thessaly by his broth- 
ers Aeolus and Dorus, fled to At- 
tica and marrying Creusa, daugh- 
ter of Erechtheus, became the 
father of Ion and Achaeus, the 
progenitors of the Ionians and 
the Achaeans. Expelled then 
from Attica by the sons of Erech- 
theus, Xuthus fled to Aegialus, 
where his son Ion, marrying the 
daughter of King Selinus, became 
king of the Aegiales, who were 
then called AtyiaAets 'Wes (Pau- 
san. 7. 1). — 5. IIcXeMryol Alyia- 



Xcts: the autochthonous inhabit- 
ants of the Peloponnese were all 
considered Pelasgian by Hdt. 

95. 1. vT)<rifirai: i.e. inhabit- 
ants of the islands of the Aegean, 
esp. of the Cyclades. For those 
that held to the Greeks, see 8. 46. 

— tirraicatScica : Diod. II. 3 says 
fifty. — 2. to€to : for ovtol, assimi- 
lated to 20VOS. — 3. Kara tov a£- 
tov \6-yov KaC : on the same ground 
as. — 4. ol SvaScicairiXkcs "Icwtt : 
see on 7. 94. 1. — ol dir *A0t|W«»v : 
driven by the Achaeans from the 
Peloponnese they betook them- 
selves first to Athens, then to Asia 
Minor and the islands. Athens 
was regarded as fir/rp&rroXis of the 
Ionian colonies (1. 147. 7). — Alo- 
Xcts: also a dodekapolis (1. 149). 

— 6. to irdXat : cp. to ttoXoiov 7. 
91.6. — 8. licpao-tXfos: for ck see 
on 7. 11. 14. — pivovo-i ^6\cuc«t 



•Ml HERODOTUS VII 169 

kcls elvai tG>v ye^vpecov) ol 8e \onrol ol €K tov TJovtov 
OTpaT€v6fi€i>oi TrapeixovTO pkv itcarbv veas, ia/ctva- 10 
0710/01 8c fjcav cos v EX\tji/€5. oStol Se 9 I<ov(ov teal 
96A(opL€(ov anoLKOL. iireftdrevov 8e iirl iraaitov rSiv veS)i/ 
Uepcrac Kal Mrjhoi Kal XaKai. tovtcov 8e dpiara 
fl-Xcoucras irapelxoiro veas 4>ounK€9 Kal &olpuc<ov 2i- 
$(ovioi. tovtolcl iraai Kal Tolai cs top irttjbv Terayfie- 
vouri clvt&v iirfjcav kKaoTouri iiri,)(<opLOL rfye/jiove^ rS>v 5 
eycu, ov yap avayKavQ i^epyo/jiat c? loToptys \6yov, ov 
7rapafi€fJLP7)ixau ovre yap idveos eicdoTov iirdtjiot fjaav 
oi fjyefioves, £v re edvei iicdoTa) qaai irtp 7rdXi€9 roaov- 
tol Kal ^yc/itwcs f)<rav. elirovro 8c a>s ov (rrpaTqyoi 
dXX* aairep ol aXXoi arparevofievoi SouXot, €7rel arpa- 10 
Tt)yoi T€ ol to irav ej(oi>T€9 Kpdros Kal apxpiwes tmv 
idviwv eKaarioVy ocrot avr&v fjaav Hepaat, elpearaC 
¥7 fjuoL. tov 8c vavriKov iorparrjyeov oT8c, * ApiafHyvy]*; 
re 6 Aapeibv Kal n/w^aoTnjs 6 'Aairadlvtco Kal Meya- 
/Sa£o; 6 MeyajSarcco Kal 'A^at/Lta^? 6 Aapeiov, rqs p,£v 
'IaSo? re Kal Kapucfjs crrparirj^ ' Apiafiiyviqs 6 Aapeiov 

ctvai : the ptc. agreeing with 9 A/3v- icafy 4$loyo|iai: as 7. 139. 1 = 

Stypourt, while <£vAaxas is ace. on c£avayKa£o/jat. — is UrropCijs X6- 

account of the inf. — 9. ol Sc'Xoi- -yov: for the historical narrative. 

iroC : resumption after parenthesis. — 7. 4ird£ioi : i.e. of mention. — 

— to« IldVrov: i.e. the Helles- 9. «s o*: for <wk o>s, prob. to 
pont, though referring to the whole avoid & ov. — 10. SoOXot : subjects. 
region from the Aegean to the — lircC : connecting with tG>v . . . 
Euxine (Hellespont, Propontis, ov irapa^yivqfmi. 

and Bosporus). 97. 1. otSc: see App. — 'Apia- 

96. I. iiriPdnvov: cp.7. 1 84. 8. pCyviis: fell at Salamis (8. 89).— 

— 2. t©*t»v: as TovTouTi below, — 2. Mfydpagos: see 5.32. — 
referring to the peoples. — 6. dva*y- 3 . 'Axaipivqs : see 3.12. — 4. <rrpa- 



170 



HERODOTUS VII 



T€ 7TCUS /Cat T7J5 T(o/3pV€(0 dvyOLTpOS ' AlyimTUOl 

iarparrjyei ' Axaifievr) ;, Septjea) cow aV d/x(f)OT 
d§€X<^ed>, tt?s Se dWrj; crrpaTirj^ ea-Tparrjyeov ol 
TpirjKovrepoc 8e /cat irevrrjKovrepoi /cat KepKovpoi 
Imrayojya nkoia oyu/cpd avvekOovra is tov apt 

98 i(f)dvr) r/otcr^tXta. to>i> Se eiriirkeovrcov fierd ye 
OTparrjyous otSe Tjcrai/ ot oi/o/LtaoTorarot, 2t8< 
TerpdfivrjcTTos 'Avvcrov, /cat Tupto? MarrTji^ 2t/)c 
/cal 'A/octBtos Mep^SaXo? *Ay/3d\ov, /cat KtXtf 2ve>i 
'fl/oo/LteSoi/ro?, /cat Av/aos Kvfiepv Uncos St/ca, /cat 
7r/otot rd/oyos T€ 6 Xepcrto? /cat Tipcovatj 6 Tt/Ltay< 
/cat Kapcov "Iariatd* re 6 Tvfiveo) /cat IIty/017? 6 e To 

99§a/40V /cat AafiaaiOvfios 6 KavSavXeco. tcov p*h> 
dk\<ov oi irapafjLefjLvrjfjLOLL Ta^idp^ayv a>9 ov/c dvayi 
fievos, 'A/ore/ucrt^s 8e, t??s /xaXtora 0<S/x,a iroueofia 
rf/v 'EXXaSa (TTparevaafievrj^ ywat/eds, ^tis d* 
z/eWos tov dvSpbs avrrj re e^ovcra ttjv rupavvfiic 
7rat8o5 virdp)(ovTO<s ver)v£(o xmo \rjfiaTos re /cat 

ti^s : fleet, 7. 44; 9. — 6. Air d^4>o- of the Cyprian Salamis. < 

Wptuv : i.e. oltto irarpos ical /xiyrpos. 104, 115. — 7. 'Lraatos 6 T' 

— 7. ol 8vo: i.e. the other two mentioned also 5. 37. 3. — I 

(Prexaspes and Megabazus). |Aao-(8v(xos : prince of the < 

98. 2. ol ovonao-TdTaToi : vas- city of Kalynda (8.87. 12).' 
sal princes, who were €Tn\^pioi 

^yc/xoVcs.— 3- MarrV Sip^ov: ARTEMISIA 

the father (Phoen. Hirdm, Hiram) 99. 2. oi iiupa|iipvi||&at 

reigned at Tyre till 532 B.C. — the intrusion of this non-a 

4. 'ApdStos : from a Phoenician tive element, as not infreq. ii 

town, Aradus. — Sv^vvcons: ap- —3. 8»jia iroilopai: perir. 

parently the title of the rulers for BavyA^ui. Cp. iirouqfTarc 

of Cilicia. Cp. 1. 74. 16; Xen. 7. 105. 2. — 6. ircuSos Wdp> 

Anab. 1.2. 12. — 6. Tdpyos : prince prob. Pisindelis, by whos 



100. io] HERODOTUS VII 171 

Spj/tijs, ioTpareverOy ovSc/aujs iov<rr t <; oi dvayKatys. 
owofta /jt€i/ 87) fjv avrfj ' A/ore/ucrfy, dvydriqp 8e r\v 
AvySa/uos, ya/os Se i£ * A\LKapvr t crcrov tcl 71700s 7ra- 
Tpo's, ra /jLTjTpodeu 8c Kprjo-aa. rjyefioveve 8c 'AXuca/o- 10 
vrpv&uv tc icai K<p(0v Kal Nio"v/na>i> tc /cat KaXvS^iW, 
tt6t€ yeas irapexofievr). Kal <ruva7rdcrr)s rrjs crr/oan^?, 
fiera ye ras 2iS<yz/ian>, i>ea9 eu^ofoTaras Trapti)(ero, 
TT<m<ov he tS)v crvfifid^cov yvcofxa^ apUrras fiacrtXci 
aircSe^aro. t<Si> 8c KarcXcfa irokicav fjyefioveveiv avrrjvj 15 
to !0j/os a7ro<f)aivco irav ebv Acopucov, * AXiKapvrjcrcreas 
H& Tpoi^Tjz/iovs, tou5 8e dXXovs 'ETTtSau/otov?. 

100 'E? /!€!/ TOCToVSe 6 VOLVTIKOS O"T/0aTO5 eip-qrat • Sepoys 

°* cirei ripidfirjdr} re icat hierd)(6y) 6 crrparo^ iweOvfi^cre 

fttros o"<^€as SicfeXdcras Oetjcrao'd at. /xcra 8e iiroUi 

Ta ^ra, ical SicfeXawajz/ €7rl dp/xaro? 7ra/od c^os li> 

CKaaroi/ ivwddperOy Kal aTreypafov 61 ypafifianoTaiyS 

€a *s e£ ia^drajv c? ia^ara diriKero Kal tt?5 lirirov Kal 

tov Trc?ov* a>s 8c ravrd ot iirerroiiqTOy tmv vecov /carcX- 

^crSeureoov e? ddkaacrav, ivOavra 6 Hep^s /xereic/Sds 

e * toC dp/Ltaro? es i>€a SiSawiTp i£cto v7ro ctktjvjj 

XP*J<tJi Kal irapenXei, irapa raq trpcLpas tojv vecov, iiret- 10 

^&<iamis, Herodotus was later 205-214; Amestris 9. 109-113. — 
Dar *i^hed from Halicarnassus. — 16. diro<j>a£va> : I declare. 



"**^irpos iraTpos : 0/z the father's 



9- 

«Vf^ ' / . , ' q REVIEW OF THE HOST 
^- — 14. -yvwjias apt arras pcuri- 

^.irfS^aTo: see 8. 68, 69, 10 1- 100. 5. airfypcu^ov oi Ypappari- 

I0 3» Hdt. is fond of characteriza- trrai: ///* (royal) scribes made 

tl0 **s of women. Besides Artemi- lists. To these lists Hdt. prob. 

sia > liis most notable woman, see had access. — 9. Wa 2i8»vCt|v : the 

* ^ Gorgo of Sparta 5. 51, 7. 239; Sidonian ships were regarded as 

^Uocris 1. 185-187; Tomyris 1. the best in the fleet. Cp. 7.44. 



172 HERODOTUS VII [* 

pwT(ov re ejcaoras 6/xoto>9 kcu top ire£bp Kal diroyp 
fiepos. ras 8c vias ol pavap^oi avayayovres 5<n 
Tecrcrepa irkidpa airb rov aiyiaXov ap€Ka>)£€vop> 
npcopas eg yrjp rpo^avr^ irdvres ixeramr)8bv Kal 
7r\tcra^TC5 tovs em/8aras a>? e? iroXefiop. 6 8* < 
T(ov np&pecop irkitov id^eiro Kal rov alytaXov. 
101 e f2s 8k Kal ravra? Stcfe7rXa)(7€ ical e^CjS?? e#c r^5 
fi€T€7r€fi\jjaTO ArjfidprjTov top * Xpurravos avarpa 
fiepop avT(o iirl rr)p 'EXXaSa, icaXecra? 8* airrbp ei 
raSe • Arjfidpr)T€, pvp fioi <re r)hv tl iarl elpeada 
0eXa>. crv e:s v FXXr)p re, Kal &>$ iya) irvpddpofxai 
re Kal t(op dWtoP . 'EXXtji/oii/ tg>i> ifiol €5 Xdyovs c 
P€OfJL€P(OP, 7rdXto5 ovr* eXa^wrTTj? ovr' dcrdepeoTt 

PVP S)P fJLOL ToSc <f>pd(TOPy el V EXXt?*>€S VTTOfltVi 

X&pas efiol dirraecpofiepoi. ov ydp, a>9 cya> Soiceaj, 
ei irdpres E\Xtji/€<j /cat ot X<H7rol oi 717009 €<r7i 
oik€opt€<; dpffpomoL crvWe^ffetrjo-aPy ovk d£i6fiax<>C 
e/xe eiriopra u7ro/x,€U>ai, fir) cdires apdyaoi. 0e'Xa> /jl< 
Kal rb dirb creo, 6/coid^ rt Xeyct? irepl avr&p, irvdec 

8, 7. 96. 2, 7. 99. 13, 7. 128. 10.— the litotes. — 8. vOv &v: nou 
11. diroYpa<|>6|&fvos : having a rec- continuative, as 7. 16. /3 1. - 
or d made. S. 1725; HA. 8i5;GS. |Mvfov<rt: will dare, with i 
150.— 15. 4vt6s: unusual for /xcrafv. ptc, as 7. 209. 18, for inf. 

const, reappearing in late wi 

XERXES TALKS WITH DEMARATUS ... , ** *» 

— 9. OVO €1 . . . (TVAAcxOci 

^ ^' o4k &{i6^a\oC fUri: mixed < 

101. 2. Ai^dpirrov: see 7. 3. tion. Note the heaping c 

2 and 6. 61-70. — 4. 4|M tv &tt(: negatives for emphasis. d£ui 

cp. €v ^8onJ iari 7. 15. 12; 1/801/17 with inf. as 7. 138. 8. — 12. 

(ian) 7. 160. 12. — 7. 4\ax£<rrr|s: |&c?vcu : with ace. to withstat 

absolute superl. wry J///*?//. Note 13. rh dirfc Ho : thy view, exp] 



102.i 5 ] HERODOTUS VII 173 

ftcp ravra cipewra, 6 8e v7roXa/8aw> fyr) • /SacnXeu, 
fcorcpa akrfdetr) xprjacofMU npos <re rj r)8ovj} ; 6 8c p,iv 15 
akTjSeiy xpTJaaadat ciceXevc, <£as ovSev ol drfhearepov 
itoherdaj. rj irporepov rjv. ok 8c raura rjicovcre Atj- 
fMt/njros, cXcye ra8e • BacnXeu, ^tciSt) dXr/Oeir) Sia- 
XP^o'aa'daL Tramps KcXeueis raura Xeyoi^ra ra /X7j 
iJjcvSo/ici/ds ns .vorepov virb <reo dXcoaeT at, rfj e EXXa8t 
wir) [lev aleC kot€ <rvvrpo<f>6<z eori, dperr) £e iiraicToss 
«m, aTrd tc <ro<f>[r)<; Karepyaafiivr] ical vofiov la^vpov • * 
rj} 8ta^p€a)/Lte^ 17 'EXXas t>/i> t€ TrevCrjv dirapjvuerai /cat, 
n^ §t<nrocrvvr)v. aiveio p*iv wv irdvTa^ ^EXX^z/as rovs 

ff€/H OC61Z/OU? TOU5 Aa>/HJCOU? X&pOVS <H#ttJ/X€l>OUS, €/0^O- 

/*<u 8e \4^<av ov wept irdvroyv rovcrSe tovs Xdyous, dXXa 10 
to/h AaiceSat/Lto^uuy fjLOvvojp, irptora jicv on ovk coti 
wws /core <rous hi^ovrai koyovs Zovkoavvrjv fyipovras 
TJJ EXXaSt, a3ris 8c g5? dmidxrovrai rot e? p*dyr\v /cat 
1" oj aXXot *EXXiyi/€5 irdvres ra era (jypoveaxri. dptff/xov 
<* tf€/H ^77 7ru#27 oam rii>es cdi^rc? raura 7r<H€ti> ofot re 15 

ty okoIov rt. Cp. 1. 159. 7, 4. 1 39. 1 2, <£a>i/ (yoa"rjfidT<ov) . — fciraicros : im- 

9'7-an. — 15. fjSovfj: sc. ^pyaa)- ported, acquired. For the thought, 

^^ffpos fjhovrjv A.c£o>. — 17. 8<r€- cp. Eur. frg. 642 irevia 8c <ro<f>iav 

*** : tt . aurdv. Such omission of c\a^€ 81a to Svotvxcs, and Theocr. 

^j.ofinf.freq.inHom.,^. #520. 21. 1 d 7revia, Aidc/Wrc, /xdva ras 

102. 3. rd |&i| i|rcvS6|iev6s tvs rc^vas iyeipei, Avra t<o /xoxOolo 

• • . dX&riTai: the ptc is suppl. Si&xotcoAos, Plaut. ^Sto//. 1. 3. 24 

. ty because the rel. clause has the paupertas omnes artes perdocet. 

force of result aimed at. GMT. — 6. dird <to<|>It)s : from (by means 

576.-5. aUC kotc: forever and of) common sense. — 9. ?pxo|uu 

*>er\ freq. in Thuc. and tragedy. \*f«v : see on 7. 49. 14. — 13. «s: 

^-o^vrpo+os: bred with, innate = for variety after on. — 14. rd <rd 

ivfyfws. The term is medical. 4>poWa>o-t: take your side, as 2. 162. 

Cp. Thuc. 2. 50. 4. rwv fuvrpo- 27, 8. 34. 9, 8. 75. 11, 9. 99. 6. 



174 HERODOTUS VII [102. 16 

eia • r\v T€ yap rv^wcrt e^earpareviievoi ^tXtoi, o5roi 
fia\7]crovTaL rot, rjv re ekdcro'oves tovtoms, tjv re Kal 
lOSirXeoves. ravra dicovcras &ep£r)<; ycXacra? 6^17 • A^- 
fidp-qre, o*oy e<j>0ey£<0 eno?, aVSpas ^tXtbv? OTpaTir} 
rocrySc fia^TjcrecOai. aye, eiire /xot, <rv <£j}9 Tovreoy 
t<2*> av§pS>v /Sacrckevs atro? yeveaOai. av Zv eOekijaeis 
avriKa fidka npbi dv^pas ?c/ca fidyeadai ; /catrot et to 5 
7roXtrt/coi/ v//,u> 7rai> eon toiovto ofoi> cru Siat/octs, o"€ ye 
" tw Ketvcjv fiaaikea irpeirei 717009 to hiir\rjaiov dvTirda- 
aeaOai Kara vofiovs tovs vfierepov^. el yap Keivwv 
e/caoTO? Se/ca avhpZv Tr}<; arparirj^ ty}<; ep,r}s dvrd&os 
€ort, ae 8e ye hitfl pai eiKoai elvai avrd^iov • Kal ourcu 10 
/i€i> opOolr av 6 \6yos 6 irapa aeo elprjfievo;. ei 8e 
TOLOvroi re iovres /cat fizyddea roaovroi, ocroi av re 
Kal ot irap 9 ifie (^oltwcfl 'EWtJvojv cs koyovs, au^ctre 
roaovro, opa fir) fidryji/ KOfiiros 6 \6yo$ ovtos elprjfxej/o^ 
r). ewel <j)epe lSco iravrl ra> ot/cort* kcos &v Svisaiarois 
^lXlol 7) Kal fJivpLOL rj Kal irevraKiayuvpio^ eovres ye 

103. 2. olov 4<|>0£y£<i> tiros: cp. c. gen. as 6. 54. 2. The const, is 

the Homeric iroiov at en-os <f>vytv personal and almost restricted to 

2/>ko9 oSovtcdv (A 350, a 64). — verbs of giving and saying. — 

5. ata-hca pd\a: in prose fxd\a is 12. ucyddta: as ra /JLcydOea and 

reg. postpos. with avriKa. — to /xcya^o? in Hdt., ace. of specifi- 

itoXitik6v: = ot iroXira^ abstract cation. — 13. avxeirt: poetic term, 

for concrete. Cp. to lirirucov 7. Cp. 2. 160. 2; Thuc. 2. 39. 18. — 

87.7. — 6. SuupcCs: cp. 7. 16. y2. 14. \iarr\v icduiros: vain boasting. 

— 7. to 8iirX^<rvov : alluding to the Cp. Eur. Ion. 275 rC 8at to&; dp* 

double portion of kings at meals aXrjdts 17 \jAti\v Aoyos ; Rare const. 

(6. 57). — 10. <rc &: for 8e in of adv. qualifying noun, as 6. 30. 

apod., see on 7. 51.3. — 8fl>uuu: 14. — 15. 4^P € ^ M * kt *ne see. 

require. — 11. opOotT av: = dpOos GMT. 257; GS. 374. — irairrl t$ 

Av*wy (2. 17. 6). — irapa <rio : irapa. oIk6ti : in all probability, rooueds 



10 *.6] HERODOTUS VII 175 

&€v6epoi names o/Ltoto)? koli {jltj in ivbs apxpfievou, 
orrpaTtt) rocrcSSc aimxrrfjvaL ; iirei tol irkeoves nepl iva 

tKMTTOV yiVOfieda fj ^t\lOl, ioVTCOV €K€LV<0V 7T&^T€ ^iXia- 

&w. vtto fikv yap ivbs ap^ofieuot Kara rponov tov 20 

r/fierepov yevoiar av Sci/xau/o^re? tovtov kolI irapa ttju 

eowrcov <f>v<TLV dfieivoves icat loiev avayKa^ofievoL pd- 

(TTiyi is irXeovas iXdacroves iovres * aveifxeuoi Sc is rb 

(kevdepov ovk av noieoLev tqvtcdv ovherepa. SoKeco Sc 

eyotye Kal avwitodhnas 7r\yj0€L yakenSis av v EX\7ji/a5 25 

TlipaTjCL fiovvoKTi fid^eadaL. dXXa nap rj/iiv rovro 

ioTi to av Xc'yets, iari ye fiiv ov woWbv dXXd airdviov • 

eloi yap Hepiretov rcov i/icov al)(fio(j)6pQ)v ot iOekrjaovai 

c EXXiyi/a>i> dvSpdcri rptcrl bfiov fid^ecrOaL • r&v crv icov 

04 direipos 7roXXd (fAvrjpeis. npbs ravra ArjfjidprjTOS Xcyet • 

*flt fiaaiXev, dpyfjdev r\Tn<TTd\xx)v art d\r)0€ir) -^peco/xevos 

ov <f>i\a tol ipi(o. ov Se incl r^vdyKaaas Xeyetv rcov 

\6yo)v rovs akrjdeoraTOvs, eXeyov rd KarrfKovra ^nap- 

TirjuQO'i. KaCroi <os iyco Tvyyaw ra vvv rdSc icrropycos 5 

€K€ii/ov5, avrbs /LtdXiara e£€7rtaT€at, ot fie Ttfirjv re Kal 

^as 7. 239. 7. — 18. ircpl Jfva &ca- Sevrepa 7. 53. 2. — 26. to$t6 4«rrt 
as if each Spartan were to to <rv Xfycis: referring to 7. 102. 



fight singly. Ace. to the enu- 16 f. — 27. ftrrfytpiv: itis 7 how- 

meration in cc 185, 186 Xerxes' ever. 

host numbered 5,283,220 men; 104. 3. r&v \6y<av tovs &\i)0t- 

but half were non-combatants. o-rdrovs : for the force of the part. 

— 21. 8ci|LaCvovrts : Ionic and gen. cp. 7. 108. 13 tw Slkcuotoltw 

poetic; in Attic prose only in twv Aoywv. — 4. t& Ko/riJKOvra 

Plato. — iropd i4|v 4o)vt«v <|>vo-iv: SirapTirfjrgo-i : what belongs to, is 

contrary to their own nature, characteristic of, the Spartans. 

instead of gen. or 77. S. 1073 ; Cp. 8. 40. 7, 8. 102.3. — 5- T * vCv 

HA. 648. — 24. o4S4rtpa: neut. tA8c: as to these present matters. — 

pi. treated as sing., as often. Cp. Io-topyus IkcCvovs : ironical. —6. of 



176" HERODOTUS VII [104. 7 

yepea dirtkofievoi narpaia airokiv re kcll <f>vyd8a ire- 
TroLrJKaa-L, irarr^p Sc cro? vTroSe^d/xevos f&vov re /not koI 
oXkov eStoicc. ovk S)v oIkos iaTL dvhpa top (T(o<f>pova 
evvoirjv (j>aLvofi€i/r)v 8ia>#€id"#cu, dXXa crepyeiv ftdXurra. 10 
iya) §€ ovt€ Scica avSpaxTL virta^o/Ltat 0105 T€ elvat ttd^e 
crdau ovt€ Svouri, Ikmv re €?pai ov8 s ai> /xoupoftaxeoi/xx. 
et 8c dvayKair) elr) fj /xeyas tis 6 enorrpvvwv dycov, 
lAaxoifJLrjv olv Trdvrcov r/Siara ivl tovtcjv twv dvSp&v ot 
'TSWyjvo&v eicaoTO? (fyqcrL Tptiov df 109 elvou. &s 8c #cal 15 
Aa/ceScu/xoi/ioi Kara fiev eva /xa^d/xevot ovSa/xcov elcn 
KdKLOves dvSp(ov, dXcis 8e dpiarot dvhpwv dirdvrwv. 
iXevOepot yap iovres ov irdvra ikevdepoi ela • ejreoTi 
yap cr<£i Secnr&rrjs potto?, toz> viroheifiaivovaL 7roXX<w 
en ttaXXoi/ ^ ot crot ere. iroieovcri y5>v rd dp ejcetpo? 20 
dvcoyy • dixuyet 8c raiuro cucti ov/c e<3i> <f>euy€LV ovSev 
7r\fj0o<; dv0p<o7TQ)v 4k ttd^T/?, d\Xa fievovras Iv rjj ra£t 
itriKpaTeiv fj dwoWvcrdai. crol 8c ct (fxtLVOfAai ravra 
Xeyan> $\v7)ptiV) raXXa crtydi/ 0e'Xa> to Xot7rdi> • iw Sc 

|A€ . . . irciroitfjica<ri : see 6. 61- = ovtws once in Hdt. (9.18. 11) and 

70. — 8. pfov ri |&oi Kal oIkov c8o)K€ : once in Thuc. (3. 37. 26) ; freq. in 

cp. 6. 70. 12. — 10. c4voli)v 4><u- Horn, and other poets, but rare in * 

vo|iivT|v : good will manifested. — Attic prose and poetry. — 18. S«- 

II. faC<rxo|iai : prqfiteor,as 2. 28. <rri "ydp a+i Sco-irdrqs v6|M>s: cp. 

3. — 12. Svouri: Dial. § 3. i. 1. — Pindar's voyuov irdvrviv fiaaiAca 

€kwv ctvai: willingly. S. 2012 c; quoted by Hdt. 3. 38. 22. — 

HA. 956 a. This abs. inf. in Attic 21. dv&yj) • dv6yci : note the epa- 

writers only in negative sentences, nastrophe. — otttv ir\{|6os : object 

as here. — 15. Jdccurrds 4>t|<ti: the of <£cvy€iv. — 22. dWd: sc. <ce- 

verb takes the number of the AciW. — (Uvovrat . . . AirdXXvotai : 

nearer appos. distributive. — «» Sc compare the example of Leonidas 

kcU : as kcu (ov&', /xiyS') <ws, freq. in 7. 220. 4, and the conduct of 

Hdt. The simple demonstrative ws Amompharetus 9. 53 ff. 



106. io] HERODOTUS VII 177 

avayKacOeU eXe£a. yevotro fi&TOi Kara voov 701,25 
fiacnXev. 

105 e O ftcv 87) ravra d/xeixfjaro, Bepfr)? 8£ es yikorrd re 
erpcuVc icat owe enourja , aro opyfjv ovSc/iiaz/, dXX* ^7rta>5 
avrop direirepAJjaro. tovtco 8c c? Xoyovs i\0cov Eep^Tjs 
Kal vnapxpv iv to) AopicrKco rovrq> /caracrnjcras MaoTca- 
ftiyy toi/ Meya8ooT€a>, tw 8c vtto AapeCov aradimas 
KaraTravcras, itpjXawe rov oTparov Sia nf?s QprJKrjs 

106 cm t^i^ c EXXa8a. KarcXwrc 8c av?pa rotovSe Mcur/ca- 
ftTjy yevofievov, r$ fiovvo) Bepgrjs 8wpa 7T€/x7reo7C€ cos 
apiarevovri irdvrwy ocrous avTos KarecrTyjae rj Aa/oeto? 
virdpxovs, ve/xTrecKe Be dvd irdv ero? • cos 8c icat 'Apro- 
fe/ofijs 6 Sep^ca) toicti Maovca/xetbicri iicyoi/ouri. #car-5 
eoTa&av yap en irporepov Tavrrjs T79 cXacrios virap^oi 
lv 177 ^PV K V Ka * T °^ c EXXijo"7rdi^rou iravraxQ. ovtol 
&v irdvres, ol re €#c ®prjicr)s Kal rov 'EWr/cnrovTOVj 
irkrfv rov ev AopicrKco virb 'EWijvwv vcrrepoi/ ravnjs TJ79 
crrpanjXcurwj? i£aip€0r)<rav • roi/ Sc e^ AopicrKa) Ma- IO 

«ra» M#/ /# ^/>/i (lit. A? whom). — 
MASCAMES AND BOGES (CC. I0 5 - 2 . ^^ . on the reading) see App . 



I07) 



— S»pa irl|iirc<rKC ktI. : cp 3. 1 60. 



Z05. I. it jikorrd frpc^f : sc.ro 9 Swpd ol (sc. Zurrrvpw) ava -rrav 

Trpnjyim. Cp. Thuc. 6. 35. 6 ; Ar. Zros i&iBov ravra ra Hiparjo-L 

Vesp. 1260. — 2. kroi^o-aro opy^v : eon rifutarara. — 4. dvd irav Jh-os : 

periphrasis for wpycarOrj. Cp. 7. yearly, dra distrib. only with 

99. 3. — 4. t$ AopCo-ictp to$t<p : 7ra5 and l/caoros and numerals. — 

where the review of the army and 5. Maa-Ka\ulo\.a-i : such patronymic 

the just reported conversation oc- adjs. are poetical. — 7. tov e EXXn<r- 

curred; last mentioned 7. 59. irdvrov iravraxx}: cp. 7. 126. 6 

xo6. I . &v8pa roidvSc : ex- ovSap.60i ttjs Evpuwn^. ^XKrjairov 

plained by the following consecu- ros stands for the region about, as 

tive clause t$ . . . ttc/mtcotcc, such a Tlovros 7- 95. 9. — 10. 4{cup48T^ 

HERODOTUS— 12 



T78 HERODOTUS VII [106. u 

CKdpr]v ovSafioi kio iSvidcrdrja'av c^cXco/, iroW&v tt€l- 
prfaapevcov. 8ia rovro 8c 61 r<x Scopa irepirerai irapa 
107 rov fSaaikevovTos aid iv UeptrQcn. twv Sc itjaipeQev 
tq)v inrb 'EWtjvcjv ovhiva ftaaiXtvs Ecp^s ivopucre 
elvou avhpa dyaObv el /lit) Boyrjv povvov tov i£ 'Hioi/os. 
tovtov Sc alvicov ovk inavero Kal tovs irepieovras 
avrov iv Uepcrr/a 7rai8as erip^a /xaXiora, iirel Kal 5 
afios aivov peydKov iycvero Boyrjs • 05 cttciSt) c7roXiop- 
K€lto vwb ' kdr)vai<i)v Kal Ktpcovos tov MiXnaScw, 
irapebv clvtq) virocnrovhov i£e\0€iv Kal voar^cai es 
ttjv 'AatrjVy ovk r/deXTjae, pf/ SeiXi'77 8d£cic irepieivai 
/SaaxXci, aXXa SteKaprepet cs to eo^arov. (05 8* ovScimo 
cri <f>opf}f)s ivrjv iv t<S rci^a, <rvvwj<ra<; irvprfv pLeydkyv 
cb"<£a£c ra rhcva Kal rr/v yvvaiKa Kal ras 7ra\Xa#ca$ 
Kal tov? oiiceras /cat iireira id/Sake is to 7n5p, /Ltera 8c 
ravra tov ypvabv airavra tov c/c tov doreos Kal tov 
dpyvpov cWcipc dirb tov Tct^co? is tov %Tpvp6va,i$ 
irovqaas 8c ravra icovrbv ccrc/SaXc cs ro wOp. ovYa> 



<rav : e.g. the commandant at Ses- 5. afroti Iv nipo-gct : there among 

tos 478 B.C. (9. 118), at Eion476 the Persians. Cp. avrov iv t<£ 

(7. 107). — 11. l8vvdor6T)o-av : Ionic o-TpaTcwrc&p 6. 72. 6. The const, 

aor. = iSvvqOrjaav. — ire ipijo-ajU- is esp. freq. in Horn. — 6. alvov : 

v»v : Hdt. like Homer uses the poetical word = Z-nuivos. — I*©- 

aor. mid. form of this verb as well as XiopicttTo : 470 B.C. — 11. ^opfftlt : 

aor. pass. The aor. pass, is almost food for men in Hdt. ; fodder 

exclusively used by Attic writers for horses and asses in Horn. — 

except Thuc, who prefers aor. mid. 12. &r$a£c rd Wicva ttri. : note the 

107. 3. B6yr\v: called BovVi^ effect of the circumstantial details, 

by Plut. (Cim. 7), Boifc by See Plut. dm. 7. — 15. Zmnipf: 

Pausan. (8. 8. 9). — 'Hidvos: on sowed, i.e. scattered broadcast, to 

the Strymon. See on 7. 25. 11. — render recovery more difficult. 



109. 5 ] HERODOTUS VII 179 

ftcv o5ros 8ifcato>9 alveurai en kou es toSc wo Ilepaecov. 

10B Ecpf»j5 Sc e* toC AopicTKov inopevero iirl tt)i> 'EXXaSa, 

tous §€ aiel yivofia/ov^ ifi7ro8<ov <rv<TTpaT€V€O'0cu r/vdy~ 

Ka£c. cSeSouXcoro yap, 0J5 feat nporepov fioi SeS^Xcarat, 

ij ft^(pt ©ccrcraXaj? 7racra Kat 771; vtto /3a<ri\€a Sacr/Lto- 

^o/)os, Meya/3a£ov re KaTacrTpexfjafia/ov k<u varepovs 

MapSovibv. TrapaiAeifSero 8e iropevofievos e#c AopicrKov 

ffpwra ftei> ra ^afiodprjiaa rei^a, raw iaxdrrj treiror 

taartu 7r/>o9 iaireprjs 7ro\i9 T77 ovvopd cart Mccra/xyS/owj. 

c^erou, 8c ratTT/5 ®a<riaM> 770X15 Srpvpr), Sia 8c <r<f>€(op 

tov fiecrov Autos 7rora/xo9 Siappet, 65 Tore ovk dvria^E 10 

to uScop irape)(a>v tco Septjea) crrpaTco dXX* iirikare. r) 

8c X ^/^ avrty 7raXat /xci/ ocaXeiro raXXaiVcty, i/w 8c 

Bpuurvci} • cart parol t<3 8ticatoTaTG> rail/ Xoycoi/ ical 

I09avnj Kucopoh'. 8ia/3a9 8c tov Aticrov irorafiov to 

peldpov dire£r)pao'p*€i'ov 7roXias 'EXX^z/iSas racrSe irapa- 

/i€i/?ero, MapcovtLaVj Aticaiai', "Aft&qpa. raura? re St) 

irapeijye Kal Kara ravras Xt/usa? oz/o/xaoras racrSe, 

MapcDvelrjs pkv p,era£v Kal %rpvp/r)^ Kti/xevqv 'Ioy^a-s 



MARCH THROUGH THRACE FROM 



distinguished from Mesambria on 
the Pontus (6. 33. 11). — 9. 2x € ~ 

DORISCUS TO ACANTHUS (CC T<M ^^ . ^ ^ ^ ^„^ w> 

108-116) this.— 10. o6k Avt^txc: cp. 7. 

xo8. 3. irprfTcpov: 5. I ff., 6. 43- 3» 7- 5 8 - 14-— *3- KaX a{Jrt 1 : 

44 f. — 4. tjv virA Pao-iX^a 8a<r|io- as well as Doriscus (7. 59. 15). 

$<Spos: for more usual dat. the idea 109. 1. rb fctOpov AirfJupewr^- 

being " had been brought as tribu- vov : i.e. which had been drunk 

taries under the king." — 5. Mf-ya- dry by Xerxes' army. — 3. rubra* : 

pA(ov: cp. 4. 143 f., 5. 1 ff. — sc. ras ttoXcls. — 4. XCpvos . . . 

7. Td SojioOpxjKia TcC\ca: see on tAo-Sc: sc. 7rape£rje. — 5; |mto£4> : 

7. 59. 11. — 8. Mfo-auPpCn: to be for position, cp. 7. 33. 4. — 'I<r|«u 



180 HERODOTUS VII [!<# 6 

ptSa, Kara 8e Aucaiav Biorov&a, €? tv)v irorafiol 81/0 
ccrteZcrt to vScop, Tpavos tc ical Kofti/rarog. Kara 8c 
"Aftbripa KCfJLvrjv fiev ovBep.Cav eovaav ovofiaLOT^v irapa- 
fieuparo Hcp^rjs, 7rora/Ltw 8c Ncotoi> peovra cs 0aXcur- 
craz>. /xcra Se ravras ra? x®P a $ i<** v fas rjireipdynhas 10 
7rdXt5 napjje, t<op ev [iir} Xl/aw) eovaa 7vy\dvei cocrel 
TpcyJKOvra arahuov /xaXiora /c# rrfv irepiohovy i^^uaJS^? 
T€ ical Kapra aXfivprj • Tavrrjv rd viroipyia fxovva 
dp86fieva dvei;rjpy)ve. rfj Se 7roXi ravrg ovvo/id icrn 

ll0lltcrn;/)05. rai/ras fiep 8rj ra? 7rdXias ra? irapadakaxr- 
crta? tc ical 'EXXiji/iSas c£ evcovvfAOv x €L P°S dnepycov 
napetjfje, edvea 8e QpyK&v 8i &v rrjs X^P 7 !** o&bv 
eiroieiro rocraSe, Uavroiy Kmcopc?, Bkjtoi/cs, Solttguol, 
Ae/ocraioi, 'HSojz/o^ Sarpat. toutojz> oi ftei> 7ra/aa 0aXa<r-5 
o*az> KaroLK7)fi€i/oi ev Tjjcri vrjvcrl elirovro • ot 8c avrwv 
rf/v fieaoy aiav oiKeovres KaraKexOanes re vif i/ieo> 
ttXt/p Sarpecov ol aXXoi names ire£r} dvayKa^Oficpoi 

111 elirovro. Sdrpcu 8c oiSevos #ca> dvOpdmwv vtttJkooi eye- 
vovTO, 6<tov rj/JLeis tS/xcv, dXXa Siarekeovai rb ft^pt 

pC8a: named from the Ciconian owm, about, only here in Hdt 

town Ismarus mentioned Horn, t Cp. Xen. Hell. I. 2.9. — 14, &p86- 

40. — 7. lo-icto-t to v8d>p : = iapd\- juva : being watered. 
Act to v8a>p, only here. — 9. iroTa- no. 2. oWtpyoiv : see on 7. 43. 

I*6v: sc. hUp-rj from irapaintyaro. II. — 3. St' «5v rfj« X&pr\% » limiting 

— 10. Tds TJtrcifK&nSas irdXis : *.*. gen. between prep, and its case, as 

the coast towns opposite Samo- freq. in Hdt. — 6. ol 8c ain&v . . . 

thrace and Thasos, as shown by oIkcovtis: part. gen. between art. 

the repetition in 7. 1 10. 1 nokias and ptc, as not infreq. in Hdt. and 

rots TrapaOaXao-aias. — II. lv: at Thuc. Cp. 7. 1 29. 3. — 8. ol &XX01 : 

or near. — wo-cl . . . ndXurrd tqj : part, appos. to ot . . . ooccoitc?. 
cp. a)? . . . fjuaXurra ktj 7. 30. 6. zzz. 2. to pcxpt {(ico : up to my 



112. 6] HERODOTUS VII 181 

i/ieo aiel iovres ikeidepoi /lovpoi, QpyKOJV • oiKeovcrC re 
yap opea ut/ryjXa, lhy)(ri re iravToijyri Kal yiovi cupr/pe- 
<f>€Oj teal elcrl ra irokifiia chc/><h, ovroi o% rov kiovvaov 5 
to fiavrrjiov ei<ri iKrqiiivoi. to 8e fiavrrjiov tovto £oti 
ficv irrl tZv opecov t5>v w\rq\oraTQ)v, Brjcrcrol 8e tcov 
HoLTpicov ctcrl ol Trpo<fyriT€vopT€<; tov ipov, irpofiavn^ Sc 
rj xpioxra Kara irep Iv AeX<£oun, Kal ovhev ttoiki- 
Xdbrepov. 10 

112 liapafieixftdfievos 8c 6 Scp^rj? ttjv dfyqfievvjv Sevrepa 
Tovrtov napafieifiero reject tol Hiepcov, t<ov ivl &dypr)s 
ioTi ovvo/ia Kal irepco Tlepyafios. tovtji fikv 877 nap* 
avrd ra rci^ca ttjv 68bv iiroieiTo, 4k Sc^itjs xci/005 to 
Hdyyaiov opos direpywv^ 4bv fieya T€ ical infrrjXov, 4v$ 
rq> x/owrca T€ Kal dpyupea evi fierakka, tol ve/iovrai 

time, as 7. 115. 15. Cp. to 7rpos of the 7rpd/Aavris. — irpopavris f| 

fU(TOfi/3pLrjs 7. 20. 15. — 4. iSflo-i: XP^wra: cp. 7. 141. II. XP*) V = 

forests. The term is freq. used oraculum edere, xpw$ai = oracu- 

as prop, name for forest-covered lum consulere. — 9. oft&v iroiia- 

mountains, e.g. Mt. Ida in the \<&Ttpov : either of the manner of 

Troad. — <rwy\p*$ta: thickly cov- the oracle, nothing more artifi- 

ered (lit* roofed). Cp. 1. no. cial or unusual ; or of the content 

12 v^rjkq tc ical i&prt trvnypc^iys. of the oracle, nothing more enig- 

— 5. &icpoi: see on 7. 5. 18. — mat ical. 

to€ Aiovfoov to |MLv*Hjiov : the art. 112. 1. tt|v ctpr|iiivi)v : sc. \(i)- 

(to) points to the oracle as well prjv. — Scikfpa tovtwv: for const., 

known. Cp. Eur. Hec. 1267; see on 7. 80. 6. — 2. TtCxca: cas- 

Rhes. 972 ; Suet. Aug. 94 ; Paus. tella. — Ililpaiv : driven from their 

9. 30. 9. — 8. ol irpo$i)Tt6ovTts toO original seats in Pieria they had 

Ipofi: i.e. those out of whom was settled (in the 7th cent.) at the 

chosen. the Trpo^iyTi^, who inter- foot of Mt. Pangaeus, east of the 

preted the signs or dreams sent Strymon. Cp. Thuc. 2. 99. 10. 

by the deity, or arranged and ex- But the name Pieria still clung esp. 

pounded the ecstatic utterances to the old haunt of the muses. — 



1 82 HERODOTUS VII [113. i 

113 Hiepes re ical ^Ohofiavroi /cat fidXtcrra Sarpat. virepoi- 
fceWras 8e to Jldyyaiov irpbs fiopeco avifiov Tlaiovas 
Ao fir) pas re fcal IIaio7rXas Trapetjiw fie 717009 lo"ir4pr)v> 

e? O OLTTLK€TO €7rl TTOTa/XOP T€ ^TpVflOVa KaX TToklV 'HlOPO, 

T7J5 en £a>09 ea>i> ^px c Boy>^5, rov Trep 6\Cyq> irporepov^ 
tovtwv \6yov iiroLeoprfv. r) Be yfj avrq r) Trepl to Udy 
yaiov opos fcaXeirai <E>vXXis, KaTareivovaa ra /x,cj> 77/)os 
icnreprjv eVl irorapov 'Ayyirrjv eicSiSdj/ra €? top St/ju- 
/xdi>a, ra 8e 7r/>os p,ecrap,l3pir)v reivovtra cs avroi> top 
%rpvp,6va • €5 toi> ot Mayoi e/caXXiepcoiro a^a^oircs i 

114 tWous Xevicov?. (jyap/AaKevcravTes 8e ravra €$ top 7rora- 
/xoi> ical aXXa 7roXXa irpbs tovtolctl kv 'EiWa 68ourt 
Trjcrt 'Hhcovaiv iiTopeuovro Kara t<xs y€<j>vpa$, top 2t/dv- 
/xdpa evp6vT€s i&vypevov. 'E^i/ea 8e 68ous iruvdavo- 
p,evoL rbv jfipov tovtov KakeicOaL roaovrovs iv avrep 5 
7rai8a5 re ical napdevovs avbpwv to>v imytopUav £q)Opt<ls 
KaTcopvcrcov. Uepaucbv 8c to £<oovt<i$ Karopvao'ei^ 

€7T€t ICal * Ap,7)OTpiV T7JP atp^tG) yVVCLlKCL TTVvOdvOfLCU 

7. 'OSrfpavroi : a Thracian people used impers. = koXcl yivtvOai, sc. 

between the Strymon and Nestus. ipd. 

113. I. frrcpoiiclovTas : with ace, 114. I. ^opiiaKCvVavrcs . . . *©- 

elsewhere with gen. — 4. 4s 8: Tapov: having performed these 

until, GMT. 616. — 'Hiova : see magic rites to propitiate the river. 

on 7. 25. 11,7. 107.4. — 5. irpd- Fortheconst, cp. €stov7- 113. i°- 

rcpov tovtwv : cp. Scvrcpa rovrtov — 2. 4v 'Ew^a 6SoC<ri : where in 

7. 112. 1. — 6. X670V Ittou6)lt\v : = 437 b.c. the Athenians 



cAcyov. — 7. rd jicv irpos ka-tr{pr\v : the colony of Amphipolis. — 3- ^ 

see on 7. 20. 15. — 10. Is t6v : with STpvjjwSva . . . l£tiry|iivov : cp. 7 ,2 4' 

<r<£a£ovr€9, i.e. slaughtering so that 8. — 7. Iltponicov . . . KaropAvW- 

the blood flowed into the river. — cp. 3. 35. 20, where Cambyses 

4icaX\itp4ovro : = iOvovro, 6. 82. buries alive twelve noble Persians 

9, 7. 167. 6. The act. KaWiepetv, head downward. — 8. "A^rrf^ 1 



115.13] HERODOTUS VII 183 

yrjpaxraaav 81$ iirra Hepceav 7rcuSa9, iovrwv cmc^a- 
viw av8pwv, vnep icovrfjs raJ vwb yrjv Xeyofia/co tlvai 10 
U50ca! i,vri\apit t €xrdai Karopvaaovaav. a5? 8e airo rov 
XTpvfLovos ^iiropevero 6 orpards, ivdavra irpbs 17X101/ 
hwfietov icTL alyiaXbs iv r<3 oiKn\pAm\v * kpyCkov iroKiv 
EMaSa irapefjjjev • avrq he Ka\ rj Karuirepde Tavrrjs 
KaXeirai BiaakTiT). ivd extra/ 8c koKitov top iirl IIo- 5 
(tiStjiou e£ apioTepfjs X €L po$ ^X (0V V e ^ l< * % v ^°$ ircSiOv 
KoXco/Lie/ov, %rdy€ipov irokiv 'EXXaSa 7rapa/Lt€t/3d/x€i/09, 
fat dirueero €$ "AkclvOov, a/Lta ayofievos tovtcjv eKacrrov 
tw i$p€cov Kal Tcov nepl to Ilayyatoi/ opos oIk€6vt<dv, 
o/ioio)5 *al rail' irporepov fcarc'Xc^a, rov? fiii> irapaio 
0dXa<r(rai> I^qii^ oiKrjficpovs iv vr/voi CTparevofievov^ 
tovs 8* V7T6/0 0dkdo'<rqs Tre^fj iirofievovs. ttjv 8e 6801/ 
Tavnji/, r# /JacnXcvs &€p£q$ top arparbv TjXacrc, ovre 

cp. Ctes. Exc. Pers. 42. See also been a promontory on the Stry- 

9. 112.— 10. -t$ viro 7<\v Xryoplvip monian Gulf. — 6. 4J dpurrcpf)s x ct - 

<fou fey: *>. Ahriman (Angra- pos fx«v: cp. c£ cvtavv/xov x et P°* 

god of the spirits of airipytav 7. no. 2. — Sid 2vX&>s 



darkness, the antithesis of Ormuzd ircSCov : in Chalcidice. Syleus rep- 

(Ahuramazda),godof the world of resented in Greek mythology as 

light. — 11. d vTtxap(tc<r6at koto- son of Poseidon and slain by Her- 

av: by burying tried to acles for mistreatment of stran- 



requite (inf. impf.), i.e. for the old gers. — 7. 2Td«ycipov : birthplace of 
age granted her (yrjpdaacrav) . Aristotle. — 8. "Aicav6ov: a chief 
115. 3. Iv t$ . . . iropc{fjcv: station, as also on the expedition 
short for iv r<j> icctrcu "ApytXo?, of Mardonius (6. 44. 10). — &pa 
ttoXk "EAXas, fjv wapc^cv. Argi- &y6|&cvos : as if Hcp^s were sub- 
Jus, like Stagirus and Acanthus, a ject. — 10. opofas KaC : in like 
colony of the Andrians. — 4. avrq: manner as. Cp. 7. 15. 14,7.50. 
sc. \ yq. — 5* Bio-aX-rU): cp. 8. 10. — t»v : = tovtwv a. — tovs |&cv 
Il6. 2. — lift IIo<riST)(ov : near . . . <rrpaT€vo^vovs : cp. 7. no. — 
Posideium. This seems to have 11. e\«v : intruded into obj. clause. 



i8 4 HERODOTUS VII [115. 14 

avy)(€Ov<Ti ®pg/cc5 ovt imcr7T€ipov<n } (ri^ovrai re p,€yd- 

116 Xcos to /xe^/oi €/xeo. cos 8e apa €5 rfjv "AkolvOov cwrwcero, 
(jeivbiv re 6 Btpfys toutl 9 AKav0ioL<n irpoelire Kal 
iScoprjcraTo crc^eas i<r0f)T(, M77S1X77 iiraivet, re, opcov 
Kal aurou? irpoOvfiov^ cobras es tw ir6\ep,ov Kal to 

117 opvyfia olkovcov. iv 9 AKav0a> Se eoVros Beptjea) <rwrj- 
v€LK€ vwb vovcrov atrodavelv tov €7T€crT€a>Ta T775 hubpvyos 
9 ApTa\aiy]v^ hoKifiov iovra irapd Eeptjr) Kal yevos 'A^at- 
fievtByjv^ fieyddu re fiiyitrTov iovra Hepcewv (dirb yap 
irevre TFqyioiv {iacri\r)La)v airekenre rcercrepas ScuctuXovs) 5 
<f>a)P€0VTa re fiiytxTTOv avdpdmo)Vi ware Sep^qv cn/fic^o- 
p^i> TTOLTja-dfJievov pLeydXrjv itjevelKai re auro*> /caXXiora 
/cat 0cu//cu • ervfi/Joxdei, 8e iracra 17 oTpaTufj. tovto> 8e 
tco 'Apraxanj Ovovtri 'A/ccu/flioi e/c deoirpoiriov a>9 'r/pctH, 



DEATH OF ARTACHAEES 



— 14. <rvyx&> v <™ i obliterate, as 4. 
127. 11, 7. 225. 16, 8. 71. 7. This 

road, still used in 185 B.C., is called 117. 1. oniv^jvfuce: cp. 7. 4. 4. 

vetus via regia Liv. 39. 27. — 1 5. rb — 2. t6v &irc<rrc&ra rSjs Si6puxos : 

\U\p\. l\Uo : cp. 7. 1 1 1 . 2. for gen. cp. 7. 22. 9 iireo-Tdreov tow 

116. 2. £civ£t]v irpoctirc: ///#</* epyov. In Att. only dative, as 7. 35. 

proclamation of guest friendship. 12. — 3. 'Apraxab]v: cp. 7. 22. 8. 

Cp. 7. 29. 9, 8. 120. 3. — 3. fcr04)Ti — 4. pcydOci piyiorov : cp. 7. 128. 

MT]Siicfj: the official dress of those 2, and irkyfiu iroXkas 6. 44. 12. 

highest in honor, to wear which — dird ybp . . . 8aieH»Xovs : i.e. 

was a privilege conferred only by about 8 ft. 2 in. (Rawlinson). Cp. 

the king. Cp. 3. 84. 5. It is the I. 60. 17 fityaOos diro recrcrcpwy 

(ttoXtj Htpo'iKr) of Xen. Anab. I. 2. mj^iisiv a7roAct7rovo"a Tpcts Scucru- 

27. — 4. t6 fyirypa &kovo>v: ^#r- Aovs. — 6. <|>a>WovTa |Uyurrov: as 

ing of the canal. The accus. as in 4. 141. 2. Cp. d/x^oxra? /xcya 7. 

Horn, a 287 et //.a/ *ev iraTpbs fiio- 18. 4. — 7. i{cvcficai : technical term 

rov Kal vocttov aKovo-rjs, and Aesch. for funeral procession. — 8. trvp- 

Prom. 288 rots irptxrepTrovo-as rvyas po\<S€i : only here and Horn. $ 323. 

dKoixrarc. — 9. Ik OcoirpoirCov : Epic and 



1U. 7 ] HERODOTUS Vll 185 

118eWofta£oi>T€s to ovvofia. /JacrtXeus ftev St) Hc/o^tjs 
avokofievov 'ApraxaUa) iirotelTO avii<f)opyjv • ot 8c 
wroSefcd/xei'ot 'EXXtji/gw rf/v (rrparvrfv Kal hewrvitpvTGs 
Bip^rjv €5 Trap kclkov a7rt/caro, outo) cocrrc avaorrarot cVc 
t£v otfccoi/ lylvovroy okov ye ®ao-tbtcrt vTrep rcov ev rfj 5 
>?7rcipa) TTokicov tS>v cr^erepcov Se£a/z€i>ot0"t r^v Bep^eco 
(rrpanrjv Kal Senrviaaa-L 'AvTvrrarpos 6 'Opyeos dpai- 
/w/ftei'os, rail/ acrrcav avrjp Sd/a/z,os oftota t<3 /xdXtora, 
<Mrc8e£e es to 8ct7r^ov rerpaKoaia raXai/ra apyvpiov 

ll9TercXccrjxci/a. A? Se irapairXrjO'icDS Kal ev rya dXXgcri 
TroWt ot €7T€crT€ft)T€5 a,7r€8€t#«>vcra*> ro*> Xoyov. to yap 

OClTTPOP TOtwSc TC iy£v€TO> Ota €#C 7ToXXoS \pOVOV 7T/0O€t- 

p^lliiuop Kal irepl iroXXov iroieop.ivoxv. tovto \l&v, 0J5 
€1tv$ovto Tayiora t<ov KiqpvKtav rcov trepiayyeWovTtov, 5 
Oao-ajLtcvot crtToi> «/ T#crt 7rdXtcrt ot acrrol akevpd re Kal 
aX^iTd iiroUov irdvre^ iirl firjvas av^yov^ • tovto 8e 

Herodotean. — 10. tirovo|&dgovTcs : Xmtto : j^. SoKifiw. Cp. 7. 141. 4. — 
iflftig' thereby, invoking. 9. &ir&c£c : * .*. on rendering his 

account. Cp. 7. 119. 2. — tctoo- 

HOW THE ARMY OF XERXES WAS ^ ^^ . ^ annual revenue 
FED (CC. I I8-I20) of the Thasians was onIy 2QO tQ 

118. 4. Is irav KaKoO: A? the 300 talents (6. 46). — 10. TCTeXeo-- 

extremity of ill fortune, as 9. 118. |i*va: expended. 
1. Cp. 8. 52. 7 €? to €<rx aT0V XI 9* 3- °^ a: see on 7. 6. 2. — 

xaxov a7rty/i€v(H. — ovra> &rrc ... 4. iroicofUvwv: ir. avrwv. Note 

fyfvovTo: for indie, see S. 2274; coordination of ptcs. in different 

GMT. 601. — AvAototoi: cp. 7. 56. cases. — tovto \uv . . . tovto 8c . . . 

7. — 5. okov -ye : quando quidem. tovto 81 : this anaphora is freq. in 

— 6ao-Courv : depends on a7r€8e££. Hdt. — 6. Sao-dpcvoi o-tTov: i.e. 

— 7. dpcupi||Uvos : sc. §i£axrOax . . . the corn purchased by the state 
km Senrviaai. — 8. Spoia : adv., esp. was distributed among the citizens 
freq. in Hdt. and Thuc. — t$ |iA- to be ground. — 7. iirl pfjvas o-vx- 



186 HERODOTUS VII [119. 8 

Krrjvea icrlreuov itjevpto-Kovres tl/juyjs ra /caXXtora, erper 
<f>6v re opviOas ^epcraiov<; /cat \ip.vaiovs ev re olKrjfMaai 
/cat Xa/c/cotcrt, €? u7ro8o^a5 rou arparov • tovto 8c io 
Xpvcrea T€ /cat apyvpea iroTrjpui re /cat Kprjrfjpas €7rot* 
co^ro /cat raXXa ocra C7rt rpdne^av ndearai iravra. 
rdvra fiev avr<p re /JacrtXet /cat rotcrc o/iocrtrotcrt /xer* 
eiceivov €7re7rot7jro, r# 8c aXXij crrparifj ra €? <f>op/3rjv 
fiovva racrcrofieva. o/ca>? 8c a7rt/cotro 17 <rrparurj y otctji/tj 15 
/liv ccr/ce ireirr]yvta crot/xij €5 t^ avros aradfibv rroU- 
cr/cero Bep£r)s> rj Be aXXij trrparur) eatce irrralOpios. 
(W5 8e Seiuvov yivoiro atpr), ot /x€i> Se/cd/xeyot e^ecrKOv 
ttovov, ol 8e okcos Trkrjcrdevres vvtcra avrov dydyoiev, rg 
varepavrj rrjv re aKTjvfjp avaa"rra<ravres /cat ra c7rt7rXaao 
trdvra Xa/JoWes ovt<o aireXavvecrKov, \e'nrovres ovhev 
120 dXXa <f>ep6fJLevoi. evda 8^ Meyaicpeopro? av8pbs 9 A/58jf- 
pirea) eiros ev elpy)ixevov eyevero, 05 ovvefiovkevo'e 'Aft* 
hnqpirrjen 7ravhf]fieL avrovs /cat ywat/cas, ekdovras c? ra 
crcfrerepa Ipa t£ccr0at t/ceras reiii> ^cwv Trapaireojxevov* 
/cat to Xot7roV cr<£t ditapjvveiv rcov eiriovrcav kolkcov ra$ 
i^/xtcrea, t<3i> re irapoL)(O[i€V0)v e^ew cr<£t fieyaKy^v X.dpiv> 

vovs : see on 7. 1. 10. — 8. Tipfjs : atf quarters. The accus. on account 

# (high) price. — 13. 6|io<rCTouri : of implied antecedent motion. — 

only here in Hdt. = 6/xoTpa7r€- 17. So-icc: for reading, see App. — 

fowri (3. 132. 3). Cp. oiwaiTrjaai 18. «s : with iter, opt., as 1. 17. 7, 

I. 146. 17. — 15. 8k»s AitCkoito: rare for okco?. — 20. <ritr|vf|v &vo- 

for oko)s with iterative opt., see enrdo-avres : for Attic ovop^v dVc- 

7. 6. 21. — 16. «tk€ iremryvta: AoVrcs (SiaAvVavrcs). 

periphr. plpf. with iterative force. 120. 3. irav&i\\ul : en masse, 

For 2o7C£ see Syn. § 15. 2 a. — is explained by avrov? #ca! ywai/cas. 

Tt|v air6s <tto8|46v itoiIo-kcto : /« — 5. T&j|p(<rfa: takes gender and 

which he himself took up his number of limiting gen. — 6. rfi» 



121.14 HERODOTUS VII 187 

art jSacrtXcv? 3cp£q? ov Sis cicacrnjs rjpepyi* ci/o/utrc 
(titov aipelcrOaX • Trape^iv yap av 'A/jS^piTjjcn,, ci koX 
apurrov TrpoelprjTO o/ioia rq> SeCirvco 7rapao7ceua£eu/, rj 
firj {mofievetv Ec/o^Tp hriovra f) KarapieCvavTas /ca/aara 10 
iravTQV avdpdmtov hiaTpifSrjvai. 
121 Oi fiev 877 me^opLevot oficos rb imTac^cropiepov iirere- 
Xcov, Beptjrjs Sc Ik tv)<$ *Akov9ov ivreiXdfievos rotcrc 
<rr/)ar»jyotcrt toi> i>avTi/co*> crrparbv vTro/xevew iv Sippn/j 
airijue an iawrov nopeieo-dai ras yeas, ©cp/ 1 !? Sc tj} iv 
t$ QepfLaiq) Kokirct) olK7)p,€vy } an ^5 Kal 6 KoXnos ovtos 5 
ttjv iircovvfiLrjv c^ct • ravrji yap knvvdavero (rvvTOfiar 
Tarov eu>ai. p*€XP L ^ v 7^P 'A/ca^^ou aiSc reraypLevos 6 
ot/xitos c#c AopiaKov tt)v ohbv inoielro • r/oets fjLotpas 
o Bepfys Sacra/iaso? ndvra rbv ne^bv [crrpard^], /xtav 
avrttov erode napa dakaatrav levai bfiov raS vavriKto • 10 
ravnj5 /ic*> S^ iarpanjyeov Maphovios re zeal Macrt- 
<mjs, erc/wj 8c rerayiiemj rje rov crrparov rpvnuiopXs 
ly* /i€<roy<uai>, ttjs icrTpanjyeov Tpiravraixp* 7 )^ tc fat 
^Pyis. 17 8c rpirty 7W /xoipeW, /ler* ^s inopevero 

™ *apoixoplw»v . . . 'x&piv : tf«df epexeg. inf., dismissed to proceed, 

to be very grateful to them for the — 6lpR) & : Therma namely. See 

^j/ — 7. 4v6|u<rc: had been wont \ on 7. 80. 2. — 6. TatiTQ: £y ///#/ 

—8. iraptyeiv &v : inf. of impers. way, i.e. straight to Therma. — 

verb, it would remain. Cp. 8. 8. <rvvTojJufcTaTov ctvai : was the short- 

8*8.30. 7. — 11. 8iaTpipf)vai : = est cut across. — 8. rpris poCpas 

faWiftu. Cp. Thuc. 8. 78. 10, ... rbv ircfcdv: obj. and cognate 

8 - 87. 14. accus. S. 1626; HA. 725 b. Cp. 



THE FLEET SAILS TO THERMA 



2. 147. 8 SvcoScKd /MNpas oWa/xcyot 

AtywrTov 7rao-av. — 9. [o-Tpa-rdv] : 

(CC. 1 21-123; £ or reac iing, see App. — 13. tt|v 

mi. 3. orpaTdv: subj. of (wo-6-ycuav : cognate ace, as to fii- 

vtojuvuv. — 4. &irf)Kf iropcfarfai : <rov below. 



188 HERODOTUS VII [121. 15 

avros SepftyS, $c p.kv rb [ie<rov avrea>j>, arparrfyov^ 8k 1$ 
irapei\ero 2/z€p8o/xe>€a re /cat Meya/Ji^oy. 

122 e O fxev vvv vclvtikos crrparos <ws am^iOy] vtto Bepijea) 
/cat 8tcf€7rXa>cr€ rip Stcw/oi^a r^v €i/ ra> *A0<j; ytvop,hn)v y 
Ste^ovcra*> 8k €5 /cd\7roi/ eV r«> "Acrcra re 7rdXts /cat 
TliXcopos /cat Styyos /cat %dprr) ot/071/Tat, ivdeirrev, m 
/cat €/c rovrcD^ 7w 7roXta>i/ err parity irapiXa^ eirXeiS 
amefievos €5 toi> ®epfialov koXttov, Kd[nrT(ov 8k "Aiinekov 
ttjv Topavairjv aKprpt 7rapa/xet/3eTO e EXX?pt8as toutS* 
7rdXt5, €/c 7W peas T€ /cat cr parity ^apcXa/i/Japc, TopcS- 
1/17^, raXij^di/, ^ep/JLvXrjVy MrjKvftepvav, "OXvvdov. rj flip 

123 i>w X^P 7 / a ^ T1 7 Sidcovirj /caXetrat. 6 8c i/aurt/cos <rrpa~ 
rbs 6 Beptjea) avvTOLfivoiv am 'A/jLiriXov a/cpij? C7rl 
Kavaarpalov aicprjv, rb St) irdarrj^ rfjs TlaWijvrjs av£)(&. 
/^aXtcrra, iv0evrev via* re /cat arpanty irapeXafi/Save 
e/c nortSatij? /cat 'A^i/rtos /cat Nojs 7rdXtos /cat Atyj}$5 
/cat Qepapfia) /cat S/ctcwz^j? /cat Mo>St7s /cat ^dvrjs • 

122. 1. ws&itcCOt]: referring to on the Macedonian and Thracian 

7. 121. 4. — 2. ttjv 8iwpvxct: see coast, sixty stades north of Poti- 

7. 22. — 3. Silxowav: reaching, daea. Cp. also 8. 127. — 10. 2i6»- 

— k6Xttov : the Singiticus Sintis, vlt\ : between Athos and Pallene. 
on the west coast of which lay 123. 2. <rwTd|&va>v: sc, rip? 
the towns mentioned. —6. diriluc- 68dv, cutting across, Cp. 7. 121. 
vos: /*/ £P, i.e. when it had got 7. — 3. t6: referring loosely to 
off from these places. — Kdairrwv : aKprjv. — dvfyu i/tf/j 0*/. — 5. IIo- 
rounding. Cp. 7. 193. 3. — "Attire- TiSafop : a Corinthian colony. Cp. 
Xov: the southern promontory of 8.126. — 6. depdoffa: nom.®epdyi- 
Sithone. — 7. irapattcCPcro : with- /3w%. Cp. v A0a>s, "A0a>. S. 237; 
out stopping, as shown by 7. 123. 2. HA. 161. — 2km6vt)s Kal McvSip 

— 8. Top<6vT|v : cp. 7. 22. 15 ; Thuc. Kal 2dvT)s : on the western side of 
4. noff. — 9. "OXwOov: the most Pallene; the other towns lay on 
important of the Greek colonies the eastern side. Scione was, after 



123.*] HERODOTUS VII 189 

aftui yap €t<rt at ttjv vvv flaXX?^!/, nporepov 8k 
$\eyprjv KaXeofievrjv vefio/xevai. 7rapa7rXeW 8e /cat 
Tavrqv rrfv X^PW €7rX€t €? 1*6 trpoeipr)iievoVy 7rapaXa/x- 
fl&vuv aTpaTvf]v /cat e/c r<Si' irpo<r€)(€a)j/ TrokUav rfj 10 
IlaXXTjVy, ofiovpeouaecov 8e r<5 ®ep/xat^> /cdX7r<y, rycrt 
ovvofiaToi €(rrt raSe, At7rafo9, Kw/x/3peta, Attrat, Ttyco- 
w>s, Kap//a, SfttXa, At^eta. 17 Se rovrcwv x^/ 07 ? Kpotr- 
cranj ert /cat cs rdSe /caXetrat. cnro Se Ati/et^s, cs r))*> 
ercXevratt/ Karakeycov ras trdXts, a7ro Tavrqs ^8tj es 15 
avroV re toj> ®epficuov koXttov iylvero raJ vavriKta 
vrpaTcp 6 7rXdo5 /cat yi}*' r^ MvyScwtTji/, 7rXeW Se 
am'/cero €5 re rty*> 7rpo€ipr)fJi.€vr)v ®€p/i7]v /cat Su/Sop re 
tto\w /cat XakeoTprjv iirl rov ¥ A^lou irorafiov, 05 ovpt£et 
X^P 1 ^ ttjv Mvyhouvqv re /cat BorrtattSa, rfjs ixovai to 20 

Potidaea, the most important town from the tribute lists, or AW. 

ofPallene. Cp. 8. 128; Thuc. 4. Cp. Steph. Byz. s.v. Aura, iroXis 

!2o fF. This Sane is to be distin- GbpaKrjs Trpo<r€)^}<s 'rfj UaXX^vg. 

guished from that mentioned 7. 22. See Stein. — 14. 4$ t68c: = es 

16. — 8. $\6ypijv KaXco|jivT)v : i.e. rovht tqv ypovov. — 15. ircXcirrwv 

the scene of the mythical battles ieaTa\£ya>v : const, of ptc. as with 

of the giants with the gods. <$A.e- imvtvdai and A^yeiv. — diro tcw- 

ypTfj Fir eland, doubtless so-called ttjs tj8i] : from this point on. Cp. 

with reference to the volcanic na- 6. 76. 6. — 17. yf\v rr\v Mv«y8o- 

ture of the region (^A.cyciv). Cp. vir\v: the district in eastern Mace- 

Ta fcAcypaca 7rc8ta about Cumae in donia between the Axius and 

Campania. — 9. h t6 irpocipt)^- Lake Bolbe (Thuc. 1. 58. 15), 

WC¥ ' to the appointed place, i.e. so called after its former inhabit- 

Therma (7. 121. 3). Cp. 18 be- ants. — 20. BorruuCSa: on the 

low— 10. irfxxrcxlttv rfj IlaXX'/jvx) : right bank of the lower Axius, 

adjacent to Pallene. Cp. 9. 28. so called from its former inhabit- 

II< — 12. AuraC: this is the read- ants (Borriaioi), who driven out 

m g of the Mss., for which prob. by the Macedonians had found 

should be substituted either Aura, new seats in Chalcidice (8. 127. 4 ; 



190 



HERODOTUS VII 



[123. 21 



irapa ddkaccravy arewov xa>/otoi>, irokies *I;(i>at re /cat 
Ile'XXa. 
124 e O p.ev S77 vavTucos crparbs avrov ire pi "Aijiov irora- 

fJLOV /Cat TToklV ®€pfl7]V /Cat T(X9 ftCTafv 7ToXtaS TOVTOW 

irepifieveov /3acrtXea io-rpaToireSeveTO, Bep£r)<$ Se /cat 6 
7T€£o5 crr/oaTos iiropeuero e/c rfjs 'A/cai/0ov rf/v peao- 
yaiav rd[ipa)v ty}<% 6S0S, j3ovk6[JLevo<; is rf/v Sepfxr/vS 
amKeadai. iiropevero Se 8td rfjs TlaioviKrjs /cat Kprj- 
orau'iie??? ifrl TTora/jLOP 'E^etScopov, 05 e/c Kprjorwvauov 
apijd/ievos pet Sta Mvyhovfys X^PV^ Ka * gH^i Trapa to 
l25eXos to in 9 A£l<o irorafiw. iropevofieua) Se ravrjj 
Xeovres oi ifredrjicavTo ryci crtTo<£d/ootcrt /ca/i^Xotcrt • 
KaTa<f>o(,Teovre<; yap oi \eovres ras vuktcls /cat Xet7row€5 



Thuc. 2. 99. 14). — 21. <ttciv6v x»- 
ptov: a wedge-shaped district of 
Bottiaea between the lower Axius 
and the united Lydias and Haliac- 
mon. — 22. n&Xa : an old city of 
the Bottiaeans, and from the time 
of Philip, father of Alexander, who 
was brought up there, a residence 
of the Macedonian kings. 

MARCH TO THERMA (CC I24-I26) 

124. I. ainov irepl "AJiov : cp. 
7. 107. 5. — 2. rds jictoJv irdXias 
tovt»v: note the irregular posi- 
tion of tovtu)v. — 4. Tt|v [uurdy aiav 
rdfivwv Tfjs 6801) : taking the course 
through the interior, as 9. 89. 21. 
Cp. the Homeric const. rtfivtLV 
OaXao-aav. The addition of rfjs 
o&w prob. after the analogy of to, 



(ruvTOfw. rrjq 68ov (1. 185. 32, 4. 
136. 10). We should expect sim- 
ply rrjv fX€<r6yaMiv or Ttjv fiearpr 
68ov. Cp. 4. 12. II cs jxeaoyaiav 
t^s 6Sov Tpa<j>$€VTeq and 5. 83. 10 
Ihpvo-avTO rfjs o-^ercpi/s X^PV^ ** 
rrjv fitaoyaiav. — 6. ILuoviic4)s : 
the land of the Sirio-Paeonians 
on the Strymon. West of these 
dwelt the Crestonaeans about the 
headwaters of the Echeidorus. — 
7. Ik Kpijo-TwvaCwv dpgdjuvos : Cp. 
7. 127.4. 

125. 2. ol: dat. of disadvan- 
tage. S. 148 1 ; HA. 767. — kn- 
Q4)k<xvto: 1st aor. freq. in Hdt. 
for Att. €7T€0€vro. — <riTo^6poto% : 
freq. in Hdt. ; elsewhere only in 
late writers. — 3. icaTcufxHT&irrtt : 
Herodotean word. — Tds vimrot: 



127. 7 ] HERODOTUS VII l 9 l 

tol <r<j)erepa rjffea aXXov fikv ovSc^o? oltttovto oure vtto- 
L,vyiov ovre av0p<o7TOv y ol 8e rds /ca/x^'Xovs e/cepat£oi>5 
ftowas. 0(0/1(1^0) 8e to curios, o n /core iji> rw aXXa>i/ 
to avayicd^ov dire^oiievovs tovs keovras Tyjcri KafJLTj- 
Xourt imTlde&daL, to p/qre irporepov oirdiirea'av Qt\piov 

126/xifT cVe7T€t/)caTO aurov. ctcrt 8e Kara ravra rd ^(wpia 
/cat \{ovt€<$ iroXXol /cat /Joes ayptoi, rail/ ra Kepea inrep- 
fitydded ecrrt ra es "EXXipas <f)6LT€ovTa. ovpos Se 
towti Xeovcrt cart o re St' 'A/3$yjp<ov peeov 7rora/xo5 
Ncoto5 /cat 6 Si* ' AKapvaviy)<; pecov 'A^eX^Jos • oure ydp 5 
to Trpo? rfjv 7)S) tov Necrrov oibafioOi irdcrr}^ tt?s e/x- 
^poade EvpcuTnj? tSot rts av Xeoira, ourc irpbs £<nr4pr)<% 
tov 'A^eXoJou €1/ 777 eniko'urci) rjireipq*, aXX' eV r# fiera^v 

227tovt(ov tcov Trora/icov yivovrai. 0J5 §€ e? r^y ®epfj.7)u 
cwrucero 6 Eep^yjs, l&pvcre avrov ttjv arpaTirjv. ineor^e 
0€ 6 orparo? avrov o"rparo7re8€vd/xe^o5 tt?i> wapd 0d- 
bwerav y&pn)v roonj^Se, dp^dfievo^ diro ®epfir]<; 770X105 
fat Trjs MvySovtys H-^XP 1, AvSt€a> re noTa/xov /cats 
AAicuc/Ltoi>os, ot ovpitpven yfjv rfjv Borrtatt'Sa re /cat 
McuceSoj/tSa, es rcouro peWpov to vhcop crv/i/xtVyo^re?. 

ace. of time, as 7. 50. 23, 7. 181. 4. transition to personal pron., as 7. 

— 5. ol $*: see on 7. 6. 24. — 59. 12. S. 2517; HA. 1005. 
fapdi£ov: Homeric word, freq. in 126. 3. 4>otWovra: i.e. in trade, 

Hdt. — 6. t»v &XX»v : note the em- as 3. 1 1 5. 1 3. — 6. to irpds t^v t|« : 

phatic separation from d7rc^oft€vov5. see on 7. 20. 15. — tt|s cjiirpoo-Oc 

— 8. to : the rel. takes gender and E6pa>ir>}s: Hdt/s point of view 

number of the appos. noun which being Asia, 
it attracts into its own clause — 

an animal, which. - ^rc : in rel. encampment at therma ; tempe 

clause with indef. antecedent. S. ( cc * I2? I3 °> 

2 7°5 g» GMT. 520. — 9. o$tov: 127. 7. o-v^Co^yovTcs : there- 



192 



HERODOTUS VII 



[127. 8 



iorpaTOTreSeiovTo fikv 8?) iv tovtouti toutl xcopiotcn 01 
fidpfiapoi, tS>v Sc KaraKexdei/Twv tovt&v irorafiiov 4k 
KprjOTtovaicw peouv 'E^ctSopo? ilovvos ovk apTexpyiaeio 
Tjj crrparvQ 7nv6p.euo^ aW €7rcXi7T€. 
128 Beptjrjs Sc 6pS)v 4k rfj? &€pfX7js opea ra QecrcraXiKci, 
top re "0\vfiirov /ecu ty/v "Ocrcrav, fieyddci re vTrep/jLTJicea 
iovTdy 8id fxccrov re avrcov avX<3i/a otgivqv mwOavcr 
lievos elvai, Si* ov pei 6 Urjveios, aKov<ov re ravrjj eu>cu 
68bv €? Seaa-akCrjv <f>€pov<rav, iireOviirja-e 7rXcocra5 0eij-S 
cao'dcu tt)v €K/3o\.r)v tov Hrjveiov, art rfjv ava> 68bv 
efieXke i\av Sid Ma/ccSwcov r<ov Karvnepde oiKiqfievcov 
es Heppcufiovs irapd Tovvov ttoKiv ' ravr^ yap cur^a- 
\eararov iirwOdvero elvai. <ws 8c €7r€^v/xTjcrc, ical 



gion is alluvial. Later the Lydias 
had a separate mouth (cp. Scylax 
66) ; now it unites with the Axius. 
— 9. tovtwv : for position cp. 7. 
15. 14. S. 1 181; HA. 673 c. — 
10. o$k &vT^xpt|<r€ . . . dXA* liri- 
Xwre: cp. 7. 58. 14. 

128. 2. prydOci vircp^xca: cp. 
7. 117. 4. — 3. 8id \U<rov tc: note 
the correlation with the preceding 
clause, as if avk&va areivbv iovra 
were to follow. — crfXwva <rr€iv6v : 
the Vale of Tempe. Cp. 7. 173. 
6 ff. — 6. ttjv avo> 686v: three 
ways led from lower Macedonia to 
Thessaly. (1) along the narrow 
strip of coast by the east foot of 
Olympus to the mouth of the Pe- 
neus, then up the gorge of this 
river to Gonnus (pass of Tempe) ; 



(2) through the depression be- 
tween Olympus and the Pierian 
mountains to the headwaters of 
the Titaresius or Europus and the 
land of the Perrhaebians (pass of 
Petra) ; (3) up the Haliacmon, 
then turning S.E., through a sad- 
dle of the Cambunian mts. (pass 
of Volustana, now Volutza), to the 
upper Titaresius. Cp. Li v. 42. 
53. This last is the route called 
here rrjv avo> 686v. Another di- 
vision of the army prob, went by 
the Petra pass. (Stein.) — 7. Std 
MaKc86va>v r&v Ka/HtircpOc otatyftl- 
v»v: i.e. through the district of 
Elimia west of Olympus and about 
the upper Haliacmon. — 8. Is IIcp- 
patpovs : south of Elimia and west 
of Olympus. — irapd Tdwov: on 



129.io] HERODOTUS VII 193 

cVoict Tavra • eV/Ja? es Il&covCtjv vea, €5 rrjv irep ice- 10 
jSawc aiet okgjs tl ideXot tolovto ttoitJctcu, av&efje 
(rrjiLijuov /cat Totcrt aXXotcn avayecr^at, /caTaXt7JW avrov 
rw Tre^o^ (rrparov. iirel 8c aniKero /cat ederjaaro 
Be'ofns rf/v iK/3okr)v rov Urjveiov, iv dcofian fieydkco 
ivioyero, /caXecras Se rov? KaTrjye/jLovas ttjs oSoi) etpero 15 
€i tw TTorafiov cort rrapar peiff avra ^repy es 9d\aa m a , av 
129 ef ayaycu>. r^v Se 0co"(raXnji/ Xdyos cor! to 7raXat6i> 
civcu Xlixvrjv, ware ye (rvyKeKXyifxevrjv irdvrodtv inrep- 
/mjkccti opecri. tol fiev yap avrrjs 7rpos rq*' ^g> e\ovra 
to re HtyXto*' opos /cat 7) *0<r<ra curo/cX^ct cru/x/xtcryoi^ra 
ras vir&peas dXXijXotcrt, Ta Se 7rpo? /Hopea) avep,ov$ 
0^jX7ros, Ta 8e 7rpos kanepr)v IIu/Sos, Ta Se 7rpos 
P*rapfiptriv re /cat dvefiov vvrov f) "Odpvs • to fieaov 
8e tovt(ov t&v \c)(9£vt<i)v opecov r/ ©eo^craXtrj cort 
eovca kolXt). (Sore a>*> norajxajv e? avrfjv /cat aXXco^ 
ovxyiov icrfiaWovTeov, neure 8e t(Sj> Bokl/jlcov /xdXiOTa 10 

the Peneus at the entrance to the because of another modifier. S. 

pass of Tempe. — 10. is Si8<ov(t|v 1181; HA. 673 c. — 4. diroKXtfci : 

Wo: see on 7. 100. 9. — 14. iv sing, because U-qXiov and "Oo-o-a 

Mfiaxi |iry6Xy kv4tr\*To: cp.8. 135. are thought of as a unit {the 

II, 9. 37. 20. ivi<TX€To intr., to range of — ). — a-v\i\ii<ryovra : neu- 

be rendered passively. The idiom ter agreeing with the natural rather 

is freq. in Homer. — 15. tovs ko,t- than the gram, gender. — 6. irpds 

iryqidvat: as 7. 197. 2, for Attic \u<ra\i.Pplr)v tc Kal &vcpov v6tov: 

simple fjyefjiovas. Cp. 01 Kar^yco- note the superabundance^ 7. 201. * 

/icvoc 7. 130. 1. — ctpcro: for the 8. — 8. fcrrltovo-a: parechesis, as 

answer, see 7. 130. 3. 108. 4, 7. 176. 10. Cp. 7. 89. 7. 

129. 2. etvoi: impf. inf. — — 10. t«v SoKCfuav pdXurra rwvSc : 

6o*rt : as 9 with ptc, because of. of these five the Apidanus (cp. 7. 

See on ola 7. 6. 2. — 3. afrrfjs: 196. 12) and the Enipeus after 

part. gen. in attrib. position their union were called by the an- 



i 9 4 HERODOTUS VII [129. u 

t<3j/S€, Hr)V€i,ov Kal 'AmSavov Kal *Ovo\wvov Kal 'Ew 
7T€05 Kal Ila/xicrov, ol \l4v wv es to ireSiov tovto 
(ruXXeyofie ol ik t<ov opecov tcov Trep.Kki/jovTdiv rr/v 
©ccrcraXnp ovofia^ofievoL 8l €1/05 avkcovos /cat tovtov 
trreivov tKpoov e^ovcri es OdXao-o-av, TrpoavfifxCa'yovTe^ 15 
to v8(op 7rdvT€<; es tgjvto. ineav 8e <rufifii)(0€(o<ri 
Tayiora,) ivdeorev fj*r) 6 Hyveibs tw ovvofiaTi /cara/cpa- 
Tiwv a'(ovufiov<z tovs aXXovs el 'at ttol€l. to 8e iraXaibv 
Xeyera*, ovk iovTos k<d tov aiXcovos Kal Sie/cpdou tovtov, 
tovs 7rora/xou9 tovtovs Kal irpbs Tola noTa/iola tov- 20 
tolcl TT/v Boi/3r)iBa \ifivriv ovt€ 6i>o/xa£eo"#ou /caret 7rcp 
iw, pelv re ovSc^ Jjacrov 7) i>w, peovTas 8e 7rotet^ tt)i> 
QzcrcraXtyv iraaav ireXayos. avrot p,ei> viw ©ecrcraXot 
o^acrt IIo(ret8eWa Troirjaai tov aiXcova Si' ov pec 6 
nip/€ids, o'/cora Xeyovre?. ocms yap vofiC^ei Iloorct-as 
8eWa r>)j> y?jV creUiv Kal tcl Stecrrefira inrb aeurpov 

cients sometimes Apidanus, some- t«vt6 : cp. 7. 127. 7. The verb 

times, as nowadays, Enipeus ; the only here. — 17. IvOcvtcv ij$i|: 

Onochonus (cp. 7. 196. 9) and the right from that point. Cp. 6. 

Pamisus seem to have been small 76. 6. — 19. Sicicpoov: only here, 

tributaries of the Peneus. One — 21. oUtc ovopd&ccrOoi : *".*. before 

misses in this enumeration the the cleft was made at the pass of 

larger tributary Europus (or Tita- Tempe neither the rivers nor Lake 

resius). — 12. ol jUv wv: renews Boibe had separate names, the 

after the gen. abs. the subj. con- lake not even a separate existence, 

tained therein (irkvrt ol 86/ci/iot). for all Thessaly was then a great 

14. 6vo|tag6ficvoi : with names of lake. — 25. oIko™ Xfyovrt*: say- 
their own, i.e. before they were ing what is likely. — 26. i4|v y/9ip 
all absorbed in the Peneus. — <rcCciv: hence the Homeric epi- 

15. cKpoov: prob. coined by Hdt., thets ivoaixOiov, cwooryaios, crci- 
afterwards in Arist. and later a-CxOiov. In Thessaly Poseidon 
writers. — irpo<rvpp(<ryovrc$ . , . I* was worshiped as Herpalos. — tA 



130.12] HERODOTUS VII 195 

tov $eov TOVTOV epya eTvcu, icat av iiceZvo I8cbv <f>air) 
IWaSeWa Trovrjcai ' ean yap cretcr/xov epyov, cos i^ol 
i^aivero efpcu, r) Stacrracrts tS>v bpioxv. 
130 Ot 8e KaTTjyeofievot, eipofievov Beptjeeo el cart dXX>j 
cfoSos es OdXaacav ra> IP^eta), i^tincrrd^voi arpe- 
/few? ci7roi/ • BacriXcv, Trorafitp tovtco ovk eort dXXij 
ifyXvcTLS es OdXacrcrav KanqKovaa, dXX' 178c avnf • 
opccrt yap TrepieoTe^dvayr at iracra ©ecrcraXaj. Uepfyvs 
oe Xeyerat e^iv 77/305 ravra • So<f)ol dvhpes etcrl ©ecr- 
craXot. ravr' dpa 7rpo 7roXXoS i<f>v\d£avro yvaxri- 
ftaxcoiTCS *ou raXXa /ecu art X^PV V a P a &X 0V ^vacperw 
tc Kal raxvdXoxro^ • toj> yap 7TOTafibv irprjyfia av fjv 
fiowov iirelvai <r<f>ea)v €7rl ttjv X^PV^ X c * > f l<lTL * K T0 ^ 10 
ai/Xawo? iKfifido-avra Kal iraparpi^avra hi 5>v vvv 
pci p€L0po)Vj Sore Seo-o-aktyv iracrav e£a) t<ov opecov 

fam&r*: the chasms cleft, neut. see on 7. 35. 11. — *y va><ripaxfovTcs : 

pl» concrete for abstract (1/ Staora- lit. recognizing their own strength, 

0-15,29). — 29. tyaCvcro: impf. of and consequently submitting vt\\h- 

the time when Hdt. saw it. out resistance. The fundamental 

130. 1. oi Kcmryclpcvoi : cp. 7. meaning here adopted will suit all 

128.15, — 3« «oTa|4$ Tovry: for three Herodotean passages (cp. 3. 

omission of art. with deictic dem., 25. 18, 8. 29. 3). See on 8. 29. 3. 

W^-ty. 1. — 4. ^Xvo-is: = !£o- Editors generally adopt the other 

°°s« Herodotean word. Cp. 3. ancient interpretation, " change 

Il 7- 15, 5. 101. 9. — afcrrfj: itself, one's opinion," "come to a better 

*•*• alone. — 6. XtyeTai clirctv : see view, 11 which fits all three passages, 

on 7- 56. 4. — 7. raw apa . . . if the etymology be admissible. 

tyM$avT© : for this then long ago — 9. TaxvdXwrov : only here. — 

™ty took precautions, ravra adv. irpffyjia &? rjv jiovvov: it would 

acc - S. 1 610 ; HA. 719 c ; Kr. Spr. have been necessary only. See on 

4°- 3* 4- But for the appositional 7.12.3. — 11. iraparptyavTa Si" <5v 

T «AAa Kal on kt€ , this ace. might v€v jSci £c£6pa>v : for ir. tol pdOpa 

be explained as cognate. For apa, 81 wv vvv pet, the antecedent being 



i 9 6 HERODOTUS VII [130. 13 

vTroflpvya yevccrffai. tolvtcl 8c e^ovra ekeye is tovs 
'AXcvcco 7rat8as, art irpcoroi 'JOXXyjveov ccWcs Seacakol 
€$o<rav itovrovs /Jao"tXct, So/ceW 6 3e/>£>?? 0,776 ttolvtosiz 
cr<^eas tov eOveos iTrayyekXecrdat <f>ikir)v. eiiras 8c 
ravra koll Oeq&dfievos d7rc7rXct is rfjv ®epfir)v. 

131 'O [lev 87) irepl Hieptyv Sterpt/Jc rjiiepas crv^yds • to 
yap 87) opos to MaiceSovucbv c/cctpc Trjs o-Tpa/nrjs t/httj- 
/xopts, tva Tavrji Ste^tg airaaa 17 crrpartij €5 Ilc/opat- 
/Jous * ot 8c 8^ KTJpvKts ol dno7T€[jL(f)0€irr€s is r>)i> 'EXXdSa 
€7rt yrjs aiTTjCLv airiKCLTO ol fikv K€Lvoi, ol 8c <f>epoirress 

132 yf/i' re #cat vScop. Tcov 8c Sd^Tcwv ravra iyevovro otSc, 
©ecrcraXoti AoXo7rcs, 'Ei/itji/cs, Heppaifioiy Ao/cpot, Mdy- 
vr)T€<$y M^Xtcts, 'Amatol ot <£0ta>rat /cat ®r)/3ouoi /cat ol 
aXXot Bottorot 77X77^ ©comcW T€ /cat nXaratcW. €77t 
rovrotcrt ot ^EXXtji/c? cra/xov opiciov ol t& /3ap/3dpq>s 
irokefiov dctpa/xci/ot. to 8c opKiov a>8e ct^c, 00*01 raJ 

attracted into the rel. clause and k6v : i.e. the range on the pass of 

assimilated. — 13. w6ppvxa : meta- Petra or on the pass of Volustana. 

plastic accus., as Horn. 1 319. For — giccipc : cleared of trees. — 4. ol 

the usual form, cp. vTrofipvxiov 1. Sck4jpvkcs: cp. 7.32. — 5. Iirl yijs 

189. 10. — typvra &: referring oIttjo-iv: see on 7. 32. 2. — kcivoC: 

to. Cp. 7. 143. 6, 7. 152. 13. — empty-handed. Cp. Horn. B 298 

15. Sok&ov 6 jE^ptqs: the subj. aloypov tol Brjpov re /xcpctv iccvebV 

added for clearness. tc vUvOojl. 



RECEPTION OF XERXES' HERALDS 



132. 2. Ileppaipof: cp. 128.8. 
— 3. 'Axaiol ol #8u»Teu : i.e. Pthi- 
(cc. 131-133) ot i s i n Southern Thessaly, which 

131. 1. nicpfrpr: named from was called also % kypxvt\ (7. 173. 4). 
its earlier inhabitants (see on 7. — 4. Iirl tovtoio-i: against these, 
112. 2) ; it lay along the coast be- of hostile intent. Cp. 6. 74. 5, 6. 
tween the Haliacmon and the 88.2,7.148.2. — 5. ZTapov opaiov : 
Peneus. — 2. 6pos t6 MaxcSovi- as 4. 201. 12. Homeric idiom. Cp. 



134. 3 ] HERODOTUS VU 197 

Utpoy cSocrai/ cr<f>€as olvtovs "EXX-ipes edi/reg, /ifj avay- 

KQff()(vT& KaTCMTTaVTGiV (T(f)L €V T(OV irprjyfidTcov, TOVTOVS 

l338e/care5o"cu r<2 iv AeX<^otcrt 0ea>. ro p,€v St) opKiov £>&€ 
cT)(€ Tourt "EXXtjcti, • es 8c 'Adrjvas kcu %7rdprqv ovk 

d7T€7TC/n/f€ Se/O^TJ? €7Tl y»JS OAT^O'lV K7)pVK<LS TCwSc 

euwa- irpvrepov Lapiiov TrefxifjaiTOs lif avro rovro ol 
/i» avTQiv 70U? cureoiras es to fidpaOpov, ol 8 s ess 
^peap ecr/JaXdircs iKtXevov yyji/ re icai vScwp €#c tovtcjv 
(fxp&v wapa fiacrikea. tovtcov fieu elvtKa ovk ttrep^e 
Scpf»j5 rov9 atTTjcroi^ras. o ri Se roicrt 9 KO^vaioiai 
ravra troirjaao'i tov<$ ivjpvKas crvinjveiKe avedeXrjrov 
ymtrdaiy ovk €\<co et7rai, irkr/v arc cn^eW 17 X^/ 07 ? * a ^ V IO 
7roXis ihj)d)07). dXXa rovro ov Sia ravrqv rfjv airiiqv 
134 00KC0) yevecrdai. rotcrt 8c 5*> Aa/ceSat/xo^toto-t firjvis 
fawfoj^c ToXOv/Slov rov 'Aya/xefivovos KTjpvKos. iv 
ya.p tirdpry ecrrt Ta\0v/3Cov ipov, elcrl he kcu diroyovoi 

foedusicere. — 8. icaTao-Tdvruv o-<|>i 5. 4s to f&pa6pov : a pit at Athens 

•* **» vpTfy|&dTc»v : explanatory of into which condemned criminals 

W wayK(ur$€VT£St when matters were thrown. — 9. o-vWjvcikc : see 

fad ken well established for them, on 7. 4. 3. — &vc(M\t]tov : see on 7. 

as 6. 105. 11. Cp. 7. 158. 13. — 88. 5. — 10. o*k *x» «t*nm: Pau- 

to »toih ScicaTfOo-ai . . . 0c$: to sanias (3. 12. 7) says that Miltia- 

wakt these pay a tithe to the god at des had been responsible for the 

Delphi, as usually taken and as the act and that the blood-guiltiness 

*ords literally mean ; or to dedicate pursued him and his house. 
Mae to the god at Delphi, as Stein 

^d Sitzler, since a tithe would be sperthias and bulis (cc. 134- 
a tight punishment for traitors. 1 37) 

i33« 1. cS8c : here looking back- 134. 1. 8c »v: see on 7. 9. y 7. 

w *rd, though just above (7. 132. — 2. KaW<rKf|t|rc : rare with dat. 

6) forward. — 4. irporcpov: cp. 6. Cp. 7. 137. 7. — ToXOvpCov: Hom- 

48. 4.— ol |Uv: the Athenians. — eric herald. Cp. Horn. A 320. — 



198 HERODOTUS VII [134. 4 

TaX0v/3tov TaX0v/3taSat fcaXcd/xcvot, rotcrt at icqpvicqiai 
at eVc Sirdprrjs nacrai yepas SeSoi/rat. /zera Se ravras 
rdici ^TTapTirJTrjO'i. KaWteprjcaL Qvop-Lvoici ovk iSvvaro. 
tovto S* iirl -yjpovov vvyyo'> rjv cn^t. d^dofiivcov 8c 
/cat (rvfi(f)oprj xP €(0 l JL ^ va)V Aa/ceSat/xoi'tcoi', 0X1779 re iroXr 
Xa/cts cruXXeyOjua'TyS /cat KTJpvyjxa roiovhe 7rot€o/x€i/ft>i>, 
et rt? fiovkoiTO Aa/ceSat /jlovlcov irpb rrjq 'Zirdprr)? diro- 10 
dvrjcnceiv, %irep0L7)<; re 6 'AvrjpLCTTov /cat BovXts 6 Nt*o- 
Xca>, avbpes SirapT^rJTaL <f>v(ri re yeyo^ore? cv /cat 
-^pTJ/xaat dvrJKovre<; e? r<x irpwTa, idzkovrai inreSva-av 
Troivrjv retcrat Septjr) rcov Aapeiov K7jpvK(ov rcov iv 
^irdpTYj dirokopAvtov. ovrco ^TrapTirJTai tovtovs 6*9 15 
135 dnoOaveofiivovs €5 MtjSovs dmirefxxfjav. avrrj re r) 
rdX/xa tovtcov rS)v dvSpcov ^w/xaro? dftVi /cat raSe 7r/)os 
tovtokti ra iirea. iropevofievoi yap €5 SoScra wrriKve- 
ovrcu Trapd e TSapi>€a. 6 Se 'TSdpvrjs rjv pjev yivos 
Heparrjs, crrpaTijyo? Se r<3*> trapadakaaaiaiv dvdp<ima)v$ 
tcov iv Trj 'Acrtg • 05 cr^eas fetVta irpodifievoi torta, 

5. aUtc SirAprns : /.*. those on mat- 12. <(>v<ri -ycyovdTcs €$: by family 

ters of state or worship. — ylpas 8*- «/*?// £0/7/. The position of ev is 

Sovrai: on inherited offices and to avoid hiatus. Cp. 3. 69. 4. 

occupations at Sparta, see 6. 60. — 13. xP% curi AvVjicovrfs is tA 

— (AiTd 8c ravra: i.e. after the irp»Ta: in property belotiging to 

killing of the heralds. — 6. icaX- the first, Cp. avrjKU) 7. 9. y 4, 

Xicpijo-ai: impers. to get favorable 7. 13. 7. 

omens. — 7. iirl xp^vov: see on 7. 135. 4. *Y8dpvca: prob.the Hy- 

1. 10. — 8. <ru|A<|>opfj xpc«|^vo)v: as darnes mentioned 7. 83. 3 and 7. 

7. 141. 1. Cp. 7. 117. 6. While 21 1.4 as leader of the dflavaroi, and 

the omens continued unfavorable, son of the Hydarnes who was one 

public business dependent thereon of the seven conspirators (3. 70). 

had to be suspended. — o\£t]s: — 6. <r<()€as lorCa: entertained 

Doric word = Attic iKKXrfaia. — them. — £c(via irpoWjwvos: cp. 7. 



136. 5 ] HERODOTUS VII i 99 

fevtlcDP §€ €Lp€TO [\ty<Ov] TCtSc * *Al>Sp€? AaK€$CLIr 

fiwwt, rt Si) <f)€vy€T€ /JacrtXct <j>i\oi yevecrOcu ; oparc 
yap a>s iirUrraTcu /JacrtXcv? aVSpa? ayaOovs Ttpav, cs 
e/ie re /eat ra c/u,a wpijypaTa airo/Skiirovres. ovt<d Sc /cat 10 
v/iets ct SoCrfre vpias avrov? /JacrtXct (SeSofcDcrfle yap 
ffpos avrov aVSpcs cli/at dya#ot), c/caaros ai> vp4<ov 
a PX 0L YV* 'EXXdSos SoVros jSacrtXcos. 7rpo? ravra 
inrtKplvavTo raSc • *T8a/Di>cs, ov/c cf tcrov ytVerat 17 
crujLtjSovXa; 17 cs rjpias Ttlvovaa. rov pkv yap ireireiprj- 15 
ftcvo? cru/x/JovXevcts, tov Sc oWi/dos cwi/ * to //,ci> yap 
oouXos cti/at c^CTrtcrrcat, i\ev0epir)<; Sc ov/ca> iireiprjOrjs, 
our ci fori yXv/cu otr* €t /atj. €t yap avnjs ireipyjcraLO, 
ovk av Sdpacrt (rvfifiovXevois r/plv wept avrfjs pd)(€(r6 'at, 
136aX\a /cat ircXc/cccrt. ravra /icv 'TSdpj/ca apttyavro- 
c^curci/ 8c cos ave/3r}<rav cs Soucra /cat ^SacrtXct €9 6\//ti> 
V^oj/, irp&ra pkv tS)v hopv<f>6pa)v KeXevovrcov /cat di/dy- 
JC1 ?^ <r<£i irpo(T<l>€p6vT<DV wpocrKvpeiv /JacrtXca irpoairi- 
^oiras ou/c e<f>a<rav wSeopevoi irpbs avr<Si> C7rt KecfraXrjv 5 

2 9- 4 — 8. tCSVj: Why, pray? — sided. — 17. 4ir€irf0T)s, imptfjo-cuo : 

"• tyrt* «l 8oCt|T€ : note emphatic note aor. pass, and aor. mid. with 

Position of the pron. — ScSlgcw^c : same force. 

as 9. 48. 19. Herodotean word 136. 1. Ta$Ta i&cv'YSdpvca ApcC- 

= Att. 8o£a£a>. Fut. pf. denotes i|ravro : cognate and personal ace, 

certainty. GMT. 79. — 12. irpte as 2. 173. 21, 3. 52. 23; usually 



see on 7. 2. 12. — lica- ace. of pers. and dat. of thing 

vx9%: shows that by v/acW all the (7. 161. 3). — 2. poo-iXct 4s &|nv 

Spartans are meant. — 13. &f>x oi tjMov: dat. of interest, practically 

tft 'EXXdSos : compare the prom- possession. Cp. 7. 146. 12. — 

ises of Cyrus to the Greeks, Xen. 4. irpo<ncw€tv pcuriXla irpo<rirhrrov- 

Anab. 1. 7. 6, 7. — 14. o*k t£ fcrov Tas : to do obeisance to the king by 

. . . TfCvowa: the advice as per- falling down before him. — 5. o4k 

taming to us is unequal, i.e. one- tycurav . . . ovSapd : they said that 



200 HERODOTUS VII [: 

Troirjaeiv ravra ovhap*d • ovre yap <r<j>urL kv vofjuw 
avdpomoy Trpocicvveiv ovre Kara ravra rjiceiv * a 
air€fia\i(ravTO rovro, Sevrepd <r<f)i Xcyov&i rdhe 
\6yov rotovSc i^6/jL€va • *il jSacrtXet) x Mrj8a)v t iiref 
rffika^ AaKthaifiovioL dvrl r<ov kv ^ndprji dnoXo/i 

K7)pVK0)V TTOiV7)V Ik€VV(s)V TCUTOJ/TaS, \£yOV(TL 8c ail 

ravra Bkp^rjs irrrb p,eya\o<j>pocrvvr)s ovk €<f>rf o/l 
ccrecr&H Aa/ceSatftoi/iotcrt • Keivovs p,kv yap cruy^cc 
irdvrwv avdpdmtov vopip*a dwoKreivavras KrjpvKas, a 
8c rd e/cetvotcrt cVt7rX^crcret ravra ov iroiTJaeiVy 
dvrairoKrtivas e/ceu>ovs d7roXvo"eti> Aa/ceSatftoptbv? 
137 am?;?, ovro) 17 Ta\0v/3iov firjvt^ Kal ravra rroir^crd 
SiraprLTjrecw iiravcraro rb irapavruca, Katirep airovo 
advrtov cs tirdprqv ^irepOUd) re /cat BovXtos. ^ 
8c ^ercVetra 7roXX(5 iirqyepSr) Kara rbv HtkoTrovvq 
/cat 'A0r)vaCa)y 7rdXcfioi>, «o? Xeyoucrt Aa/ceSai/xc 
rourd fiot ci> rotcrt Oeiorarov <j>aiv€rai yevk&Qai. 
fiev yap KarecKr^e is dyyeXovs f) TaXOvfiiov p 
ov8e cVavcraro irplv r/ i£r}\0e, rb Sucaiov ovrco e^ 
rb Sc ovpireaeiy e? roits 7ratSa? rcov avhpcov ro 

even if they were thrtisl head 7. 27-29, 7. 146, 147. — 1 

downwards they would not do this. fccCvouri 4iiw\4j<r<rci : what h 

Cp. Verg. A en. 1. 116 promts vol- sures in those, 
vitur in caput. — 7. KaTctTavra: 137. 1. kcU : connects out 

_/i?r M/j purpose. — 8. <r^i Xfyov<ri : genitive absolute. — 6. bt 

repeated in 1 1 (\eyov<n oc av- Qtidrarov : among the nwst d, 

roio-t) and dependent on l<^>7 (12). S. 1089; HA. 652. The 

— 9. X670V toiovSc fydF L€va : things occurs ten times in Thi 

of such purport. Cp. 7. 5. 8. — 9. o-vpirco-ctv : substituted f< 

12. (&c7aXo<^po<r^vt)s : for other in- riety for Karaxriaplran, hence 

stances of X.'s magnanimity, cp. eg c. ace; otherwise c. dot 



138.4] HERODOTUS VII 201 

t&v iva/3dvT(0V irpbs /3acrcXca 81a rfjv /JLrjviv, cs NiKoXav 10 
re tov BovXios kcu 65 'Awjpi ttov Tov SirepOUa), 05 elXe 
'AXiea? rovs c/c TipvvQos oXicaSi KaraTrXoKras wX^jpet 
ivhpav, BfjXov £)v fJLOL otl Oelov iyevero to irpfjyiLa [ck 
Trjq /djVios] * 01 7rc/x<^0cVrcs v7ro AaKeSaifMovicov dyye- 
W eg tt)i> 'Acrajv, trpohodevres 8c vtto SiraXjcca; roO 15 
Tijpcw Sp7jKS)v /JacriXcos /cat ^ivfi(f>o8a)pov tov UvOea) 
ivopos 'A)887jptT€o>, ^Xaxrav /cara Bitcu>07ji> ttjv iv 
EMtjottoWw, *cai air<x)(OivTZS cs r^ 'Am/ap aired avov 
vtto \Oy}vau0v, fxera 8c avrw *al 'A/Horca? 6 'ASci- 
/Aturov Kopu>0LO<; dvqp. 20 

TaCra ftci> vw iroXXowri crccrt voTtpov eyevero tov 
fiavikios aroXov, eVa^ei/n 8c cm toi> irporepov Xoyov. 
138^ 8e aTpaTr)Xa<rCrf rf /JacriXcos ovvofia fikv cl^c g5s cV 
A&p/as cXavvct, fcartcro 8c cs Tracraj' t^v e EXXa8a. 
irvvuavoftevoi 8c ravra 7rpo 7roXXoi) 01 "EXX^j/cs ov/c cV 
o/ioto) irdvres iiroieovTO. 01 /tc*> yap avrwp Scares y>jj> 

T0 «i TatSas : *.*. as an example 4v 'E\AT)<rir6vT<p : more exactly on 

of the law that children suffer for the Propontis, the Hellespont be- 

their father's crimes. Cp. 7. 197. ing loosely used for the whole re- 

2I> — 12. 'AXita: Halieis, a town gion. See on 7. 95. 9. — 19. 'Api- 

m Argolis near Hermione, had arias: 'Aptorcvs in Thuc. 2. 67. 1. 
been colonized from Tiryns. — 

! 3- 8<jXov &v pot : sc. iariv. Ana- dread of the Persian : Athens 

coluthon, owing to length of sent., THE savior of Greece (cc. 

To vprjyim resuming to avfnre- ! 3^> x 39) 

a $v.— [U <ri)9 |Wjvios] : see App. 138. 3. irpd iroWov: cp.7. 130. 

"-14. ot ik|i4Mvtcs : 430 B.C. — 7. — o*k 4v 6poC<p irdvrcs krroUovro : 

IS- SvrdXicfw : an ally of the Athe- did not all regard it in like man- 

nians — 16. Nvju|>oS»fx>v : brother- ner, as 8. 109. 16. For the verb 

in-law of Sitalces and proxenus of in this sense in the middle voice, 

the Athenians. — 17. BurdvOr|v ttjv cp. 7. 14. 6, 7. 117. 7, 7. 181. 8. 



to* HERODOTUS VII [13d. 5 

re koll v8(op T<p Tlepcg el)(OP $dp<ros d>s ovhep ireur6r$ 
fievot d^a/ot 7rpbs rov fiapfidpov • ol he ov Swrcs cu 
Sccfiari /jLeydXo) KaTcaTacrai>, are ovre peap eovcreajv 
ep rrj 'EXXdSi dpidpov d^to/id^wv Scicccr&u top cmwra, 

OVT€ fiov\ofl€PO)P T<OP TToWtoP d^Ta7TTCCT^ai TOV IToke/JLOV, 

139 firjStlsOVTw 8c 7rpo0vpa)s. ivOavra dvayKaty itjepyoficu 
ypwp/qp dirohe^aaOai €7rUf>dopop fiep 7rpbs t£>p ir\eopa>p 
dvSpamcDP, oficos 8c, tj} ye /jlol (fxtiverat elvai dXijtfcs, 
ovk i7ricr)(7J(r(o. el 9 A$r)paioi KaTapp<o8TJ<raPT€S top 
iwLOPTa kipSvpop i£ekurop ty/p <r<f>eTipr)v, fj /cat /jwj 5 
e/cXt7rd^rc9 dWd fieipa^Te^ ehocrap ericas avrovs Sip^g, 
/caret tt)p 0d\a<r<rap ovSapol olp eireipSipro avnovpevoi 
/JacriXci. el tolpvp /card rf/p ddXaaaap /tijScls tjptiovto 
Hepfjj, /card ye dp ttjp rjireipop roidSc iywero. el kclI 
7roWol TeL)(ea)i> KiO&pes tf&ap eXrjXa/te^ot Sid rov 'l<r0~ 10 
fiov Ueko7ropprj(TLOLO'L 1 irpohoOipres av Aa/ceSat/iwtot 
v7ro t<Si> '<rv/iiid)^(op ovk eKopr<op dXX* un"' dpayKauqs, 

— 5. ottftv ircuripcvoi &xapi : CP« 7* ("|v: cp. 7. 143. 17. — 7. twtip&vro 

50. 25. — 8. &pi0|&6v: ace. of spec. dvrio<i|icvoi : suppl. ptc, as 7. 148. 

Cp. cs rov aptOfxov 7. 97. 9. — d{io- 8, 7. 1 72. 19. — 10. Tfix&»v ki66- 

pdxuv: cp. 7. 101. 11, 7. 157. 16. ves: poetic for T€t;p7- As the coat 

139. 1. AvayicaCx) {{{p^opou : as protects the body, so the walls the 

7. 96. 6. — 2. 4ir(<|>0ovov . . . dv0p<&- city. Cp. 1. 181. 1 to tcixos Ouyprji 

irwv : invidious in the eyes of most coti, Xen. Sympos. 4. 38 irdan) ftcv 

of the Greeks. This was perhaps dAcctvot ^trwvis 01 roiypl /tot 00- 

written by Hdt. about the time of kooti civcu, Demades, #/W Athen. 

the opening of the Peloponnesian 3. 99. 9, (to tci^os) co"0i/Ta t§s 

War when so many Greek states ttoA-ccd?. Cp. also Xdivov ^irwva 

were arrayed against Athens. — Horn. T 57. — Sid t©0 'LrOpoG: a 

4. o*k 4iri<rx^<ra) : j*. yvufirjv d7ro- wall was hastily built across after 

o\'£tto-0ai. — KaTapp«8rfj<ravT€s : cp. the battle of Thermopylae (8. 

7. 38. 2. — 5. 4£&.iirov ttjv o-fari- 71). — 1 1. irpoSoMvTts : deserted* — 



139. 3 i] HERODOTUS VII 203 

Kara 7ro\i5 akuTKOfiivrnv vnb tov vavrucov arparov tov 
jSapjSapov, ifiowddrfcrav, fiovitoOevTes Sc av /cat a7ro8c- 
Hdjiom epya fieydka dirldavov yei/j>auos. t) ravra av 15 
crrafloi/, tj 77706 rov 6pS>vr^ av /cat rov? d^Xous ^EXXtj- 
vas ju/tySt^oira? Ofiokoyt-fj av i^rjaavro irpbs Bep^rfv. 
/cat ovno av C7T* dfufrorepa i) 'EXXds iylvero imb Ilep- 
(TffTi. ttjv yap d)<f>€kirjv rfjv rS>v t€L)(€<dv tojv Std tov 
'lvOnov i\r)\aii€va)v ov hvvafiai irvQicrBai tJtls av rjv2o 
j8acnX605 inucpaTtovTos rrjs ^aXdcrcnjs. vvv Se 'A0tj- 
vam% av Ttg Xeycov aoyrfjpa^ yeveaO ai rfjs 'EXXdSos 
ovk av afiaprdvoi to akr/des * ovroi ydp iirl 6/core/oa 
tS>v TrprjyitaTtov iTpdirovro, ravra pfyeiv ifieWe • cXo- 
ftcvoi 8e r^v e EXXd8a irtpitLvai iXevOepr/v, tovto to 25 
EAX)ji/i#c6i> irav ro Xot7rd*>, ocrov fir) c/tr/Stcrc, avrot 
wot ^crav ol iireyetpavres /cat jSacrtXca ficrd ye 0covs 
Mwr&nevoi. ovSe ericas XP r ) a " r VP La <f>o/3epd iXdovra 
** htk<f>a)v /cat €5 Sct/xa /Sakovra e7retcre c/cXt7rctv r^v 
EXXaSa, dXXa Karafieivavrts dv4cr\ovTo tov imovra^o 
cm ttji; x^P 7 l v Sc^acr^at. 

*3- wrd vtfXis : £#y <?/^ ^« — — 2 4« Tairra fM+civ 2|icXXc : that was 

x 4« wtf: <zwi = KaL7r€p. — 16. wpo going to (weigh down) preponder- 

*••: cp. 7. 16. /? 9. — 17. &v: #/*. — 26. |irfj : because the rel. 

"We repetition of av, as 23 below, clause is conditional. — 27. ovroi 

"~" I 8. W tp^oVcoa: in both cases, . . . ol 4ircyc(pavT€$ : for art. and 

*■*• whether they died nobly or ptc. as pred., cp. 7. 2. 12, 7. 10. 

came to terms. — 19. ttjv <»4mX(t)v : ^7. — 29. Is 8c£jia paX6vra : poeti- 

Pfolepsis. — 21. v$v 84: cp. 7. cal form of expression for 8e?/xa 

50. 20. — 23. a|Mprdvoi to &Xr)0& : ive/SaAov avrois. — 30. &W<rxovro : 

n °tethe rare const, of the ace. — = sustinuerunt, they endured; 

•^ fcfapa r&v irprryiidrwv : i.e. to here construed with infinitive, 

whichever side, Greek or Persian, usually with participle. 



204 



HERODOTUS VII 



[140.1 



!*0 HefLifjavres yap oi ^Adrfvaloi c? Ae\<f>ovs 0€O7rp6nov<; 
Xpv)O"rr)pid£ t €O'0 ai rjaav iroLfiot • kolC <r<f>i 7rouq<Ta<ri 
irepl to Ipov t<x pofiL^ofieva, ws «s to fteyapov ccrcX- 
dovres XttOVTQy XPV V Hv0aj, rfj ovvofia ?jv : Apiorovucq, 



rctSc 



ft /teXcot, tl KciOrjcrOe ; Xiirwv <f>evy i<r)(aTa yalr)s 
Acofxara Kal 7rdXios T/)o^oci8co5 a/cpa Kaprqva. 
Ovrc yap 7) K€<f>a\ri fievtL e/tfreSoi/ ovre to crai^ta, 

OvT€ 7rd8c5 viaTOl OVT S)V X*P € *> OVT€ TL /iCCTOT/S 

Acwrcrat, dXX' a^Xa ireket • Kara yap fiiv ipeCirei 
Uvp T€ Kal ofvs "Apr)<s, Xvpirjyevh dpfia Slcokcov. 



ic 



ORACLES: THE WOODEN WALL; 
THEMISTOCLES 1 INTERPRETA- 
TION. HIS BUILDING OF THE 
FLEET (CC. I40-I44) 

140. I. irl|M|ravTc s : about 482 
B.C., as may be inferred from 7. 
H5 — 2 - XOT^P^fc"**" : = XPT 
(rOcu tw XPV aT VP^ 7* '4 1 * 6. — 
3. t£ lp6v : the whole sacred pre- 
cinct including the temple and all 
that belonged thereto; vtjos the 
temple itself; to jxiyapov the inner 
shrine (or aSurov 17). In the aSv- 
rov of the temple at Delphi was a 
golden statue of Apollo and back 
in the shadowy recess the tripod 
of the Pythia over a deep fissure 
in the rock. — Td vo|uj;6|tcva : i.e. 
the customary preparatory purifica- 
tions and sacrifices. — 4. -f) IIv6(t| : 
the Pythian priestess who uttered 
from the tripod the oracles which 



were taken down by the 7rpo<f>rJT(u 
and promulgated in hexameter. 
See on 7. 1 1 1 . 8. — 6. \m-6v : con- 
nect with b\t>fjjaTa . . . Kaprjva. The 
address is through the OeowpoTroi 
to the people at Athens. — lo-xara 
yafois: as Hes. Theog. 731. For 
the terminal ace, see S. 1588 ; HA. 
722. — 7. rpoxociSfos : referring to 
the circular city wall (called kv- 
kAos I. 98. 21). — &Kpa Kdpijva : = 
'Afc/ooff-aXi?. Cp. Horn. B 869 Mv 
KCLA179 aiirava Kaprjva. — 8. pAti 
<(|Mrf8ov: as Horn. E 527, P 434. 
— 9. ir68c 9 Wotoi : the feet below. 
So in Horn. B 824, of a- mountain, 
iroSa veiarov ¥ l8iys. — ofa' &v : nor 
yet. Cp* Horn, ft 200. — lUo-o-rp : 
sc. T7js iroAios. — 10. &gT|Xa: = 
a$rj\a, unseen, i.e. annihilated. — 
|uv : i.e. rr)v iroXiv. — 1 1 . o{wt "Apv|t : 
as often in Homer; here refer- 
ring to Xerxes. — 2vptt|«y«vi$ &ppa 



141. 6] 



HERODOTUS VII 



205 



IloXXa 8c KaXX* obroXci uvpycifiaTa, kov to <rbv olov • 

IIoXXovs 8* adav&Ttov vqovs fiakepa) irvpi Sgktci, 

Oi irov vvv iSpwTi peov/ievoi ccrnjKacri, 

kelfiaTL iraWo/JLevoi,, Kara 8* dfcporarot? opofyoiai *5 

Af/ta fxeXav Kexyrai, wpoiSbv kowcott/tos av dy teas . 

'AXX* ltop i£ dSvroto, /ca/cot? 8' €7riKiSj/aT€ dvyLOv. 

lttiavra aKovcraircs oi t<op 'ABrfpauop Otonpcmoi avfi- 
^°PV ^ fitytor-Q ixptovTo. 7rpo/3d\\ov<ri 8c ericas 

aVTOV? V7TO TOV KOLKOV TOV KC^/OTJCTflcVoV TifKOP 6 * Kv 

SpojSovXov, iw Ae\(f)(t)v dinjp Sd/a/to? ofioia tgJ /ictXt- 
<rra, avvefiovXeve <r<f>L ucerqpCas XajSovcri Scvrc/oa avris 5 
AfloVras xprjadaL t<2 ^jp'qarqpixa a>s l/ceras. ireidofie- 

( KaKorrjTOs d vay/cas) . — 17. 'AAV 
Itov: the Pythia addresses now 
directly the OtoTrpo-rroi, evidently 
two in number. — tcaicofs 8' tiriictS- 
varf Qv\l6v : " brood on the ills that 
await you" (Rawl.), lit. spread 
your soul over your ills. 

141. I. <ru|A<t>opfj . . . kyjpivvTQ : 
because the utter destruction of 
the city was foretold. For the 
expression, cp. 7. 134. 8. — 2. irpo- 
PdXXovo-i <r<t>4as airovs: giving 
themselves up for lost, from the 
habit of casting one's self upon 
the ground in despair. — 4. fyioia 
t$ jidXurra: see on 7. 118. 7. — 
5. iK€TT)p(as: ue. the olive branches 
carried by suppliants. — ScvTcpa 
avris: also 4. 76. 3, like Homer. 
— 6. 4\06vtos xP f i°^ a, ' : the inf- 
attracts the ptc. into the ace. — 
Xrf<r6cu t$ xP T l <rrT )P c< P •* = XPV^ 77 )" 



f : drrving a Syrian chariot. 
Cp. Aesch. Pers. 85 Icopiov appja. 
bniuov. The term Syrian in both 
Hdt. and Aesch. means no more 
than Asiatic. — 14. ISp&n fcovpe- 
•*•' what is usually said of statues 
°f the gods here applied to their 
temples. For the portent, cp.schol. 
0Ttt »' fUXXy rt <rvfx/3aiv€LV x ^*- 
*°Vi dta$€ ra ayaA/uara l&povv. — 
l S> 8f(|uiTi iraXX6|uvoi : quivering 
with fear, as hymn to Demeter 294. 
""~«pty©un : dat. with Karaice^vrcu, 
*s Hom.r 10, Y 282, for more usual 
gen. With the passage, cp. Horn. 
v 354 alpaTL 8' ippaSarai toixoi 
«nW tc ficaoS/uu sprinkled with 
blood are the walls and the fair 
compartments. — 16. irpoiSlv : = 
Tpo^cuvw. The blood, thought 
of here as endowed with life, sees 
the approach of unavoidable evil 



2o6 HERODOTUS VII [141. 7 

voiai 8c Tavra rotcrt ' A0rfvaiouri kcu Xeyovcrt • *Ai/a£, 
Xprjaov rjfuv afieivov tl nepl 7779 7rarpc8o5, ai8ccr0cts 
ra? ticcrrj/ota? rdcrSc ras rot rjico/JLev <j>€povres • ^ 01! rot 
dm/iev €K rod dSvrov, dXX' avroS ry 8c /leveofiep ecrr av 10 
/cat TeXevnjcrcDfiev, Tavra 8c Xeyovcrt 17 irpofiavrts ypy 
Scvrc/oa rd8e • 

Ov Svi/arat IlaXXds At* 9 0\vfimov i&XderacrOaL, 
Aia-crofiepT) 7roXXowrt Xoyots kcu /jltjti&i irvKvjj. 
Sot 8e rdS' avrts 67T09 cpcco, ahdfiami 7rcXacrcras • *5 
Tc3j/ a\\d)v yap dXto7co/*eVcjj> 6Va Kck/oottos ovpos 
'Eito9 e^ci Kevdficov re Kt#at/oco*/o9 £adcoto, 
Tet^o5 T/otroye^et ^vXtvov 8t8ot evpvona Zcvg 
Mowoi> arropdryrov reXeOeiv, rb ere reKva r ovrjeret. 
MtjSc ot5 y' iTnro(Tvvv)v re fieveiv koX iretpv lovra 20 
UoWbv air 9 rjireipov arparbv rjcrv)(os, dXX* xmo^wpeiv 

pta^eaOaL 7. 1 40. 2. — 8. XP^°* 0V : P tc » is masc. because Apollo speaks. 

for act. and mid. see on 7. 1 1 1 . 9. — — 16. Klicooiros ovpos : the Acrop- 

9. toi : for thee, dat. of interest. — olis, reputed to have been first 
oil toi: tol strictly perhaps ethical settled by Cecrops. — 17. KcvOpjbv 
dat. — 10. avTov Tfj8c: see on 7. KiOaipftvos: the Vale of Cithaeron % 

10. $ 12.— 11. Tavra Sc \£yov<ri : this mountain being on the natu- 
repeats beginning of sentence (7). ral boundary between Attica and 
Cp. 7. 136. 8, 11. — -f| irp6uavris: Boeotia. — 18. TptTvycvcf: for the 
as 7. 111. 9. Cp. 7. 140. 4. — usual Tpiroycveajt, also Horn, hymn 
13. IlaXXds: as Trokiovyos or pa- 28. 4; Ar. Eq. 1 1 89. — cipiova: 
tron goddess of Athens. — 15. 48d- wide - voiced, far - sounding, — 
pavn irc\do-o-as : bringing it nigh 20. imrwrOvr\v : cavalry ', poetical ; 
to (i.e. making it firm as) ada- abstract for concrete, as KcAcvo-po- 
mant. The meaning is the same avvry: I- 157. 8, cirrjaLv 3. 23. 5, wa- 
as the Homeric formula to 8k kol xvrrjTos 4. 23. 15, xprjcr/jboavtnris 9. 
T€Tck€<rfi€vov iorat, ue. this sec- 33. 22. — plvuv: await; inf. for 
ond answer is unchangeable. The imv., as 7. 1 59. 8, esp. freq. in Horn. 



142.i 4 ] HERODOTUS VII 207 

N&tov imoTpoftas • ere rot wore Kavrlos ccrcry. 
*Q defy SaXa/xis, d7roXci5 Se o"v reKva yvvaiK&v 
*H irou cr/ctSi/a/xeVyjg Aij/nfrc/Dos ^ ovviowrqs. 

142 Tavra cr^i rjmayrepa yap r<ov irporepwv Kal fjv 
Kal eSo/cei etvat, (rvyypaxffdfievoi diraWdxTO'ovTo is ra? 
&6rjvas. a>9 8c d7T€X0di>T€S 01 OeonpoTroL dmjyyeWov 
is tw hrjfiov, yvw/jLai Kal dXXai 7roX\a! yivovrai hiQt\- 
fi&oiv to fiavnjLOV Kal ai8c (rwccrrtyfcviai fidXi(Tra • 5 
tw irpeafivreptov ekeyov /aerefercpoi 8oKelv o-^un tov 
Ozov rfjv aKpoirokiv xpfjaai Trzpiicr&jQ ai • 17 yap d/cpd- 
iroXis ro irakai t5>v 'Adrjvewv pvjXV iirfypaxTo. ol p,€v 
8tj [/card tov <f>payp,bv] (ruvefidWovro tovto to £v\l- 
vov rii)(os cu>ai, ol 8* av eXeyov rds v4as <rr)fiaiveiv tov 10 
0€op, fcal ravra? irapapT€L<r6aL iicekevov Ta aXXa a7rcV 
ra$. jous aii> 877 rds veas Xeyovras e«/ai rb fjvXivov 
rei^os Icr^aXXc rd 8vo rd rcXcurata prfiivra inrb rfjs 

ni%, 

—22. tm : look you, particle of as- position. Cp. 7. 44. 2. — 4. is tov 

severation. This line gives some Sf||iov: unto the people; const, 

encouragement to the Athenians, with verbs of saying. Cp. cnre c? 

~"*iwiot: = KatdvTib?. — 23. diro- wavras 8. 26. 13. — Siti^vwv to 

**fcW: common position of 8c in pavrijiov: seeking the meaning of 

invocations in poetry. Cp. 1.32.3,8. the oracle. — 5. o-vvco-TTjicvtcu : con- 

68.04.— 24. fl «ow kt4. : either per- flirting. Cp. 7. 225. 5. — 6. |utc{- 

chance when the corn is scattered Ircooi : Ion. for Iviol. — 8. to 

<* gathered in, i.e. at seed-time or irdXcu : cp. to iraXcuov, 7. 59. 13, 

harvest. The battle of Salamis 7. 89. 8. — fax? : by a thorn hedge. 

occurred on Sept. 28th about the — 9. [kcitA t6v 4>pay|i6v] : on 

totte of the autumn sowing. — reading see App. — otiv€0AXXovto : 

Atyfapo* : by metonymy for <titos. coniciebant. — 11. irapaoTcfo-Ooi : = 

14a. 1. y&p: = cVeti as the irapa<rK£vd£e<rOai, as 7. 20. 2. — 

fcdause anticipates its logical 12. «v8rfj: indeed. — 13. So-^oXXc: 



2C»8 



HERODOTUS VII 



[1 



T ft 0€trj £aXa/u?, diroXeis Sc oi> rcici/a yvvcuKtov 
*H itov crfctSi/a/teV^? ArjfiTjTepo^ rj crvvwvcrr]?. 

Kara raCra rd C7rea <rvv€)(4omo at yvcjfiat twv <f. 
v<tiv rds ^eas to i;v\ivov rct^o? eli/ai • ot yap ^>tj 
Xoyoi ravrjj ravra iXd/jLfiavov, a>9 d/t<£i 2aXa/up 
143 ericas i<r<ra)07]vcu vavp*osxyr\v irapacKevacranepovs. 
8c raii^ rt9 'Adr)vai<ov dvfjp cs 7rpayrov<s v€<ootl na 
r<S ovvofia fikv rjv ©c/uxotokXtjs, 7rais 8e Ncoi 
cfcaXctro. ovros a»K^/o ovk c<^>^ 7ra> dpSws tovs ^ 
fioXoyous (rvii/3d\\€<rdaL, \4ya)v ToidSc, ct cs 



staggered* misled. — 17. kcitA Tavra 
Td ihrca : in view of these verses. — 
o-vvcxcovto: were obscured, i.e. 
made doubtful, confundebantur ; 
for if the wooden wall meant the 
fleet, how could safety be promised 
when these two verses portended 
defeat at Salamis (line 20)? — 
18. xP t l <r ( JL0 ^7 01 ' : see on 7. 6. 12. 
— 19. Tavrfl : prospective, looking 
to the is clause. — IXdjifJavov: 
took, i.e. understood, elsewhere in 
Hdt. with voa> or <j>p€vC — «s 8ft : 
see on 7. 2. 3. — 20. irapcuriccva- 
o-ape'vovs: conditional. 

143. 2. twv ns 'A0T|vafo>v : rt? 
regularly so intrudes in Hdt., 
whereas in Attic Greek only the 
addition of some other attrib. word 
with the noun makes this possible. 
— 4$ irpc&TOvs vccmttI irapuGv : ptc. 
impf., who had only lately been 
coming to the front. Cp. 7. 134. 
13. Themistocles belonged to the 



Lycomidai, a family old, t 
not of the highest rank, th 
settled in Phlya. But his r 
was un- Attic (Plut. Theh 
and he attained citizenship 
through the enfranchisement 
by Cleisthenes. As archon 
(Dion. Hal. Arch. 6. 34) he 
the construction of the har 
Piraeus ; with Aristides he 1 
center at Marathon (Plut. A, 
5) ; in the war with Aegina ! 
through the decree that tl 
come from the Laureian 
mines should be spent upc 
fleet (7. 144) ; since the osti 
of his rival Aristides in 482 ( 
he was as orpaTrjyos the firs 
in the state. — 4. ckoXc€to : s 
where the father's name is 
tioned. Cp. 6. 88. 4.— 
crasis for 6 dvrjp. — 5. 49 \A 
ovs tl\*: see on 7. 130. 13. 
possibly c*x€ dprjfitvw is per 



144.2] 



HERODOTUS VII 



209 



vaiovs cl^e to C7T05 elprjfievov iojwws, ovk av ovroo /ilp 
hoKtlv rjTTitoS xpri&fffjvai, dXXd 58c T ft axerXvrf SaXa- 
fus, avri tov *ft OeCrf 2aXa/u?, ct Trip ye e/AtWov ol 
ouciyropcs a/ifi avr# TeXevrrjceiv. dXXd yap €5 rovs 
ffoXc/uovs t<£ 0c$ eiprjaOat to XPV <TT VP L0V crvXXafi-io 
fldvovn /caret to bpQov, dXX* ov/c cs 'A0r)vaiovs. irapa- 
(TKcua^ccr^at a)i> avrovs a>s vavfiaxyjaovra^ ovve/SovXeve, 

W5 TOVTOU £6vTO<Z TOV £vkivOV TCt^COS. TaVTTj 06/UOTO- 

kXcos aTro(f>aLVOfi€POv *A0r)vaiOL Tavra ensure eyvosaav 
aipercwrcpa cTvat fiaXXo*/ ^ rd iw xp7)<Tn6k6y<t)v, o\i$ 
ovk cW vavfia\vr]v apreurOai, to Sc crufiwav elwai ovhe 
X^pa? avraeCpecBat, dXXa c/cXi7rdi>ras y&p*r\v tt\v 'Attl- 
144 fOjj; aXXlJl/ TW'd OlKl£ciI>. CT6jp>7 re ®efttcTTO*cXct yvtopx) 
tyirpocBe Tavrqs cs Kcupbv ^pwrrevcrc, ore ' A0r)vaioi<rL 



sj s for apiyro (Stein) . — 6. 46vr»s : 
Wongs to €?^e. — (iiv : = cwvrdv 
^bj- of SokcTv.— 8. to«: sub- 
stives the whole phrase. Cp. 
?' $i> 16. — 9. djjKJ)' a*-rjj: #&?«/ 
^> hence /<?r it. a/A<£i <r. <&/., 
H in Hdt., Horn, and other 
P°ets, not in Att. prose. — -dXXa, 
Tf^p ktJ. : should properly be sub- 
stantiating or causal clause for the 
a pod. irapa(TKCvd£e<j$ai ktL, but 
the return to direct discourse in 
Ae second sent, causes an anaco- 
luthon. We may render, But in 
truth the oracle, etc. — 10. <rvX- 
XapPdvovTi : in the sense of i\dfx- 
fhvov 7. 142. 19. For dat. of 
observer, see S. 1497 ; HA. 771 b. 
— n. Kord to op06v : = Sp$S>s. — 



14. ryvwrav: judged. — 15. n&X- 
Xov: pleonastic after alpertarcpa. 
Cp. 7. 50. 6. — 16. o*k &»v : veta- 
bant. — &pT€i<r0cu: Ion. for irapa- 
(TK€vd^€(rdaL (I I ). — to (rvpirav tt- 
ircu: to speak it in a word, in 
short. S. 2012 a; HA. 956. — 
17. dXXd ticXiirovTas kt4. : sc. ckc- 
\evov from ovk iwv. See on 7. 
104. 22. 

144. 1. 0t iuotokXcI : dat. of 
interest, as belonging to the whole 
sent., rather than poss. gen. with 
yvtofirj. — 2. <f|&irpo<r6c tcu6tt|s: i.e. 
in the Aeginetan war which began 
491 B.C. — cs Kaipov : opportunely. 

Cp. €S §€OV, 1. II. TJp(<rT€W€ : = 

iviKTja-e. — 'AOrivaCouri : construed 
with the gen. abs., though really 



2C»8 



HERODOTUS VII 



[: 



T ft 0eir) SaXafiLS, awokeis Sc <rv rcici/a yvvaiKtov 
*H ttov <rKihvafi4vy)<; Atj/j/^tc/dos rj ovviovcrr)s. 

Kara raCra rd ezrca avveyiovro ai yvwficu rS>v t 
pcjv ras vias to £v\lvov relx * cli/ai • ol yap xpi 
\6yoL ravrrj ravra iXapfiavov, a>s ap£l XaXa/ili 
143 ericas €(r<ra)0r}v(u vav[ia)(ir)v irapacKevaaafievov^ 
8c T<ov ns *A$r)vaia)v dvr)p cs npdrovs vetoarl ire 
r<3 ovvofia fiev rjv ©c/uotokXtjs, 7rous 8c Nco 
cfcaXctro. ovros a^p ovk €(f>rf irdv 6p$<os tovs ^ 
fiokoyovs ovfifidWeo'Qcu, Xiytov ToiaSc, el cs 



staggered* misled. — 17. K<vrd Tata-a 
Td Jhrca : in view of these verses. — 
o-vvcxcovto: were obscured, i.e. 
made doubtful, confundebantur ; 
for if the wooden wall meant the 
fleet, how could safety be promised 
when these two verses portended 
defeat at Salamis (line 20)? — 
18. xP T ) <r t JL0 ^6'Y 01 ' : see on 7. 6. 12. 
— 19. Tavrg: prospective, looking 
to the o)s clause. — 4\d|ipavov: 
took, i.e. understood, elsewhere in 
Hdt. with vwp or <f>ptvi — osSit: 
see on 7. 2. 3. — 20. irapcuriccva- 
o-aplvovs: conditional. 

143. 2. t»v tis 'AOrjvaCttv : tw 
regularly so intrudes in Hdt., 
whereas in Attic Greek only the 
addition of some other attrib. word 
with the noun makes this possible. 
— 4$ irpwTOvs vcwcrrl irapuuv : ptc. 
impf., who- had only lately been 
coming to the front. Cp. 7. 134. 
13. Themistocles belonged to the 



Lycomidai, a family old, 
not of the highest rank, tr 
settled in Phlya. But his i 
was un-Attic (Plut. The* 
and he attained citizenship 
through the enfranchisemen 
by Cleisthenes. As archon 
(Dion. Hal. Arch. 6. 34) he 
the construction of the ha: 
Piraeus ; with Aristides he 1 
center at Marathon (Plut. A 
5) ; in the war with Aegina 
through the decree that 1 
come from the Laureian 
mines should be spent up< 
fleet (7. 144) ; since the ost 
of his rival Aristides in 482 
he was as orpaTrjyo? the fir 
in the state. — 4. foaXciro : $ 
where the father's name i$ 
tioned. Cp. 6. 88. 4. — 
crasis for 6 dviyp. — 5. 4s 'i 
ovs ctxc: see on 7. 130. 13 
possibly clx* clprffiivov is pe 



144.2] 



HERODOTUS VII 



209 



vaiovs d)(€ to iiros eiprf/jLevov eoVnos, ovk av ovroo \liv 
hoK&v v)Tr\xas xPV <T ^V vaL ^ <*XXd SSc r il o^erXfy SaXa- 
fu'9, avrl tov T ft $€tr] 2aXa/xi?, et trip ye ifieWov ol 
otfcijropc5 afi^> avTip rcXcvrtycrcii/. dXXa ya/o €5 tovs 
iroXc/uovs t<£ #€<£ elpfjaOcu to xPV aT VP LOV ovWol/jl- 10 
fidvovri Kara to opOov, dXX* ov/c cs 'A0tjj>cuovs. irapa- 
(TKcua^ccr^at ai*/ avrovs a>9 vavfiaxTjaovra^ awc/JovXevc, 

W5 TOVTOV ioVTOS TOV £v\lVOV TCt^eO?. TOLVTJ) 0C/UOTO- 

/cXcbs airo^aLVOfievov 'AdrjvaiOL ravra cr^tcrt eyvaxrav 
aiperwrcpa cti/ai fiaXXoi/ ^ rd t<Sj/ xprjcriioXoywVj 61 15 
owe etwi; vavfiayyqv d/orctcr^at, to 8c ovfiirav elirai ovhe 
X H P<is avTa€Lpe<r0ai, akka €fcX(,7rdi/ras X < ^PV V T V V 'Atti- 

144KTJJ/ i\\r)V TLPCL oIkII^IV. CTCjpTJ TC @€/UOTO/cXci yvaifirf 

tyirpocrBe ravrr/s cs Kcupov r)pio m T€v<r€ ) ot€ 'Adrfvalouri 



sj s for opi^-o (Stein). — 6. 4ovt»s: 
belongs to €?xc» — F 11 * : = €o)vrov 
Sl »bj. of oWTv.— 8. to«: sub- 
stantives the whole phrase. Cp. 
7«5I. 16. — 9. d|x<j>* a*-rjj: about 
%) hence for it. ayjfri c. dat., 
freq. in Hdt., Horn, and other 
poets, not in Att. prose. — 4XXd 
Y^p kt4. : should properly be sub- 
stantiating or causal clause for the 
apod. irapa<jKcvd£,e<jO(u #ctc., but 
the return to direct discourse in 
the second sent, causes an anaco- 
luthon. We may render, But in 
truth the oracle, etc. — 10. <rv\- 
Xa|&pdvovri : in the sense of i\dfx- 
fiavov 7. 142. 19. For dat. of 
observer, see S. 1497 ; HA. 771 b. 
— II. Kord to opOov : = 6p0w. — 



14. &yvu<rav: judged. — 15. n&X- 
Xov: pleonastic after aip€T(oTepa. 
Cp. 7. 50. 6. — 16. oiic 2a>v : veta- 
bant. — dpTcto-Oai : Ion. for irapa- 
<rK€vd£€<r0ai (il). — to <ru jvirav ct- 
ircu: to speak it in a word, in 
short. S. 2012 a; HA. 956. — 
17. dXXA ^KXiirdvras kt4. : sc. ckc- 
\evov from ovk «W. See on 7. 
104. 22. 

144. 1. 0c|uo~tok\ci : dat. of 
interest, as belonging to the whole 
sent., rather than poss. gen. with 
yvuifirj. — 2. <f|&iroo<r6c Tavrr|s: i.e. 
in the Aeginetan war which began 
491 B.C. — €SK<upov: opportunely. 
Cp. cs 8cov, 1. II. — TJpkrTcwrc : = 
iviKrprc. — 'AOrjvaCouri : construed 
with the gen. abs., though really 



210 HERODOTUS VII [144-3 

yevofievcov \prjfidT(ov fieydktov iv t$ koivco, tcl 4k tZv 
fi€Ta\\<ov a^t npotrfjXOe tS>v oltto Aavpeiov, ifiekkov 
kdfjeo'dai opx^ov e/caaros Scica Spa^/ia? " Tore ®c/w- 5 
crrofcXerj? aveyvaxre *A0r)vaiovs Trjs Siai/oecrios rai/nis 
iravcrafievovs vias tovtmv t&v ^rj/jLarcDV irowjo'ao'ffcu 
Strjfcocrtas is rbv noXe/iop, top 7rpbs AlytmJTas \4y<ov. 
ovtos yap 6 irokt/jLos avcrras ccraxre Tore tt)v 'EXXaSa, 
dvayKacras OaKaacriovs yeveorOcu ' A0y)vaiovs- at 8c csio 
to fiev iTroLTJOrjaav, ovk iyjprjo'0y)O'aVy is Sew 8c ovt<d 
rfj 'EXXaSi iyevovro. avrat tc Stj at vees toIctl 'Aditf- 
va£oi<rL Trpoiroir)dei<rai inrijpxov, irepas re c8ci npoa- 
vav7rr)y€i(T0aL. cSofc ri <r<f>i fiera to xPV aT VP L0V 
jSouXevo/icVowri iiriovra iirl rr/v 'EXXaSa rbv fSdpfiapov 15 
StKecOai ttJcti vqvcri TravBrjfieL, r<3 0ea> Treidofievovs, 
dfia 'RWtJvcdv tolo'l /3ov\ofi€voLO'L. 

subj.of 1/i.eAA.ov. — 3. 4vt$koiv§: far too small to build 200 ships. 

in the public treasury. — 4. t«v Other authors give the number of 

diro AavpcCov: for to>v kv by at- new ships at 100 (Nep. Tfiemist. 

traction of prep. These silver 2; Polyaen. 1. 30). Athens had 

mines, which extended from coast seventy ships before this decree (6. 

to coast just back of Sunium, be- 89. 9, 6. 132. 3) and at Salamis the 

longed to the state, but were number was 200 (8. 61.9). — 9. «n>- 

farmed out to private individuals <rrds: having arisen. Cp.8. 142. 20 

for one twenty-fourth of the in- €o*r'avo7roA.e/uu>so8€ owccm/jo;. — 

come, besides a special sum for 11. kxp-f\<rbr\<rav : this pass* * s rare. 

any fresh mine. — 5. opxi&^v : vi~ — 12. kyivovro : = ciroo/^crav, this 

ritim, only here. — 6. &v£yvM<rc : pass, being rare. — 13. fcirfy>xov: 

encore. — 7. tovtwv twv xprwubrtav : were ready. — 28ci : doubtless so 

gen. of price. — 8. Su)ico<r(a$: as decreed when preparations for war 

the Athenian citizens at that time, were made. Reserve ships seem 

ace. to Hdt. (5. 97), numbered actually to have been built, for the 

30,000, the sum that would accrue losses at Artemisium had been 

in this way, about 50 talents, was made good before Salamis, 



145.i6] HERODOTUS VII 211 

145 To, fiev 8?) xPV CFT VP La Tatra rotcrt ' A0r)vaioL(ri eye- 
yam* avXkeyofievtov Sc *C9 towto twv 'JLWtjvcjv t<ov 
irepl rqv 'EXXaSa tol afieiva) <f>poveovT(ov /cat 8l86vt(ov 
v^'uri \6yov /cat irurnv, ivOavra cSo/cet /SovXevofievouri 
avrotcrt irp&rov fikv \p7)iidr(t)v iravrw /caraXXcurcrccr^at 5 
Ta? tc fyOpas /cat rovs /car' ciXXtjXovs ediras 7roXe/x,oi>9 • 
*7<raj> 8c 7rp05 Ttvas /cat dXXous iyK€)(prjfi€voL, 6 8c <5i> 
fteytoros 'A0r)vaioi(rl re /cat Atyti^rgcrt. /icra 8c 7rw- 
vavonevoi Bepfyv <tvv t<w crrparoJ cl^at ei> XapStcrt 
c/taiAeucraiTO /coracr/coVou? iripareiv cs tt)^ 'AcrtTp t<Si> 10 
pcurtXcos irpr)y/jLdT<ov, cs "Apyos re ayyekovs bfia^yjii7)v 
vwQi)<roii{vovs wpbs rbv Uepcrrjv, /cat cs St/ceXap 
aUovs irtfiireiv irapa Tekcova rbv Aeivo/ieveos, es re 
Kepicvpav Kzkevcrovras J3o7)0etv rrj 'EXXdSt, /cat cs 
Kptjrqv aWovs, <f>powj<r cures et /ca>9 e^ re yivoiro rb 15 
EMTji>t/c6i> #cat et (ruytcifyavTes rwx/rb 7rpyjaoroL€v ir&vTts, 

..„„ as 6. 1 38. 16. — 5. irpwTOV irdvTtov : 

FEDERAL CONGRESS; ALL FEUDS , . . xw 

' primum omnium. — KaTaXXdcnre- 

eenounced: spies sent to . . » . v , 

7 <r0ai tos cvOpas : CD. KaTaAvcrauc- 

SARDIS; MAGNANIMITY OF s * a *l * » 

' x vot, Tas cwpas 7. 1 46. 2. — 6. KaT : 

among or against. — 7. T|<rav . . . 



XERXES (CC. I45-I47). 



x 45. 2. & t«wt6 : i.e. at the tyiciXpiiHivoi : th*y na d been hard 

^thmus as a central point where pressed in some other wars also. 

*U routes came together, by sea The passage is obscure. Among 

^d land. — r&v . . . 4>povcdv- emendations proposed are €y*e- 

^ who had the better mind KprjfXivoL {concocted, stirred up, i.e. 

tfout Hellas, opp. to firfiifav. wars) and iyKex^prjfievoi (taken 

M>- 7. 172. 7. — 3. 8186 vtwv . . . in hand). — 1 1 . 6|&cuxpfr)v : spear - 

*^nv: taking counsel with and alliance, old term for <Tvp.pja.xuL. 

#**«£ pledges to one another. Cp. 8. 140. a 22; Thuc. 1. 18.25. 

a #*i = dAAiyXots. S. 1231 ; HA. — 15. ct k»s : if haply. S. 2354 ; 



. — 4. PovXcvoplvoiou : repeats HA. C07 ; GMT. 489. — 16. <rvy- 
^d explains hthovrtav <r<£i'(n \6yov, kv+civtcs : bending forward to- 



212 HERODOTUS VII [145. 17 

a>s heivwv imovrtov 6/x.otcog naa "EXXrjo-t. tcl 8c 

Tekwvos Trprjyfiara fieydka ikeyero cu/at, ovSafAwv 

146 'TLWrjviK&v t5>v ov ttoWov /jtc£a>. a>9 8c ravra <r<£t 

c8o£c, KaraKvcdiievoL rag €\dpas npcora fikv /caraaxo- 

7TOV5 7TC/jt7rOVO"t C9 T7JI> * kv'vqv aV8/0ag T/OCtg. Ot Sc dfrt- 

Ko/ievoi T€ eg 2dp8tg /cat Kara/iadovres rr/v jSacrtXcog 
orparujj/, a>g cVdtoTot iyivovro, j8a<raj>to"0cVrcg inrbs 
rSiv arpavqywv rov rrztpv crparov airrjyovro a>g curo- 
Xcd/icj/ot. /cat rol&i fiev /carc/cc/c/otro 0dVarog, Ecpfryg 
8c a>g iirudero ravra, /x.c/x.<^0ctg r£>v arparrjycjv rrjv 
yv(0[irjj/ ire/mei rS>v nvas hopvfyopw, ciTCtXd/jtci>og, r\v 
KaTaXdfiaxrL tovs Kara&Konovs £aWag, dyeiv Trap ccov-i* 
to*/. a>g 8c crt 7rc/otc(Wag avrovs KarcXa/Sov /cat Tjyoi/ 
eg oi/k,j> tt)i> jSacrtXcog, to ivdevrtv 7rvd6/i€vos in own 
^X^ov, c/ce'Xcvcrc cr<£cag rovg 8opv<f>6povs wepLayovras 
iTriheiKwadai rrdvra re rov netpv crparov /cat tt)i> 
t7T7rov, iiredv 8c ravra drjeofievoL caxrt irXrjpei^ diroirefi- 15 

gether, i.e. in concert. — 18. ov»8a- than gen. with comps. of /caret. — 

|u»v . . . pita : y»^ greater than 8. |M|m^0c(s : more freq. in Hdt. 

all other Hellenic powers, ovSa- than 1 aor. mid., which is the usual 

/jlCjv Taiv ov (from ovSa/xa a ov), for Att. form. — 9. r&v rivus Sopu^d- 

ov&afJLWv 6t€ojv ov (= 7ravT<ov) a p«v: for position of tuxis, cp. 7. 

case of inverse attraction, ovoa/xa 143. 2. — 10. g&vras, irfpirfrras: 

being assimilated to case of rel. note variety. — 12. rdivfefircv: (lit. 

S. 2534 a; HA. 1003 a. The * the next thing') then. — bf ofcri : 

double neg. equiv. to affirmative, for what purpose ? S. 1689,2 c; 

146. 2. irp&ra pAv: correl. is HA. 799,2 c. — 14. tirtSchcvvo^ai 

Sevrepa 7. 148. 4. — 4. Kara|&a06v- kt*. : so Scipio did with the spies 

tcs: having carefully observed. — of Hannibal (Li v. 30. 29; Polyb. 

5. Iirdurroi iyivovro: as 8. 128. 15. 5). — 15. 0t)c6|mvoi Uht\ wX^j- 

9. — 7. Toto-i |*cv KaTCK^KpiTo 8&- pas i ptc. with cTvat TrXrjptas as with 

varos: dat. in Hdt. more freq. ifurnrXavai. flr/co/ACvoi, Dial. §4. 10. 



l«.2i] HERODOTUS VII 213 



1*7 top eg rfjv av avTol idekwa X^PV^ dertpcdg. hnXeywv 
8c tov \6yov rovSe Tavra iveTekkero, a>g el fiev airar* 
Xoito ot /carao"/co7rot, ovV d*> ra ccoutov nprfyfiara 
irpo&rvdovTO oi ^EXXr/^cg iovra \6yov /ic'£a>, ovV di> Tt 
tous iroXc/u'ovg /x.eya ecivavro dvSpas T/octg d7roXc'(rai/- 5 
tcs* voaTtfcavraiv 8c tovt<ov eg ttj^ 'EXXdSa 8o/cc«> 
*<fo a/covTrairag Tovg ^EXXr/pag rd ccovtov Trprjyfiara 
irpo tov trrdXov rov yivofiivov TrapaSaxrew <r<£cag rrfv 
wirjv iXevdepirfv, /cat ovtco ov8c herjcreiv in avrovg 
GTpaTTjXaTc'oiTag irprjyfiaTa c^cti/. ot/cc 8c avrov avrq JO 
ij yvdfirj 1778c dXX# * &>*/ yd/o ci> 'AjSvSco 6 Ec/ofr/g ct8c 
flAoia c/c tov IToktov ciTayayya huKirXiovra tov 'EXXtj- 
ottovtov, eg tc Alyivav /cat rieXoTrd^mjcro^ /co/u^d/jtcpa. 
oi /icv &7 irapehpoi avrov cog iirvdovro TroXc/ua c7pat Ta 
ffAota, iroifJLOL Jj&av aipelv avrd, icfSkeirovrts eg toi/ 15 
/faurtXc'a 6/corc irapayyeXeZ 6 Sc Hc/0^79 e*pero avrovg 
oicy irXcotci/ ' ot 8c ct7rai> * 'Eg tov? crovg 7roXc/i,tovg, a> 
ScoTrora, cvrov ayovres. 6 8c wroXa/Suv €<f>r) • Ov/c clii/ 
/cat 17/xctg c/cct nXeofiev evda nep /cat ovrot, Towrt tc 
dXXotcrt i^Tfprvfievoi /cat crtTa> ; Tt SrjTa d8t/ccovo"t ovrot 20 
ij/iti/ crtTtd 7ra/oa/co/u£oiT€s ; 

147. 1. IvtXfyttv: saying be- production and export of grain 

sides, adding. — 4. Xtfyov |U&a> : = (4. 17). This was Athens' chief 

/Ac£a> 1) oioTC Aeyciv, &%? great to be source of supply. — 15. 4c-pXiirov- 

told. — 8. to$ 7tvo|Uvov : that was tc 9 . . . 6k6tc irapcryycXci : cp. 

in progress. — <r^c*as: reiterating Horn, v 385 iraripa. irpoo-e&epKeTo 

Tins "EAA.iyi'as and emphasizing Sey/xcvos bmrort x<upas €<j>r)<ru. — 

rrpr L i. — 10. — oIkc : Dial. § 4. 16. ttpcro avrovs: asked about 

1. — 12. Ik to$ IldvTov: the north- M*///, 1.^. the sailors. Cp. 7. 100 

west coast of the Euxine, was noted 1 1 , and see on 7. 1 1 6. 5 . — 1 9. 4kc£ : 

anciently, as nowadays, for the = cfceure. — 21. t||a£v a-iria irapa- 



214 



HERODOTUS VII 



[148. i 



148 Ot fiev vvv KardcTKOTTOi ovto) der)<rdfi€voi re /cat 
d7ro7r€fi<f)d€VTes ivocTrja'av is ty)v Evp<imr)v, ol 8c <rvv<a- 
/xdrat t EXKrfV(av iwl ra> Uepar) fierd rr/v diroirefi^ip t<ov 
KaTacKowcov Sevrc/oa ewe/mov is "Apyos dyyikovs- 
'A/oyctot 8c Xeyova rd /car* ccourous yev4<rdai c58c • -ttu-5 
94<r9cu yap clvtikcl /car* dpx&s rd c/c rov fiapfidpov 
iyeipo/ieva iwl tt/v e EXXa8a, irvffofievoL 8c /cat fiadovres 
<5g ericas ot "EXXtjj/cs Treiprj<rovTai irapdkafifidvovTes 
im rov Hepoiqv, irep^ai deoirpoirovs is Aek<f>ovs rbv 
debv CTTCt/OTjcro/jtcVovg, a>s cr<£t /ic'XXct dpiarov Troiiovm ic 
yiv€(rdcu ' ^caxrrt ya/o o"<£ca>i> redvdvai cf a/ctcr^tXtou? 
v7ro Aa/cc8at/AOi>ta>i> /cat KXco/icVcog rov 'Ai/a^ai/SptScco, 
tw 877 ctW/ca 7rc/jt7rcti/. t^p 8c Uvfftyv erreipwrSHTi 
avroLCL dvekeiv ra8c • 



KopCgoirrcs : bringing along pro- 
visions for us ; assuming that of 
course Greece would be conquered. 

NEGOTIATIONS WITH ARGOS ; AR- 
GIVE ALLIANCE WITH PERSIA 

(cc. 148-152) 

148. 2. <ruvu|&6T<u . . . &rrl tw 
rupo-fl : const, with noun same as 
with the verb in 7. 235. 19 avvo- 
/xocravTcov cm croi. — 3. \ur6. tt|v 
air6irc|u|HV Scvrcpa: answering to 
TTpwTa fiiv 7. 146. 2. — 5 rd k<it 
ccovtovs: matters with themselves. 
— 6. *y&p : epexegetic, introducing 
the statement promised in a>8e. — 
crfrhca kot &px&s : cp. 7. 88. 9. — 
7. tycip6|uva : figurative, as 7. 220. 

1 2 7TCpi TOV 7T0X.€fJLOV TOVTOV aVTlKO. 



tear apxas iycLpOfxcvov. — 8. irii- 
p^o-ovrcu irapaXai&pdvovrcs : suppl. 
ptc. See on 7. 139. 7. — 10. 6s 
xoiiovo-i : how acting. As here a>s 
for oko)5, so in Hdt. freq. os for 
ootis in such dependent clauses. 
— 11. vcomttC : i.e. in the battle at 
Tiryns about 494. See 6. 75-82. — 
12. vir6 AaKcScupovCwv ical KXcopi- 
vcos : the whole thus joined to the 
part esp.when this is the leader, as 6. 
140. 1 2, 7. 107. 7. The reverse order 
in 6. 108. 8. Cp. Horn. T 63 *Ekto/h 
fikv kol Tpoxrl to KcpStov. — 13. T&V 
8t| ctvcKa tr^i&irfiv : and just on this 
account did they send, i.e. they had 
had recourse to the oracle, since 
after the recent heavy defeat it 
seemed dangerous to go into a new 



149. 2] 



HERODOTUS VII 



2I 5 



Euro) tov irpoflokaiov t\<ov 7re<f>v\ayn€j/os ^jaro 

Kal K€<f>a\rjv Tre<f>v\a{jo • K&pr) 8c to crai/ia cracwcrct. 

ravra fiev rrfv TlvOvqv xprjcai irporepov, fiera 8c a>s 
cX^cii/ tovs ayyekovs cs 87) to "Apyos, C7rcX0cu> cm to 
fiovkevrrjpiov Kal Xeyetv tol ivreraXfieva. tov? 8c 71706$ 20 
ra Xeyofieva vnoKptvaa'daL cos €tol/jlol cictx *Kpyeloi 
ffoicu; ravra TpvrjKovra crca eiprjvqv o"7rct(ra/jt«/ot Aa/cc- 
Sai/ioi/tbtcrt /cat rjyeo/ievoL /card to rj/iKrv irdcnqs rrjs 
Wfiiia)(ir)$ - KaiTOi kclto, ye to Sikoliov yivtadai tt/v 
yjyeiiovir)v cg>i>7W, dXX* ofuwg cr<^t airoxp&v /card to 25 
Wrjliuru ^yco/jtcl^owrt. Tavra /icy Xcyoucrt rip /SovXrjv 
V7roKp[va<r0ai, Katnep airayopevovros cr<£i tov XPV " 1 " 1 !" 



war. — 15. ir€pucTt6v€<r<n. : Epic 
form = 7rcpioLKot9. — 16. ctor« . . . 
ifro : keeping the spear within (i.e. 
holding it back), sit on guard. 
The idea was that they should not 
take part in the war. For tov irpo- 
fjokawov, cp. 7. 76. 2. — 17. Kal . . . 
o-cuocct. : guard the head, for the 
head will save the body. K€<f>aXrj, 
as also Kapy), referring to the rul- 
ing class of citizens, <rG>fUL to the 
masses; or perhaps, as some in- 
terpret it, K€<f>a\ri and Kaprj may 
refer to the acropolis. — 18. «s 
tXOctv: the inf. in the dependent 
clause by attraction. S. 2631 ; 
HA. 947; GMT. 755—19. h S*i 
r6 "Apyos : to the aforesaid Argos. 
— tircXfeCv: the regular word for 
appearing before an assembly. Cp. 



5. 97. 5. — 20. tovs S4: i.e. tovs 
/JouAcvras for to fiovXevrrjpiov. 

— 22. Tpt-^KovTa Sh-ca: for thirty 
years. Cp Thuc. 5. 47. 1 <77roi/oas 
eirovrjcravTo €/«itov 'AOrjvaioi errj. 

— o-ircurducvoi, Tryc6pcvoi : condi- 
tional. — 23. Kara to r\\ii<rv : by 
half. — xd<rr|S t^s <rvuuaxCt|9 : i.e. 
of the Pel op. states, dependent on 
rfyz6p.tvoi. — 24. icard yc to Shcaiov 
. . . IcavTcav : the Argive claim of 
the hegemony was based on the 
fact that in the Trojan war the 
supreme command was held by 
Agamemnon, king of Argos (My- 
cenae), and that Temenos, the eld- 
est of the three Heraclidae, chose 
Argos as his portion of the Pelo- 
ponnese. — 26. fryco|Uvouri : ptc. 
for the usual inf. with airoxpav. 



m 



216 HERODOTUS VII [149. 3 

piov firj ?rot€t<r0at tt)v irpos tovs ^EXXiji/as (rvfifiaxirjv. 
<rtrovhy)v 8c e^ctv xrnovSas yevi&d ai T/ot^/coi/roertSas, 
Kaiirep to xpy)<TTrjpiov <£oy8co/jtcVot(rt, Iva S17 cr<£t 015 
7rat8cs avhptodiaxTi iv tovtolcl tolcl crccrt. fir) 8c 
CTTOvSecov iov&ecov C7rtXcyc<r0at, rjv apa ericas Kara- 
XajSfl ^09 ra> yeyovori /ca/caJ aXXo wralcfia irpbs top 
Yl4p<T7)v, firj to \017rbv court Aa/cc8at/jto^to)i/ inrrJKooi. 
twv 8c dyye\(ov tovs dirb ttJ? %7rdprr]<; 77700s tcl prqdivraio 
Ik TTjg ftovkfjs a/jtcu/tacrdat rotcrtSc, 7rc/ot /icy (nrovSecov 
avoL&tw eg rovs 7rXcWas, ttc/oI 8c r/yefiovLTjs avrotcrt 
ivTeraXdai viroKpivaaB 'at, /cat 8^ Xcycti> cr^tcrt /acj> ctpat 
Svo jSacrtXcas, 'Apyctotcrt 8c ci>a • ov/c o>p Swaro^ eti/at 
roil/ ck Ijra/OTT/s ovherepov iravaai r>?s rjyefiovlrjs, /x,crai£ 
8c Suo tw (r<f)€T€p(0v bfioy^rq^ov top ' Kpyeiov ctvat /co>- 
Xvcti> ovScV. ouroi 8^ ot 'Apyctot <^acrt ov/c avaoyicOai 

149. 3. pi] iroicurOcu : redun- Bpvyovs*. — 11. 4ic rf|s povXfjs : for 

dant neg. after verb of negative prep., see on 7. 11. 15. — 12. dvoC- 

meaning. S. 2740; HA. 1029. — o-civ 4$ tovs xXfovos: would refer 

4. o-itov8t)v Ix €lv : = <nrav8riv iroid- it to the assembly ', by which matters 

<rOai, «/*r£ eager ) elsewhere «/*r£ in of peace and war were decided. 

haste. — 5. <t>oP«opiv<H<ri : dat. be- ot 7rA.eovcs (Att. TO7rAi}0os) = aXta. 

cause <j<f>i<ri is implied with yeve- — 13. Kal 8tj Xfyciv: and in fact 

(tOoll. — tva 8^j : in order forsooth, did say, impf. inf. — 15. ovSfrtpov : 

— 6. |xt) hi: conditional. firj 8e, for Irtpov on account of preceding 

as ov Si usually separated by the neg. Cp. 7. 11. 16. — |urd Sc 

word negated ; as here, 5. 35. 22. — ... 6)&6i| n 1^ ov : have an equal vote 

7. 4iri\£yco-0<u . . . pdj : wereappre- with (each of) their two. In the 

hensive lest. Cp. 3. 65. 14. — field each general had an equal 

r\v apd : if perchance. — 8. irral- vote, so that the Argive would be 

<r^a xpds t6v TLip<n\v : a disaster one against two. But the Spartan 

against the Persian. The const, envoys purposely ignore the law 

after the analogy of tttclUw 7rpds. already in force forbidding both 

Cp. 6. 45 . 9 7rpoo*7rTaib"a5 7rpos tov% kings to take part in an expedition 



150.16] HERODOTUS VII 217 

TW Sira/mijrcW rffv ir\eov€^iy)v y dXX* iXecdau /laXXop 

wro t5>v fiapftdpcov apxecdau rj n irrrelfjai Aa/ccSac/x.o- 

vmriy irpo€L7T€iv re Tola dyyc'Xoicri irpb Svvtos rjXCov 20 

cwraAXa(ro"€O"0(u c/c rrjs 'Apyeicov X^P 7 !** € * ^ 1**% 

I507rcpie|rc(r^at a>s Troke/iLovs. avrol fiev 'A/oyctot to- 

cravra rovroiv iripi \iyov<Ti • coti Sc dXXos \6yos Xeyo- 

/4«/os ai/a rr)v 'EXXdSa, a>? Sep^rjs cttc/jm/ic KrjpvKa is 

Ajoyo? irporepov fj irep bpiLrjcai CTpaTevea'daL iwl rrfv 

' EXXaSa. cX^dira .8c tovtoj/ Xcycrat tintiv ¥ Av8pes$ 

Apyctot, /JacriXcus Ec/o^s ra8c v/uj> Xcya* 'H/m? 

vofi%ofi€v Uepcrrfv elvai an ov rjfiels yeyova/iev, nal8a 

Ilc/xrcog rov Aapdi}?, ycyoj>ora c/c ttjs Kt^cos dvyarpbs 

Av8pofie8r)s. ovtq) av £>v elrj/iev vfierepoi anoyovoi. 

ovre Zv rj/ieas 01/cos inl rovs r]fi€T€povs npoyovovs 10 

<TTpaT€ve<rdaL, ovre v/xeas dXXotcrt TLfuopeow-as ^/ilv 

avri^oovs yive(rdai, aXXa 7rct/>' v/ui> avroicri lycri^Mji/ 

cjfoiras KaTrj&dcu. tjv yap ifiol yhrryrai Kara voov> 

ovSafJLOvs fi€^ova<; vfiewv d£a). ravra a/coucra^ra? *A/o- 

ycious Xcycrat nprjy/JLa noirj<ra<rdai y /cat napa\pfjnai$ 

p&v ovhcv inayyeWo/ievovs [leTaLrelv, inel 8c ericas 

(5- 75)- — 2 °- "«P* Wvrot 4|XCov: 11. Cp. 6. 53, 54. — 14. a|«: 

for const., see GMT. 829 b. — habebo. Cp. 1. 107. 12,2. 172. 4, 

22. m pt6|f€<r6ai : fat. mid. with and Soph. O.T. 775 ^yofirjv 8* 

pass, force, as 2. 115. 27. Cp. 7. avr)p acrr&v iiiyicrTos. — 15. irpfj^a 

39. 15. iroi'tfjo-curOai : made it a matter of 

150. 2. fcrri . . . Xry6|Mvos: importance. Cp. 6. 63. 9. — 

Mir* is another story told, as 7. 16. o48cv lirayycWopivovs iutou- 

167. 1 and freq. — 4. irpdrcpovri: tcIv: offered nothing and de- 

see on 7. 2. 5. — 5. toStov Xlycrcu manded nothing in retiirn. The 

ctarftv : see on 7. 56. 4. — 7. vo^iC- neg. belongs to the ptc. as well 

{o|mv IUpo^v ktI. : see on 7. 61. as the verb. Cp. 5. 39. 2. — hn\ 



218 HERODOTUS VII [150. 17 

7rapa\afj /Sdvetp tovs "EXkrjvas, ovto) 8rj cVioraftcVoi/s 
art ov fieTaScocrovci rrjs dp^rjs Aa/cc8at/i,oi>toi fierairetv^ 

151 Xva cVt 7rpo(f)do'ios y](xv\ifqv dycoai. av/iireo'eLv 8c tov- 
tomti /cat TovSe top \6yov \eyovci rives 'EWtJvwv, 
TToWoici crccrt vcrepov yevopevov rovraiv ' rv)(eiv iv 
Sovcrotcrt rotcrt Me/jLvovCoiai eovras iripov irprjyiiaTOS 
ctpc/ca dyye\ovs 9 Adr)i/ai(ov y KaXXtrp T€ top 'Imropucov 5 
/cat tovs fierd tovtov dvafidvTaSy 'ApyeCovs 8c top avrbv 
tovtov ^povov irip^avTas /cat tovtovs is Sovcra dyye- 
Xovs elporrdv * ApTot;4pfzr)v top Etptjeco ct c<f>i en 
i/jLfi€j/€L TYjv wpbs &€p£r)v fyikvqv crvveKepdxravTo, rj 
vofii^oiaTO npbs avrov cu>at ttoXc/uch. /3a<xt\e'a 8c- m 
'Aprofjepfyv fidki&Ta ififiiveiv <f>dvai /cat ovSefiCav vo- 

152 /jLL^eu/ irokiv "Apyeos <f>ikioyripr)v. ct /icV wv Bep^r/s .1 

84 o-<t>€as irapaXai&pdvciv : but when law of Cimon. Cp. 6. 121. 4. — ' 
they tried to win them over. For 6. tov avrbv tovtov xf** vov • S. 
inf., see on 7. 148. 18. — 18. t*|s 1181; HA. 673 c. This position 
dpx^s : common to /AcraSwo-ovo-i of the dem. is freq. in Hdt. when 
and /xcTcuTctv. — 19. 4x1 irpo<f>d- avrds is the attrib. — 7. koI to*- 
o-ios: elsewhere €7ri Trpo<f>d<r€i tovs: these also. Cp. 6. 51. 3 liav 
151. I. on)|Airco-ctv : coincided, ftacnXevs ko! ovtos. — 8. 'Aproflp- 
as 6. 18. 6. — 2. X670V : *™?///. Cp. {tjv : reigned 465-425 B.C. — 9. tp- 
German (colloquial) Geschichte. — j*ivci : sc. ^ c^iAta, which is in- 
3. \v 2ov<roi<ri touti Mcpvovtourt : corporated into the rel. clause. — 
so-called as founded by Memnon, tt|v . . . o~wcKcp6>avTo : the close 
son of Eos, and king of the eastern friendship which they had made 
Ethiopians, who aided the Trojans with X. Cp. 4. 152. 21 Qhrfpauoun 
against the Greeks. — 4. bipov cs Sa/xtov? axo tovtov tot) c/ryov 
xp^7|iaTos cfvcica: Hdt. does not irfmra <f>t\tai fuydXax crvvtKp in- 
state, and possibly did not know, $rj<rav. — 10. voiugoCaTo: note 
what this was. — 5. KoXXCtjv : of change of mood from i/xpevti. 
a noble family, the richest Athe- GMT. 670 a. Cp. 7. 208. 3, 7. 233. 
nian of his time, and brother-in- 8,10. — irposavrofi: see on 7. 2. 12. 



152.i 5 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



219 



tc imhrepfye ravra Xeyovra KrjpvKa is *Apyos /cat 'Ap- 
yciiw; ayycXot avafSavres is %ov<ra iireipdyrwj/ 'ApTO- 
^p^fjv irepl <f>tXir)s, ovk c^g) arpc/ccG>9 ct7rc«>, ov8c rtpa 
yv^fiyjv 7rcpt ovtcjv aTTO<^aivofiai aXkrjv ye f) rrjv irep 5 
ayrot 'Apyctot Xcyovo't. c7rto"ra/iat 8c rocrouro art ct # 
wrcs avdpomoi rd ot/cifta /ca/ca is fie&ov (TvveveiKaiev 
QMaijao'dai )3ov\6fievoL roicri 7r\r)<rioio'i, iytevtyavres av 
c? ra top ircXas /ca/ca danaa'uos c/caorot avrS>v dwo^e- 
potaro ottutq) ra iaqveiicavTo. ovtco ovS' 'Apyctotcrt 10 
aicr^tara ircirotTyrat. cya> 8c 6<^ctXa> Xeycti> ra Xcyo- 
/*©% ireidecdai ye p.ev ov iravraTraai 6<^ctXa>, /cat p,ot 
tovto to cjtos i\eTa> eg irdvra \6yov • circt /cat ravra 
A^erat, a>s apa 'Apyctot rj<rav oi C7rt/caXco"a/jtci/ot tw 
j Uip<T7)v iirl rrjv 'EXXaSa, ineihri cr<£t irpos Aa/ccSat- 15 



152. 7. rd otirijia icaicd: M*/r 
own misdeeds, i.e. guilt. — 8. rourt 
vXi)o'Couri : = rots 7rcAas (9). — *y- 
xtyarrcs: examining closely, lit. 
'bending down and peeping into.' 
— 9. Ao-irao-tos . . . &n)vc(icavTo : 
they would gladly carry back what 
they had brought, i.e. would think 
the others' guilt greater than their 
own. And so it would be with 
the guilt of the Argives. Moral : 
Don't judge others, for we are all 
apt to think our neighbor's faults 
worse than our own; we see the 
mote in his eye, not the beam in 
our own. — 10. ovrw . . . irciro(T|- 
tcu : not so shameful, e.g. as those 
done by the Thebans or Thessa- 
lians. — 12. mCOco-OaC -yc \uv , . , 



6^cCXa> : to believe, however, I am 
not altogether bound. For yc fxiv 
cp. 7. 103. 27. Hdt. expresses 
himself in this chapter with mild- 
ness as to the conduct of the Ar- 
gives, trying to hide his opinion of 
their guilt. But at 8. 73. 16 he 
speaks bluntly of the Argives and 
others his real view, in tov fiiaov 
KarrjiLtvoL e/x^&fov in being neu- 
tral they were medizing. — kcU pot 
. . . X670V : and let this word hold 
for every story in my work, rovro 
to €7ros, i.e. the remark in 1. 12, 
recurs essentially elsewhere 2. 123. 
2, 4. 195. 7. — 13. Tavra : prospec- 
tive, for TaSc. — 14. us &pa: that 
namely. — 15. lirciS^j <r+i . . . 
loriJKCi : since the war had gone ill 



220 HERODOTUS VII [152. 16 

flOVLOVS KOLKO)? 7) (d^JJLT) €(TT7J/C€t, WW &TJ fiov\6fl€VOL 

C(j>L elvcu npb rfjs irapeov<rr)<; Xv7njg. 
153 Ta fikv wept 'Apyeicov ctjp^Tat' cs 8c rf/v XiKekCrjv 
aXXot tc airiKaTO ayycXot dirb twv ovfifid^cov crvfi^i- 
fjovres TeXcovL /cat &7 /cat a7ro Aa/ccSat/AOPtcoz' Hvaypos. 
tov 8c rcXcwo? rovrov irpoyovos, oiKjjrtop 6 Iv TcXg, 
17 *> c/c vrfcrov TtjXov rrjs iirl T/0tO7rta> /cct/icVtys • 05 /crt£o- = 
/jl€V7)S Te\r)s vwb AlvSlcdv re rSiv c/c PdSou /cat ^Avri^rj- 
fAOv ovk ik€L<f)07). dvd yjpovov 8c avrov oi dtroyovoi 
yevo/ievoL IpcxfrdisraL rZv ydovitov 6e£>v hierikeov coitcs, 
TrfXtvea) kvos reo rS)v npoyovcov KTrfaafievov rpoww 

TOtfcJSc ' CS MdKTobpLOV TToklV TTjP V7TC/0 TcXtJ? OLK7)fJL€injV TC 

€<f>vyov dvSpes Tekcocov oracrt kcaaidivres. tovtovs S>v 
6 T^Xtinj? Karqyaye cs Tikrjv, e^cov ovSe/iCav dvSpcov 
Svvol/jliv dXXa t/ola tovtcjv tcov 6e5>v. 66 ev 8c avra 

for them against the Lacedaemo- See on 7. 47. 13. — 4. olicVJTwp: 

mans. — 16. atxH-^l : poetical, = iro- settler. — 5. TpioirCcp: promontory 

A.e/Aos or fidxrf, as 5. 94. 5. With south of Halicarnassus, on which 

y alxfJLrj cot^kci, cp. the Homeric Cnidus was situated, and where 

<^vAo7rt5 ati^ Io-t^kc (S 171). See the league of Dorian cities held 

on 7. 9. ft 2. — xdv 8^: anything their national festivals. — KT\.\oyjkn^ 

whatever. — 17. xpd: before, in r&tjs: 690 B.C. — 7. dvd xpdvov: 

preference to. Cp. 6. 12. 17. — in time, as 7. 10. £ 4. — 8. Ipo^dv- 

Xvirqs: sad plight, i.e. their humil- tcu : who performed the secret 

iating condition due to the defeat rites and mysteries and displayed 

by the Spartans (7. 148. 12). the sacred vessels and statues to 

the initiated (!pa <£aiv€iv). — tAv 

gelon of Syracuse ; ancestry x e vCa>v Oc&v : Demeter and Per- 

and rise OF gelon (cc. 1 53- sephone. — 9. t»v irpoytfvev: i.e. 

J 5^) of Gelon. — Krqo-aiilt'ov : sc. t^v 

153. 2. <rv|i|i(|ovTcs : for a con- lpo<j>avTirjv, — 12. Ka < Hj a y<ryt : re- 

ferencewith. Cp. 7. 29. 3. — 3. xal dnxerat, regular word for bring 

8t| kcU: correl. to re, as 7. 23. 14. back from exile. — 13. SOcvSt atri 



154.8] HERODOTUS VII 221 

cXa/Jc ^ avros c/cnjcraTO, tovto 8c ovk €\<a elnelv. tov- 
tokn 8' &v irUrvvos co)i/ /carTjyayc, C7r' w tc 01 a7rd-i5 
yom avrov lpo<f)dvraL t£)v deS>v eaovrai. OS) fid /iol 
&v kcll tovto yeyove npbs tcl Trvvddvofiai^ KaTepydaa- 
0"&u TrjkCvrfp epyov toctovto • tcl rotavra yap ipya ov 
fl/>o$ [tov] diravros dv&pbs vevofiiKa yiveadaiy dWd 
npb$ ilwxrjs re dyadfjs /cat pdfirjq dv8pr)ir)s • 6 8c 20 
Xeycrat tt/oos rfjs St/ccXfys tg>j> OLK7)Top(OP tcl xmtvavr ta 

TOVTCOV TT€(j>VK€P(U dr)\v8pL7fS T€ /Cat fJLa\(LK(OT€pOS dvrjp. 

l54ot/ra> p,€v wv c/cnjcraro tovto to yepas' KXedvSpov 8c 
tov Havrdpeos Tekevrrjo'avTO*; tov fSiov, 05 irupdwevce 
fiev TcXtj? iirrd crca, diridave 8c u7ro 2a/8vAAou aV8/oos 
rcXaJov, ivOavra dvakafi/Sdvei ttjv /JLOvvapxtyv 'lirwo- 
Kpdrrjs, KXcaVS/oov ea>v aScX^cdg. c^o^ro? 8c e l7T7ro-5 
/c/oarco? tj)v Tvpavvt&a 6 Tekwv, e<ov T^Xa/cai tov 
lpo<f)dvT€Q) diroyovoSy 7ro\\<ov /jl€t d\\<ov /cat Alvrf- 
crihrjfiov tov HaTaucov [09] rjv So/oix^d/oog e l7T7ro/c/oa- 

SXapc § afoto Ik-Hjo-oto : whence this. For the text, see App. — 

he received them (from others) 21. irpds . . . tmv otiarr6pa>v : the 

or (whethen) he himself acquired adnominal, as usual, before the 

them, i.e. by direct inspiration, governing gen. — 22. i&oXaic&rc- 

After rj sc. ci from o$cv. — 1 5 . 8' «v : pos : rather weak . S . 1 082 d ; 

see on 7. 9. y 7. — far' $ tc . . . HA. 649 b. 

fcrovrat: fut. indie, for more com- 154. I. toOto t6 ylpa? : i.e.rrjv 

mon inf. ; see S. 2279 ; GMT. 610, lpo<f>avrir]v. — 3. farrd fa-cci : 505- 

2. Cp. 7. 158. 23. — 17. Kal toOto : 498 B.C. — 7. iroXXwv |*ct aXAtov : 

explained by Karcpyao-ao^at ktI. — prep, between noun and its attri- 

19. o* wpds [tow] Airavros 4v8p6s bute, as rarely in prose. Cp. 7. 

. . . *yCv€<r6eu: not apt to proceed 15. 5. — 8. [&s] : if this reading 

from just any man. irpos might of the Mss. is correct, something 

be = vno and yiv€<r$ai = ttoumtOoa, has fallen out before it. Stein's 

but oAAa . . . avSprjcrp is against suggestion <vi€)os would relieve 



222 HERODOTUS VII [154. 9 

TC05. fiera Sc ov 7roXXoi> yjpovov St' dperffv direhe^dri 
7ra(77j5 rfjs Ittttov elvai LTnrap^os • irokiopKeovros yap 10 
e l7nro/c/oaVcos KaXXt7roXtra9 re /cat Na£tous /cat Za-y- 
/cXatous re /cat Acoj>tu>ou5 /cat 7r/oog XvprjKo&Covs re /cat 
rail/ /3ap/3dpa)P avx^oifs dvr/p i<f>aivero eV tovtolcl rowrt 
7roXc/jtoto"t ca>*> 6 TcXa)^ Xa/i7r/odraro9. rail/ 8c ct7roj/ 
7roXtW tovt(i)v ir\r)v Sv/o^/coucrcW ovSefiCa dire^vyeis 

hov\oOVW)V 7T/0O5 'iTTTTOKpaTeOS. %vp7)KO(rLOVS 8c Ko- 

pivdioi re /cat KepKvpaloi eppvcavro p>&XQ £<r<rQ)0€VTa<$ 
iirl 7rorafia> 'EXco/oa) • ippvcravro 8c oSrot cVt rotcrtSc 
/caraXXa^ajrcs, eV a> re e l7T7ro/c/oarct Kafidpivav Svprf- 
Koaiovs napaSovvai m SvprjKoa'LCJV 8c tjjj Ka/idpiva rb 20 
35 dp^alov. a>5 8c /cat e l7T7ro/c/oarca rvpavvevaavTa ura 
crca raj a8cX<£ca> KXeaVSpaj /carcXajSc dirodavelv irpbs 
7roXt ^T^SXjj, CTpaTevcdiievov cVt rovs St/ccXovs, ovra> 
8>) 6 TcXcD*/ ra> Xoya> TLficopecjv rotcrt e l7r7ro/cparco5 
7ratcrt Ev/cXctS^ re /cat KXcdVSpw, ov fiovXofAevajv rwvs 
7ro\t,r)T€<x)v Karr)KO(OP crt cti>at ? ra) c/oy^, cog tneKpdrrja'e 
p>d)(r) to>v TeXcocop^ ^px € avro? dfroo'TepTJo'as tovs c l7nro- 

the difficulty, giving the same $U<l>vyov 7rpos IlcpcrcW. — 18. Iirl 
sense as is obtained by bracketing toio-CSc . . ., &ir $ tc : the plur. (toc- 
os. See App. — 12. icalirp6s: tf//rtf o-i'Sc) though referring to a single 
furthermore. — 15. tovtwv : epan- condition, as 5. 82. 13. For const, 
aleptic dem. after the attracted rel. see GMT. 610, 1 . — 20. KopAptva : 
— airtyvyc: the Mss. reading is ire- founded by a colony from Syra- 
<j>€vy€, which can hardly be correct, cuse, 598 B.C. 
Some read ir€<f>tvyit. — 16. irpte 155. 1. rvpawcWavra : 498- 
'IinroKpdrcot : agent const, on ac- 491 B.C. — 2. KaT&afk : cp. 7. 38. 
count of pass, idea in Sov\o<tvvtjv ii. — 3. "YpX^: uncertain whether 
(= to SovAw^vat). Cp. 6. 45. 5 the Hybla just south of Aetna or 
ov fjLcwoi ovSk avTol b\>v\o<rvv7jv that between Syracuse and Gela. 



156. 5 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



223 



fcparco? 7ratSa9. fiera 8c tovto to evprjfia tovs ya/io- 
pou? KaXeofLevovs tS>v XvpTjKo&uov iKireaovras xrrro re 
tw hyjfiov Kal t<ov <r<j>€Tepa)v 8ov\<ov, KaXeofievwv 8c 10 
KuXXupuuv, 6 rekwv Karayaywv tovtovs 4k Kaafieirq^ 
iroXtos €5 ras XvpyKova'as ccr^e /cat ravrag • 6 yap 
<%os 6 rS)v XvprfKoauDv imovTi Tekcovi irapaSiSol ttjv 
l&nokiv Kal kiswrov. 6 8c €7rctrc Trapeka/St ras SvprjKov- 
ffas, TcXtj? fikp imKpaT€<ov \6yov cXaercra) C7rotctro, 
etoTpeftas avrfjv 'lepuvi d8cX(£ca> ccovrou, 6 8c ras 
Su/Mjicovcrag c/c/oarwc, /cat Tj&dv ol irdvra at SvprJKov 
o*ai. at 8c irapavruca dvd r iSpa/iov Kal avefSkacTTov • 5 



—8. cvpT|)ia: cp. 7. 10. 89. — 
tovs «ycm6povs: Doric for yaop.6- 
pw, land owners, so-called also 
in Samos. These were the resi- 
dent ruling class, consisting of the 
descendants of the first settlers 
and immigrants who had received 
the right to acquire land (lyKrrf- 
cris), i.e. full citizenship. To their 
estates were attached rent-paying 
peasants (SovAoi), prob. the re- 
mains of the earliest Sicanian pop- 
ulation, which already under the 
Sicels had been reduced to such 
vassalage. Their probably Sicel 
name varies between KvWvpioi 
(KiAAvpioc), KiAAifcv/Qiot, KoWikv- 
ptot. In the city there was, be- 
sides, a large number of metic 
artisans and tradesmen, mostly na- 
tive and earlier Phoenician settlers 

— these forming the §5/aos (Stein). 

— n. Tofrrovs : repeats tovs ya/io- 



povs. — Kcurpivrp : founded from 
Syracuse 645 B.C. Cp. Thuc. 6. 5. 
7. — 12. ferxc: acquired. Gelon 
ruled from 485-478 B.C. 

NEGOTIATIONS WITH GELON 

(cc. 156-162) 

156. 2. brucpaTfov : suppl. ptc. 
depending on Aoyov cAaao-co €7roi- 
€ito. Cp. 9. III. 18 /xeyaAa pJev 
TTOitOfJuai d£tou/A£vo? Ovyarpos rrjs 
criys. — 3. Imrptyas : 484 B.C. — 
d 84: see on 7. 6. 24. — 4. 4icpd- 
•mvc: cp. 1. 13. 2, I. 100. 2. 
The word occurs also in Thuc, 
but is mostly poetical. — TJ<rdv ol 
irdvTa ai 2vp^Kov<rai : Syracuse 
was everything to him. Cp. 3. 1 57. 
20 iravra $rj rjv tol<tl Ba/?vAa>nbi<ri 
Z(i)7rvpos. — 5. dvd t ISpapov Kal 
dWpXcurrov: Cp. 1. 66. 4, 8. 55. 
10. Both verbs are fig. used 
and come prob. from some Epic 



224 HERODOTUS VII [156.6 

tovto fikv yap Ka/iapivaiovs diravras is Tas %vprf- 
Kovaas ayaywv TroXuJTas iirouqo'e, Ka[iapivr)s 8c to 
dcrv /carccr/ccu/fc, tovto Sc Te\(o(ov vTrepr)iiUreas t<ov 
daTwv ton/to toIcti KafiapivaioKTi iTroCrjce • Meyapias 
T€ tovs iv 2i/cc\ir/, a>? TroXiopKeo/ievoi is ofioXoyCrjv^ 
7rpoo m €)((op7)0'aV) tovs p>€v avTcov 7ra^ca5, deipa/ievovs T€ 
TroKefiou avrco koX TrpocSoKtovras a7ro\elo m dcu 8ta tovto, 
dyayoiv is tols %vpr)Kov<ras iroXirJTas cttoit/ctc • tov 8c 
hfjfjLOv T(ov Meya/ocW, ovk iovTa fieraiTiov tov irokifiov 
tovtov ov8c TrpoaSeKo/jiepop kolkov ovSev irelo'eo'dai, i j 
dyaycov /cat tovtovs is tols *Zvpr)Kov<ras aVcSoro in 
itjayooyf) c/c Si/ccXir/s. towto 8c tovto kol EuySoeas 
tovs iv Si/ccXnj cVoir/crc hiaKpivas. inoiei 8c ravra 
tovtovs dfjL^orepovs vo/jLto'as Sfjfiov elvai avvoucqiia 
157 d^apLTcoraTov. tolovtco fxkv Tpoirco mbpavvos iyeyova, 
fiey as 6 Tekcjv • Tore 8' a>s oi dyyekoi t<ov 'EXXt/j/coj/ 
dniKaTO is Tas Sv/orj/coucras, ikdovres avrco is \6yovs 

verse. — 6. tovto \Uv: cp. 7. 6. 5. the fat, i.e. rich, the aristocrats. — * 
— 7. Kapap(vT|s to &o-tv : the gen. 12. avrw: with dctp. 7.oA.£/aov = 
so regularly with aoru. Const. 7roAc/xiJ<ravra5. — 16. ical tovtovs: 
chiefly poetical. S. 1322; HA. as 7. 151. 7. — *ir tgayttyfl: /or 
729 g. The lower city, not the deportation. — 18. SiaicpCvas: sc. 
citadel, is meant. — 8. twvouttwv: tov Brjfwv diro twv ira^co)?. — 
his own townsmen. — 9. twvto 19. cvvoCkijimi &x a P tT ** TaTOV : a 
Toto-i Ka|iapivaCoio-t : for dat. ? see Most unpleasant fellowship (ab- 
S. 1500; HA. 773 a. — Mcyaplos: stract for concrete), for the corn- 
called also 'Y/SAcuovs. The town mons were only metics without 
was a little north of Syracuse. — fixed homes and rights. 
11. tovs h-cv avT&v irax^as: part. 157. 2. us ol dyycXoi . . . dvi- 
appos. to Meyapcas. For position kcwo : Timaeus (apud Polyb. 12. 
of part, gen., which repeats Mcya- 26 b) states that it was Gelon who 
peas, see on 7. 129. 3. oi Travis sent envoys to the council on the 



157.20] HERODOTUS VII 225 

cXeyoi/ rrijSc • "EnepAfjav rj/ieas Aa/ccSat/iwtot re /cat 
hdi\valoi /cat oi tovtcdv <rv[ina)(oi napa\afjL\fjofM€POv<; 5 
<rc irpbs rbv /Sdp/Sapov • tov yap kiriovra im ttjv 
EXAaSa 7raVrG>s kov 77w0dVcat, art Ilc/ocrrjs dvyp /icXXct 
&v£as rbv t J^K\rja , TTOVTOv /cat iwdycov nravra rbv ijtoov 
orparbv c/c rfjs 'Acrtrj? CTparrjIKarrjo'eiv im ttjv *EX- 
XaSa, irp6(T)(7)iJia fiev 7rotcd/xcj>os a>s C7T* 'Adrjvas i\av- 10 
m, €1/ i>da) 8c ej(G)v iracav rr/v 'EXXaSa vw i<ovT<p 
ironjcao'daL. o*v 3c Svvdpuos re (ya/o) TjT/cctg /xcyaXojg 
/cat pdipd rot ttjs 'EXXaSos ov/c cXa^tor^ /xcra dp^ovrC 
ye St/ccXt?}?, /SonjdeL re rotcrt iXevdepovai ttjv c EXXaSa 
/cat crvvekevdepov. aKr/s p>€v yap ye.vop.ivt] iraca rj 15 
'EXXas x € V pcy&y crwayerat, /cat afto/ia^ot yivopeda 
rouri imova • ^i> 8c r)p,ea)v oi p,ev KaTairpoSiSaxTL, oi 
8c /it) dikwcTi Tt/jtG>/octi>, ro Sc vytaivov rfjs 'EXXaSog # 
6Xtyoi>, rouro 8c ^817 8ct*>oi> yiverai fcq ttcctt; iraaa rj 
c EXXa$. ft?) yap iXmaySy ^1/ rjpeas /caraerr/oe/r^rat 20 

Isthmus, offering, for the chief since thou hast attained to great 

command, to assist with his whole power. For the gen. of condition 

force by land or sea. — 4. tc koI or degree, see S. 1441 ; HA. 757 a. 

'AOqvatoi : on the reading, see App. — 13. \Ura : = fimaru — 15. oXtjs 

— 5. *apaXa|M|/ofUvovs : Attic Trapa- -yAp . . . 'EXXds : the natural const. 

X^o/iows. Sense as in 7. 148. 8, would be gen. abs., but the union 

7. 168. 2, 7. 169. 1. — 6. tov bn6vra : of Hellas put forward as the main 

proleptic. — 7. irdvTws kov: haud idea takes rather the relation of 

dubie. Cp. 3. 73. 7 iravrm^ kov subj. with ^dp fi€ya\.rj avvdytTcu 

fxefjivrprOe. — 8. itAvto t6v t$ov as pred. — 16. x € *P : see on 7. 20. 

errpo/nSv: cp. 7. 56. 8 7ravTas av- 4. — 18. to vryiaivov t^$ 'EXXdSos : 

Opunrovs. — 10. irp6<rxT))Mi : cp. 7. the sound part of Hellas, i.e. the 

138. 1. — 11. ircUrav t$|v 'EXXdSa: Greeks who will unite against 

including of course the colonies. — the foe. — 19. tovto 84: for 8« in 

12. 8wd|uos -yAp ijiccis (icydXus: apodosis, see on 7. 51. 3. — Scivov 



226 



HERODOTUS VII 



[157. 21 



6 IIc/0(77j9 M^XI? KpoLTyjcas, o>5 ovkI r/fa irapa ci 
yc, dXXa 77700 tovtov <f>v\a£ai • /Sorqdewv yap rj/uv 
<T€<j)VT<p TLfMopels - T(o 8c eu fiovXevdeim irpTJyfiaTL 
158 Tekevrr) a>s to hr'mav XP 7 ) " 1 "*! *@& €L hriyivto'dai. 61 
fikv ravra eXeyov, Yi\(av Sc 7roXXo9 cVc/cctro Xeycjv 
roiaSc • *Av8pes ^EXXij^cs, Xoyo*> e^o^reg irkeoveKTqv 
croX/iTjcraTC c/*c aviifJia\ov inl top fidpfiapov wapa- 
/caXcoircs i\0elv. avrol 8c c/ico irporepov Seqdevross 
/3ap/3apiKov arparov avveird^aa'dai, arc /*oi 7rpo^ 
Kapxqhoviovs velicos (rvvrjirro, eiria'KrJTn'ovTos re top 
Aapico? rov 9 Ava^av8pi8eo) irpbs 'EycorcuW <f>6vov oc- 
irpTJ£a<rffai, imortivovros re ra i/iiropia crvvekevdepowv 

ceeding to the throne at Sparta 
through the incapacity of his elder 
brother Cleomenes, led an expe- 
dition first to Libya, afterwards to 
Sicily, where he was slain by the 
Egestaeans (5. 42-46). — 8. tarp4j- 
gao-Ocu : avenge. Cp. 7. 169. 7. — 
9. worcCvovTos : = VTricr^vovfievov, 
as Thuc 8. 48. 4. — rd ipirrfpia : the 
immediate reference is doubtless 
to the ports of western Sicily, but 
further also to the trade with the 
Iberian and Libyan coasts which 
was monopolized by the Cartha- 
ginians and Phoenicians. Gelon's 
plan was to unite all Hellenic 
states in the effort to win naval 
and commercial supremacy from 
the Phoenicians in the western 
Mediterranean, a plan later cher- 
ished by Alcibiades. This con- 
flict fell later to, and was won by, 



•yCvcTcu: as 7. 10. ft 1 1. For obj. 
clause depending thereon, see S. 
2224; HA. 887. — 21. ws ovkI 
tJJci : rare const, for inf. after cA- 
7rt£ a). — 22. irpo tovtov : = 7rpOT€- 
pov. — PoT]0&ov . . . Ti|&a>pcts : chi- 
astic. — 24. us to JirCirav : see on 
7. 50. 12. 

158. 2. iroXXos {Wkcito: sc. 
avrois, attacked them with vehe- 
mence. Cp. Thuc. 4. 22. 4 KAcW 
. . . 7ro\vs ci/€k«to, and Sail. Jug. 
84 multus atque ferox instare. — 
3. irXcov^KTt)v : selfish. — 6. pappa- 
piKov o-TpaTov o*vvcircu|/cur0ai : that 
you join in attacking a barbarian 
army. — 7. vcticos : rather poetical 
term freq. in Horn, and Hdt. — 
7. Iitio-k^ittovtos : sc. v/jllv laying 
upon you. — t6v Aupiios . • . +6- 
vov {Kirp4j{cur0ai : Dorieus, disap- 
pointed in his expectation of sue- 



159.2] HERODOTUS VII 227 

cwr' &v v/juv [leydXai axfrekiai r€ /cat iiravpe&ies yeyo- 10 
wwi, ovre ifieo elvtKa rXdere fiorjdrjo'ovTes ovre top 
Awpieb? <f>6vov iKirpr)£6fL€voi } to re kclt ifiia^ rdSe 
aTTcura inrb fiapfidpouri v£p*erai. dXXd ev yap r/fuv 
fat cVt to dfieivov /carcon?. vvv 8e ineiSrj TrepieXijXvOe 
TrdXcjLtos /cat dm/crat €9 v/Ltcas, ovtcj Srj TeXcovos 15 
livfjoris yeyove. art/u^s §€ 7r/oos vfieojv Kvpyjo-as ovk 
OjioidKrofiai vfilv, dXX' iroifios eifii /Sorjdeiv nape^ofievo^ 
wyjKoarlas re rpvrjpeas /cat Stoyiv/otovs oirXCras /cat 8tcr- 
X^fyp t7T7roi> /cat Stcr^tXtovs ro^oras /cat Sto^tXtovs 
v<j>ev8ovrJTa<; /cat Stcr^tXtovg t7T7ro§/oo/Ltovs t/ftXovs • 20 
<rww re airdo-Y) ttj 'FXXrjvwv arpaTifj, ecrr av 8ta- 
voXefirja-eofiev, viroSeKOfiai napetjeLV. iiri 8e Xoyco 
rotaJSe rd8e xmia^ofiai, iir <3 crrpar^yo^ re /cat -qye/xcDv 
tS>v t EXXrjvwv ecrofiai irpbs rbv fidpfiapov • in dXXa> 
8e Xoya> our' av avros eXdoipn ovr av aXXovs nifixfjaifiL. 25 
I59ravra d/cov<ras ovre rjvio^ero 6 Svay/oos et7T€ re rdSe • 
*H /cc fiey olfuofjeie 6 TleXoniSr)*; 'Ayaiiefivwv nvOo- 

the Romans. (Stein.) — 10. 4irat>- those described by Caesar among 

pints: gains. Cp. Thuc. 2. 53. 6. the Germans, B.G. 1. 48, or the 

— 12. t6 kot tyias: as far as Boeotian aiumroi of Thuc. 5. 57. 

you are concerned. Cp. 5. 109. 11. 12; Xen. Hellen. 7. 5. 23. The 

— 13. ford papf&pouri W|ict<u : are term occurs only here. — 21. 810- 

under the power of the barbari- iroXcptfjo-wiicv : note the force of 

ans. Cp. 7. II. 18. — d\Xa«ydp: 8ta-. — 23. 4ir$: see on 7. 153. 

see on 7. 4. 2. — 14. 4irl rh aficivov : 15. 

as 7. 8. a 7. — 16. &ri|&Ct]s Kvp^jtras : 159. 2. rj kc |U-y' ol|M&{cic 

= arifjuurOeis, scorned, hence irpos . . . *Aya^A[i.v<av : imitation of Nes- 

vfi&ov (cp. 8 above). — 20. iinro- tor's exclamation, Horn. H 125 rj 

Spdfiovs +iXotfs : prob. light infan- kc /icy' ol/Jnti$eie yiptov mTr-qXaTa 

try placed between the horsemen HrjXexk. The part, kc not else- 

and keeping pace with them, like where in Hdt. — 6 IlcXoirCStis 'A-yo- 



228 HERODOTUS VII [159.3 

p,evo<z ^7rapTLrjra^ rr^v rjyefiovLrjv dirapouprjcrdcu xmo 
Tekcovos re Kal %vpy)KO(ri<t)v. dXXa tovtov fiev rov 
\6yov p,r)K€TL p^mja-drj^ ok<o<; ttjv v)ye\koviy\v tol irapa-s 
hdxropLev. dXX' el p.ev fiovXecu f5or)delv rrj 'EXXdSt, lctOl 
aptjoiievos imb AaKeSaipovCcov • el §' dpa firj Si/catoig 
160 dp^ecrdai, <rv §e p,rj fiorjdelv. irpbs ravra 6 Tek&v, 
€7T€t8^ copa a7re(TTpap,p,evov^ tovs \6yovs rov Svdypov, 
top rekevralop <x<£i rovhe ifjecfrcuve \6yov *ft tjeive 
%TrapTir)Ta, oveiSea kojtiovto* avdpdmto (friXel eiravdyeiv 
rbv dvfiov. oi> p,evroi d7ro§ef d//,€i>os v/3/otcr/xara ev tg> 5 
Xoya> ov ft€ 7T€ur€i5 dcr)(TJp>ova ez> rjj dfioifiyj yeveadai. 
okov 8e vjLtets ovtco Trepie^eade rfjs rfyefiovCrj^ olkos /cat 
ifie fidXXop vpecov Trepie^eada^ crparvr]^ re eovra iro\- 
XanXrjO'Lrjs rjyeiiova Kal vecov ttoWop nXeovcov. dXX' 
eirelre v/jllv 6 \6yos ovra) irpo(rdvTt]% /carwrraTat, rj/xels 10 
ri vTreCijopev tov dp^aiov \6yov. el tov fiev ire£w 
v/ieis riyeoicOe, tov he vavriKov eyco • el §c v/juv rjSovfj 

\U\lvq>v: from whom the Spartans Cp. irpoo-avrrp (10). — 3. cr+i 
derive their claim to the chief t6v8c : both in the attrib. position 
command of Greek forces, as it since the noun has another modi- 
were by inheritance. — 3. dirapai- fier. — 4. KaruSvTa : sc. iq rbv Ov/xov 
pf\o-0at: Ion. for a^ypfjaOai. — from the following iiravayeiv rbv 
5. Siccus : =a>5, a const, mainly Ov/jlov. For the sentiment of the 
Herodotean. The clause is ex- passage, cp. 7. 39. 7-9. — <^iXct: 
planatory of tovtov t. A.— 7. &p- cp. 7. 9. y 9. — 5. &iroSc£d|icvos : 
{rfpevos: with pass, force. — Sikcu- from dwoScwcwfit. — 6. &<rx4j|iova: 
o£s : Ionic and poetic word used unseemly. — 7. &kov : quoniam. 
also by Thuc. — 8. <rv Si: see on Cp. 7. 118. 4. — ircpt^xcvOc: as 7. 
7. 10. 1 1 . — florfitiv : inf. for imv., 39. 15. — 10. irpo<rdvrt|s : adversus, 
as 7. 141. 20. irksome. — 11. toO dpxaCov X6yov : 
160. 2. wpa: see Dial. §4. 1. — the former proposal. — 12. t©$ 
&irc<rrpa|i,|Uvovs : aversos, hostile, hi: for 8c in apod., cp. 7. 159. 8. 



161.19] HERODOTUS VII 229 

rov Kara Odkacaav rjyefioveveiv, tov ire£ov iyeo dtko). 

kcu fj TOVTOiai vfieas XP € ° P * aTl dpKei<rdai f) diriivai 

61 <rvfifLd)((t)v Toc&vSe ipy/iovs. TiXav fiev 8r) ravra 

irpoereivero, t/>0acra9 8c 6 'AOrjvaicov ayycXos top Aa/cc- 

SaifJLOVLCOV a/X€t/?€TO flLV TOMXlSc ' *X2 ficLCTlkeV XvpTjKO- 

<rla)v, ovk rjyefiovos Seofievrj r/ 'EXXds d7reirefi\fje rjfieas 
irpos crc, dXXa or/oart^g. <xu 8c o/ca>? [lev arpar^vS 
7T€/xi/f€i9 ft^ rjyeofievos rfjs e EXXa8o?, ov irpot^aive^ a>s 
8c OTparrfyTJaei^ avn/s, yki\eai. ocrov jucV i>w 7raz/ros 
rov 'EXX^pcoj' crparov iSeov Tjycicrflcu, i£ijpK€i r/fuv 
roUri i AOrjvaioicn 7]<rv^(yr]v dyew, eiriarajxevoKn cos 6 
Adtccov ucavos tol ifiekke eceadaL kcu inrep dfufrorepcov 10 
dirokoyeofievo^ • entire Se dirdxrq^ direX-awo/ievo*; Secat 
tjjs iJavrifci}? dp^eLv, ovrto fyeL tol • ovS' ^z/ 6 AaK(ov 
cmiy rot dp^eiv avrrjs, i^/icis imjcrofiep. rj/ieTepr) yap 
ion avrq ye firj avrcov fiovXofievcov AaKeSoufiovLwv. 
ravTOUTi [lev <ov y)yei<r9ai fiovXofievoicri ovk dvrLTeivo- 15 
fiev^ aXXa> 8e nap^co/iev ovSevl vavap^elv. fidrrjv yap 
av £8c irdpakov 'FXkrjvtov (rrparov TrkeldTov elrjfiev 
iKTrffjuevoLy ei Sv/oij/cocrtotcrt eovres 'Ady)vaioL (rvy^prj- 
crofxev rfjs rjyefiopirjs, dp^aiorarov fiev edvos irape^o- 

161. 2. irpocTf (vcro : = xm~ inf. — 12. ovtw ?x w toi : thus it 

tcr^vctra Cp. wrorctvciv 7. 158. 9. is, look you , ethical dat., as 6. 1. 9. 

— 5. Siu»s: cp. 7. 159. 5. — 6. «s — 13. Iiri-jj : concedat. See Dial. 

oTpcmffrfjo-cis : rare const, for sim- § 2. 3. — 16. iraptfjo-opcv : — kirqao- 

ple inf. with yXfycaJL. — 7. &rov /icv in 13. — 17. irdpaXov: = vavrt- 

|Uv vwv : sc. xpovov. — 8. r\[t£v rolari kov, not elsewhere connected with 

*A6r)vaCouri : an appositive to a ot/xitos. — 18. ct . . . <rvyx«P^- 

pers. pron. takes art. — 11. Airo- <ropcv: note the monitory fut. cond. 

Xoyf6|uvo«: suppl. ptc. with Ua- with less vivid fut. apod, avy^a)- 

kos i<re<r$ai, for the more usual piycro/icv with gen. = Trapayuprjao- 



230 



HERODOTUS VII 



[161. 20 



fjievoL, fiovvot 8c iovres ov fieravdo'Tai 'EWrjv&v •. TW2C 
Kal "Ofirjpos 6 €7ro7roto5 avhpa apiaTOv i^rjae e? ¥ Vuov 
d7nK€<r0aL rdijaL re Kal SiaKoafifjcrcu arparov. ovro) 
162 ovk o^ciSos ovhev rjfup ian \iyeiv tclvtcl. afielfiercu 
Tek<ov ToicrCSe • Hci^c 'AdrjvaZe, vfiels owcarc tovs [lev 
apXpmas e)^€LU, tovs 8e aptjofiivovs ovk etjew. iirel 
Toiwv ovSev viriivres ^X €LV T ° 7r * 1 ' idiXere, ovk av 
<f)0dvoiT€ tt)v ra^icrnqv 6iri<T<o airaWao'O'oiievoi Kals 
dyyekkovres ry 'EXXaSi on €K tov iviavrov to lap 
avrjj i£apaipT)Tai. [ovro? Sc 6 voos tov prjfiaTOS, to 
idekei \iyew • SrjXa yap a>s Iv t<o £viavru> iori to cap 
SoKLfiaJraTov, tt}$ Sc tS>v 'JLWtJvcov or/oari^s ttjv icovrdv 
(TTpaTirjv. crTepLCKOfiem)]/ 3>v ttjv 'EXXaSa ttJ? ccovrov ia 



//.si/, prob. only here. — 20. 0$ 
|A€ravd(rrai : = avTOxOoves. The 
word is Homeric. On this claim 
of the Athenians, cp. Thuc. 1. 2. 

19 TTJV *AtTLK7JV €K TOV €7rl 7rA.€l- 

(ttov Sta to XeirToyettiv d<rra<rta- 
otov ovaav avOptairoi wkovv oi 
avTol alei, Attica being on account 
of the thinness of its soil from the 
earliest period undisturbed by fac- 
tion was always inhabited by the 
same people. Cp. also Thuc. 2. 
36 ; Isoc. Panegyr. 24. — 21. "0|U|- 
pos . . . orpcmSv : cp. Horn. B 552 ff. 
The reference is to Menestheus. — 
apurrov . . . rdgai : for const, see 
S. 2002 ; HA. 952. 

162. 1. djicCPcrai: see on 7. 50. 
1. — 2. ofcarc : you are like, see 
Dial. § 4. 1. — 3. &p£o|&lvovs : with 
pass, force, as 7. 159. 7. — 4. wir- 



ilvrcs: cp. iirirj 7* 161. 13, irap~ 
jproyxv 7. 161. 16. — ovk &v $84- 
voirc . . . &ira\\cur<r6|icvoi : you 
could not be too soon in taking the 
quickest way back. S. 2096 e; 
GMT. 894.-6. 4k tov Iviavrov . . . 
l|apaCpt]Tai : the same figure was 
applied by Pericles in a funeral ora- 
tion to the youth who had fallen in 
war — prob. the Samian war. Cp. 
Arist.7?//*/. 1. 7,3. 10. Stein thinks 
both Pericles and Herodotus prob. 
borrowed it from some earlier poet. 

— 7. 4{opaCpi)T<u : see Dial. § 4. 2. 

— 7-12. [ovtos . . . clt|] : the 
passage is bracketed by several 
editors as an unnecessary expla- 
nation and unworthy of Hdt. See 
App. — 8. "yAp: see on 7. 148. 6. 

— 9. i4|v 4o)vro0 orpaTi^jv: jr. 
clvai, transition to indir. disc. — 



164.1] HERODOTUS VII 231 

crv/ijxaxwjs ct/ca£e a>s ct to ea/o c#c tov iviavTOv c£a- 

paipmitvov €117.] 

163 Ot /xcj> 81) T(ov 'EWrjvwv ayycXot roaavra tgj TeXwvL 

XfnuioLTKrdfievoi direirkeov • TeXcoi/ §c 7T/oos raSra Scleras 

f^p wepl tolctl ^EXX^cri fir) ov hvvaivrai tov fidpfiapov 

wrcpjSaXccr^at, Seivbv Sc /cat ovk duacr^erbv 7roir)<rd- 

ftei/05 i\0(ov cs IleXoTro^Kyjcroi/ dp^ea-dat imb Aa/ccSat- 5 

/iovudVj iaiv St/ccXtTjs Tvpavvos, Tavrr/v fiev rr)v 68bv 

i/ftcXijcrc, 6 Sc aXXijs evx^ro • iireire yap rd^icrra 

hwdero tov Ucpcrrfv Sta/Jc/fy/cora rw < EXX^<r7roiToi>, 

ttifiirei 7r€vrr)KovT€poi<Ti Tptcrl KdSfiov top Sicvdea) dv~ 

8/>a Ka)oi> €? AcX^ous, e\ovra xPVI JLaTa noWd /cat 10 

<J)i\lov<; Xoyovs, /ca/oaSo/ojcroira Tr)v fid^rjv Trj 7rc<xctTat, 

/cat rjv pep 6 /3a/o/Ja/oog *>t/ca, ra re \prjfiaTa a w<£ 

StSopat /cat yi;z> re /cat vSajp tcov dp^ei 6 TeX&v, ^z> Sc 

164ot ^EXXipcs, 07TLcro) array tiv. 6 Sc KaSjuos ouros 7T/oo- 

11. eticate us ft: represented by abdicated in favor of his son Cad- 
a simile, as if. The usual const, mus. The latter in time also abdi- 
is dfca£av ri tivi. cated his authority (7. 164) and 

emigrated with a number of Coan 

GELON SENDS CADMUS TO DELPHI ^^ t() g.^ where ^ the 

(CC. 163-164) help of Anaxilaus of Rhegium he 
163. 2. irpos ratora: in view recovered the old mother city of 
of this. — 6. rt|v 68iv T||j.^Xir)o-c : Zancle. — 10. 4sAc\<|>ovs: the ora- # 
rare const, found also in Eur. Ion. cle seems at that time to have 
439. — 7. 6 hi: see on 7. 6. 24. — favored submission to Persia. Cp. 
9. Skv0€u»: doubtless the tyrant 7. 140,7. 169, 7. 220. — 11. +1XC- 
of Zancle, who being expelled by ovs \6-yovs : i.e. to Xerxes, in case 
the Samians took refuge at the he was victorious. — rjj irftrctTai: 
Persian court, where he died in the figure is taken from throw- 
advanced years (6. 23-24). He ing dice. — 13. t«v ap\ci 6 T&wv: 
seems to have been made by for those over whom Gelon holds 
Darius tyrant of Cos, but to have sway. 



232 HERODOTUS VII [164.2 

Ttpov tovtgov irapahe^dfievo^ irapa ffarpbs ropavv&a 
Kcocov ev {iefirjKVLav, eKeov tc eu>at Kal Seivov emoi/ro? 
ovSevbs dXXa dirb hiKaio<ruvr)<; eg [leaov Kcoolctl Kara- 
0€ls tt)v dpxqv ot^ero cs St/ceXnji/, ivda [ierd SafLuovS 
ecr^e re /cat /carot/ajcre trokiv Zdyickrjv rr/v c? Mecr- 
<rrjvr)v fierafiakovcrav to ovvofia. tovtov 8^ 6 reXaw 
toi> KaSjuop /cat tolovtco Tpona) dirucofievov Sta St/cato- 
cvvqv, Trjv ol avros aXXij^ owjjSct €ov<rai>, £irefi7r£ • o? 
€7rl rotcrt aXXotcrt 8t/catouxt rourt e£ ecourov Ipyaafie- ic 
potcrt /cat roSe ou/c cXa^toro^ tovto>j> eXt7rero • Kpanj- 
era? ya/o fieydXoDP yfi^drtav rcov ol TeXcov iirerpdirero, 
irapebv Karacr^ecrd at ov/c rjQekrjcre, aXX* eTrct ot EXXiji/cs 
eTreicpdrrjcrav Ty vavfiayixi KaL He/o^s ot^a>/c€t cwreXav- 
z>coz>, /cat 8^ /cat e/ceu>o? aVt/ccro Is T77P St/ccXnjj' diravra 15 

164. 3. ev p^p^Kvtav: «#// *y- displaced by Anaxilaus, who is 

tablished. Cp. Archil, frg. 58 01 elsewhere (Diod. 11. 48, 11. 66) 

Ocdi iroX\a.Kis avar peirovai Kal /xaA' mentioned alone as tyrant of Mes- 

cv /Se/SrjKaras vjttlovs k\lvov<ti. — sene. — 9. tYjv ol afoos aXXtjv <rw- 

4k<6v tc ttvai : see on 7. 104. 12. — n'S«i4ovo-av : which he himself knew 

4. &iro 8tKaio«rvvt|s : he was prob. to be his otherwise, /.*. from personal 

still more influenced by longing knowledge of him in Sicily. For 

for his mother city Zancle. — 4s suppl. ptc. with o~vvrj&a> see GMT. 

plo-ov Kw'010-i KaraOcls tt|v dp- 904; S. 2 1 08 a. — 10. 4wl rota 

•X^v : putting the government back . . . SucaCouri : = irpos c.dat., a con- 

into the hands of the Coans. — struction esp. freq. among poets. 

6. «r\€: ingressive. S. 1925 a; — 1% cwvrov: for const., see on 7. 

HA. 841 ; GS. 241. — Karohoio-c : 1 1. 14. — II. rdSc . . . fthrrro: left 

settled again (about 490 B.C.). The this not the least of them (sc. rStv 

prime mover in this matter seems SikcuW) . The const. Bikcuov i\t- 

to have been Anaxilaus, tyrant of ttcto as cAwrero fivrjfi6awov 9 etc. — 

Rhegium, ace. to Thuc. 6. 4. 36, 13. irapc6v: ace. abs. — 14. olx*- 

who does not even mention Cad- kci : Ionic plpf. of oi^ofuu. — 

mus. The latter was prob. soon 15. Kal 8tj kcU: as 7. i. 4. 



165. 12] 



HERODOTUS VII 



233 



165Ta xpTJfjLaTa aywv. Xeycrat 8c /cat raSe inrb T(ov kv 
tucekiy oiKTfiievcw, a>s o/xgjs /cat //iXXcop ap^eadai vtto 
Acwcc8at/xoj>ta>i> 6 TiXcov efioijOrjO'e av tolo-l ^EXXtjcti, 
a iirj inrb %rjp<t)vo<z tov Alvr)cri87][iov s AKpayavrivcov 
liovvdpxov efcXcwr^cls c£ 'Ifieprjs TrjpiWos 6 KpivL7r-s 
ffov, rvpavvos ieov 'lfiiprjs, C7r^yc V7r* avrbv tov ypovov 

TGWTOV &OLVLKO)V KCU AlfivCOV /Cat 'ifiljpCDV /Cat AiyV(OV 

*<u , EXi<rv/c<yi> /cat %aphovixov *at KvpvCcov rpu/JKovra 
fw/Ha8as /cat <rrparr)ybu avrcov 'AfiiXicav rbv "Avvwvos, 
Kap)(r)8ovuDV iovra jSacrtXea, Kara ^eivirfv re tt/v 10 
eawrot) 6 TqptXXos avayvoKras kcu [idXicrTa 8ta rrfv 
AvaJjiXeoj tov Kprjrivea) TrpoQv\LVt)v, os 'Pijytov ea>i> 



THE CARTHAGINIANS DEFEATED 
BY GELON (CC. 1 65- 1 67) 

165. 2. 8|l«s koI |iiXX«»v : even 
though he was to be. o/x-ws, which 
usually follows the concessive ptc, 
sometimes with #cai (= Kaiircp) pre- 
cedes for esp. emphasis. Cp. 5. 
63. 9. — 4. 0-fjpttvos : tyrant of 
Agrigentum (488-473 B.C.), of the 
ancient family of the Emmenidae, 
which being related to the Aegidae 
of Thera traced descent from Cad- 
mus of Thebes. His second wife 
was daughter of Gelon's brother 
Polyzelus, and his daughter Dama- 
rete was the wife of Gelon. 
— 7. «£oivU«v: Carthaginians. — 
'IfUjp«»v: Spaniards. — Ai-yWv: Li- 
gurians, of northwest Italy. — 
8. 'EXmHIkwv: Elisy cans, oiG*\\v\ 
Narbonensis. — Kvpvfov : Cor si- 



cans, — 10. pcuriXia: the kings, 
prob. two in number, were chosen 
for life from the noblest and rich- 
est families. Arist. Pol. 2. 11 
compares them with the Spartan 
kings, but distinguishes the $axn- 
Acts (Sufetes) from the arpaTrjyoi. 
Ace. to Ephorus (frg. in ; cp. 
Diod. 11. 1. 20), the simultaneous 
attack upon the Greeks by the 
barbarians from the east and south 
had been prearranged. It was to 
the interest of the Carthaginians, 
of course, to check the naval and 
commercial advance of the Hel- 
lenes in the western Mediterra- 
nean. (See on 7. 158. 9.) — icard 
JcivC-qv tc tt|v 4a>vro£ : on account 
of his own guest-friendship, i.e. 
with Hamilcar. — 11. 6 TVjpiMos : 
repeated for the sake of clearness 
from 1. 5 . — &v<ryv<&<ras : = TrciVas. 



234 HERODOTUS VII [165. 13 

Tvpavvos, ra ecourot) reicva Sous bprfpovk 'A/uX/ca iirfjye 
iirl rrfv ^LKekirjv TL/iajpecov t<£ irevdepoi • Ttj/hXXou yap 
cl^c dvyarepa 'A^a^i'Xccos, t$ ovvofia rjv KvSwnrty. 15 
ovtco 8rj ovk olov re yevofievov fiorjdelv top Tekwva 
tolcl *E\\r)<n aTroTreynreiv cs AcXc/>ovs ra ^prjfiaTa. 

166 77700s 8c zeal ra8c Xeyown, cos (ruvtfiy) r^s cu&ttJs rffiipyj^ 
cz> T€ ttJ SiKekir) Tekwva Kal %rjp<ova viKav 'A/aiXkcw 
top Kapyrfioviov Kal iv HakapXvi rovs "EXX^pas tov 
HepoTrjv. tov 8c 5 A/uX/cai>, Ka/o;(T7§di>ioi> iovra 77700s 
7rar/ods, ftrjTpodev 8c XvprjKoaioVj fiacikevo-avrd re kolt 5 
avSpayaOCr/v • Ka/o^Soz/tcui/, cos 17 ov/ifldkyj re iyCvero 
Kal a>s co-croSro t# /^a^, d<f)avL<rdr}vai, irwddvofiai' 
ovre yap tfiivra ovre anodavovra <f>avrjvaL ovSafiov 

167 yijs • to 7raV ya/o iire^ekdeiv Sl^tj fievov TeXcjva. cart 
8c un*' avTcov Kap^rf^oviiov o8e Xdyos Xeyd//,«>os, oikoti 
XP^cafiiv(ov } cos oi juci> /3dp/3apoi, tolctl ^EWtjcl \jev tq 
SwccXiy] ifid^ovro i£ rjovs dp^dfievoi ^XP L SciXtjs 
oxfjirjs (iirl rocrovro yap Xiyerai cX/cuVcu ttjv (ruoTao'iv) i $ 
6 8c 'A/tuX/cas iv tovtco t<S XP° V( ? P'ivtav iv T<p orpaTO- 

— 15. ct\€ : sc. ywatica. — 16. owt» 9. t& irav . . . r&f»va : for Gelon 

8Y| kt«. : indir. disc, dependent on went everywhere in his search for 

AeycTai (1). him. Cp. 4. 9. 2 'HpaxAca Stjif 

166. 1 . irpds %k : adv. — rfjs a&u, iravra 8c rot tt}s X^PV 4 * ^re&X- 

afrf\s tj^pas: Diod., 11. 24, says Oovra t£\os airiKivOax kt£. For 

on the same day as the battle of to wav, see on 7. 50. 4. 
Thermopylae. Aristotle expresses 167. 2. oU6ti: .rc. Aoy<p, which 

himself in general terms, Poet. 23 is expressed 3. 1 1 1 . 4. — 3. [iv r% 

Kara rovq avrovs xpovovs 17 t iv HuccXCfl] : unnecessary and omitted 

3aAa/uvt iyev€To vav/xa^ta #cal 17 by some Mss. See App. — 4. St(- 

cv SuccAtei Kapx^SoviW. — 8. ov8a- Xip o+Ctjs : sunset, as Thuc. 3. 74. 5. 

|ao0 7f\s : S. 1439 a ; HA.. 757. — — 5. &.Kv<rcu : dragged on, intr. — 



168.4] 



HERODOTUS VII 



235 



ireh(p \i9vero kol] c/caXXt€/)€tTO im irvprjs [leydkrjs 

(Ttofiara oXa /caTayi£coz>, ihcov Se Tpoirrjv tS>v ecoirou 

ywojieirqv, a>s en^e imo"iriv8(ov tolctl t/oowrt, there i(ov- 

tov cs to 7rvp • ovtq) 8rj KaTaKavdevra a<f>avL(T0rjvai. 10 

wj>avur0€vri 8e 'AfilXica rponco elre tolovtcd a>? ®olvlk€$ 

Xeyovox, c?T€ €T€/oa>, [a>9 Ka/o^Soz/tot Kal Sv/otjkoVioc,], 

tovto fiev oi Ovovctl, tovto 8e fLinjfiaTa iiroCrjcrav iv 

^dxTj/au tjJcl ttoKlctl t<**v aTroiKihiov, iv avTjj re ftcyurrov 

\ KapxqSovi. tcl fiep diro SwccXit/s TOcravTa. 15 

168 KeptcupaloL Se rdSe xmoKpivd^evoi tolctl dyyeXown 

rota§€ iiroirjaav /cat yap tovtovs irape\dfi/3avov oi 

avroi ol irep c? SifceXir/i/ oWi/caro, Xeyovres tovs avrovs 

\6yovs tovs Kal 777005 TiXcopa iXeyov. oi 8e TTapavrUa 



7. [IOvcto xal] iKaXXupctTo: both 
words can hardly be correct. See 
App. and see on 7. 113. 10. — 

8. <r<6|iaTa &\a : whole burnt offer- 
ings were originally the rule with 
Phoenicians, as with Jews ; later, 
as with the Greeks, this was un- 
usual. — IO. d^avur6f\vcu. &<(>a- 
vuriKvrt SI: note the epanalepsis 
{repetition), a favorite figure with 
Hdt. Ace. to Diod. 11. 22, 
Hamilcar was slain by Gelon's cav- 
alry at the outset. — 12. [«s Kop- 
Xf|8dvtoi xal 2vpT]K6<riot] : doubt- 
less an interpolation of some one 
who overlooked the fact that the 
Carthaginians were the Phoeni- 
cians, and that the Syracusans did 
not know how he died — as is clear 
from the conclusion of the preced- 



ing chapter. See App. — 1 3. tovto 
|tlv, tovto %k : see on 7. 6. 6. — ol : 
reiteration of the indir. obj. already 
expressed ('A/xi'Aica). Cp. 7. 147. 
8. — 6vovo-i : this statement pre- 
supposes hero-worship, which was 
unknown among the Phoenicians. 
Hence Movers 1 conjecture is prob- 
able, that we have here to do with 
a confusion of the name of A-milkar 
with Melkarth the Tyro-Cartha- 
ginian deity, with whose cult self- 
immolation by fire was intimately 
connected. — 15. Airo SuccXCtp: 
terminus ex quo. 

DOUBLE DEALING OF THE CORCY- 
RAEANS 

168. 2. irapcXdppavov : sc.avfi- 
fiaxov9, conative impf., as in 18 be- 



236 HERODOTUS VII [ 

[lev virUryovTO irep^eiv re Kal ap,vvelv, <f>pd£ovres c 
<r<f>L irepioTTTty) earl fj 'EXXas a7ro\\v fiivq • r^v 
(T(f)a\fj, cr(f)€L<; ye ov8ev aXXo fj SovXeva-ovai ry ir 
tcov rffiepecov • aXXa TtfKoprjTeov etrj eg to Swarcori 
vTTtKpivavTO fiev ovtq) ev7rp6<rama • iwel 8e eSct )8ot 
aXXa voeovres €7r\rjpa)crav veas efjrJKovra, fioyv 
avcL^dkvre^ Trpoa-efii^av Tjj Uekonovvrjcrat, Kal 
UvXov Kal Haivapov yfjs rfjs AaKehaLfiovCeov a 
Xevov ras z>eas, KapahoKeovres Kal ovtol tov 7ro) 
ttj Treaelrai, dekTTTeovres fxev tovs ^EXXtjz/gls \me 
\el<rdai, SoKcovres Sc top Hepcrqv KaTaKparrja 
ttoWov ap^eiv irdcrr)^ rfjs 'EXXaSos. eiroieov 2)v e 
8cg, Xva expert 7r/o6s rov Tlep(rr)v \eyeiv roiaSe 
f$a(rik€v y rifiels irapaXafi/3avovT(ov tcov 'J&kXrjviov r t 
cs top Tr6Kep,ov tovtov, empires Swa/ALP ovk cXa^i 
ov8e veas eXa^wrras TrapaoyovTes av dXXa irkei 
fierd ye ' Adrjvaiovs, ovk rjOekyjcrafiev tol avrioi 

low, and 7. 169. 1. — 5. us ov . . . SvvaT&rarov : to the limit oj 

&iroWv|ilvt] : that they must not power, Cp. k% Svvap.LV. — 

permit Hellas to perish. For const. irp6cn»ira: f air-faced, specio^ 

of irepiopav with suppl. ptc, see S. tic evjrpeirr}. — 1 2. yi\s ^s At 

2103 ; GMT. 885. — 6. flv *ydp . . . povfav : for gen., see on 7. y : 

r&v r\\upi<av: for if it fad, they 13. koAovtoi: these too, as ' 

themselves will surely be slaves the Gelon (7. 163. 1 1 ). — 14. rjj 

very first day. — 7. tracts: indir. toi: see on 7. 163. 11.- 

reflex. in emphatic position. — 0*- irrfovris : cp. Horn. H 

c*v aXXo ij: with this elliptical 16. 4itCti|8€s: consulto, as 7 '. 

expression supply some plural word — 19. 8vvc41.1v ovk IXaxbrrr 

like irocovai. Cp. ///#// # Hud quatn. the sea power of Corcyra, cp. 

— 8. r&v T)|icpl<»v: the part, gen., 1.14,1.33. — 20. irapcurxoV 

of which Hdt. is very fond, adds could have furnished. GM r 

emphasis. Cp. 7. 104. 3.— 4s t& — 21. |«Td yc: cp. 7. 139. 



• 169. 5] HERODOTUS VII 237 

ou8' rt airoOvfuov iroirjo-ai. rotavra Xeyovres rjXm^ov 
likkov rt r&v dWcjv oicrecrOai • rd irep av /cat iyivero, 
(is c/io! So/c€t. 7rpo? 8e rovs "TSXkrjvds <r<f>i ova^/its 
hreiroiTfrOy rfj mp 87) /cat exprjaavro • aiTi<op*evxov yap 25 
Taiy 'EXA^cd? art ov/c i/3oyj0eoi>, et^acrai/ irXrjpcocrcu fiev 
^Kovra Tpujpeas, vwb 8e irrjaUcov dvifuov inrepfiaXew 
MaXajp owe ofot tc yeviadav • ovra> ov/c a7rt/c€O"0at e? 
SaXa/uva /cat ovSefjuyj KaKorryri \ei<f>0rjvai rfjs vav- 
/ta^a;?. ovrot //,€*> ouVco 8i€Kpov<ravro tovs "FXXrjvas. 3° 
1© KpifTes Se, ineCre <r<f>£as TrapeXdfifiavov oi iirl rov- 
toutl Tax6evT€<z 'EWyjvoav, iiroirjcrav rotoVSe • TrkfjutyavTe; 
kolvj} Oeoirpoirovs cs AeX<£ovs roi/ 0eo*> iireipayrcov ct 
o~<£t dfietvov TifMopeovcTL yiver at rfj 'EXXaSt. f) Se 
UvOCt/ vrreKpivaro • *X2 vrjmoi, eTnfjLejufreo'Oe ocra vpHv 5 

22. &iro66|uov : Homeric, as E 261. 6. 44. 10. — 29. \cu|>0f\vai rijs vav- 

— 23. irXlov ti . . . otcrccrOai : will pax' 1 !* : h&d oeen fyft out °f ^ ie 

get something more than the rest, sea fight. Cp. 7. 153. 7. — 30. 81c- 

Cp. 7. 213. 4. — 24. c+i o-k^+is Kpovo-ovTo: eluded. 
farfvofap-o : an excuse had been pre- 

pared by tern.- 27. fcrA It,- the Cretans refuse aid (cc. 
onl»v &W|m*v : owing to the Etesian l ^~ 1 7 l ' 

winds, i.e. the northeast winds 169. 1. Iirl rofoouri: for this 

which blow from the coast of purpose. Cp. 7. 146. 12, 7. 156. 

Thrace over the whole archipelago, 16. — 3. Koivfi: i.e. the several 

for about 40 days from the rising independent states on the island 

of the dog star, which would united in a common embassy. — 

cover the date of the battle of Sala- 5. 4iri|j.{p<|>c<r0c . . . Scucpvpara : do 

mis (Sept. 28). Modern travelers you find fault with the tears 

testify that these winds are espe- which Minos, in consequence of 

daily strong about Cape Malea your aid to Menelaus, sent upon 

(now Angelo). — virfppcActv : to you, in anger, because — (oti ktc.). 

get by, double, as Thuc. 8. 104. Instead of a direct answer, the god 

20. Cp. tov *A0<av ir€pUfia\\ov makes ironical reference to the 



2 3 8 



HERODOTUS VII 



[169. 6 



€K tS>v MeveXea) TLfKoprj/jidTc^p MtW iwepAJse psqviow 
SaKpvfiara, on oi fikv ov (ruvetjeTrpijfjavTO avrco top kv 
KafiLKa) ddvarov yevofievov, vfiels §e €K€ivoi<ri ttjp e/c 
%Traprr)<; apTracrdelcrap vtt dvSpbs fiapfidpov yvvaiKa. 
ravra oi Kpf}re<; cos direveiydkvra rjKovaav^ €0~)(ovroi- 
170 ttjs TipLQypiif)*;. Xkyerai yap Mivcov Kara tprjrrja'iv AcuSa- 
\ov airiKopLGvov eg %iKavir)v rrju vvv XuceXtyv Kakeo- 
fievrfv dirodaveiv fiialcp davdro). dvd Sc yfiovov Kpfjras 
deov ericas error pvvavro^ rrdvras 7r\.r)v Tlo\i)(yirk(ov re 
zeal n paicrL(oi>, diriKOfikvov^ ordXa> fieydXco cs %LKavlr)v $. 



past. — 6. Mcvc*\c<p ri)&o>pt|)&dra>v : 
const, with verbal noun the same 
as with Ti/xwpcii/. Note the poetic 
pi. of excellence. — MCvws . . . 
Scucpvpara: an iambic verse, pre- 
serving perhaps meter, dialect, 
and form of the oracle. — (it)v(«v : 
( = opyif ojitvos) esp. of the wrath 
of gods and heroes. — 7. ol \Uv : 
i.e. Menelaus and his followers. — 
<rvvc£cirp4j{avTo : helped to avenge. 
Cp. iKirp^aaOai 7. 1 58. 8. — riv 4v 
Ka|mc$ Odvarov 7cv6|icvov: either 
the ptc. or modifier may stand 
outside of the attrib. order in such 
consts. Cp. 9 below. Camicus 
was near Akragas in Sicily. Od- 
varov (= <j>6vov), sc. MiVO). — 
10. TttOTo kt4. : striking order, 
ravra first, as connecting with the 
preceding, then ot Kp^Tcs, as com- 
mon subject. Cp. 1. 66. 14, 1. 
158. 5, 1. 160. 1. — IVxovto: = 

air€<rx ovro > ^ 7* 2 37- x 4- 

170. 2. SiKavCijv: so called 



after the aboriginal Si/cavot, who, 
some 300 years before the Hellenic 
colonization, had been driven back 
into the southern and western 
parts of the island by the immi- 
grant 3t*eAot. See Thuc. 6. 2. — 

3. diroOavciv piabp 0avdr<p : at the 
palace of his host, the Sicanian 
king, Cocalus, whose daughters, 
when Minos demanded that Dae- 
dalus should be given up, through 
love for the latter's art slew Minos 
in the bath. The legend was the 
subject of Sophocles' lost play Ka- 
fiLKLot. — dvd Sc xpdvov: cp. 7. 10. 
f 4> 7' 153- 7- Another tradition 
has it that it was the followers of 
Minos who met the fate described 
in what follows (Diod. 4. 79). — 

4. it\t]v IIoXixviTCaiv tc koI Ilpat- 
<rC«v : the inhabitants of Polichne 
(in the south of Crete) and of 
Praesus (in the eastern part) were 
prob. pre-Hellenic and so not con- 
cerned about avenging Minos. — 



170.21] HERODOTUS VII 239 

iro\iopK€iv kn erea irkvre irokiv Ka/u/cdp, rf/v /car' kfik 

&KpayavTLVOL kvkfiovro. rekos 8k ov Swapevovs ovre 

c\eu> ovre Trapafxkveiv Xifico crweorectiTas, aTrdknrovras 

oi\e(rdai. a>s 8c /caret *Ir)7rvyir)v yevecrd at 7r\eoirras, 

woXajSoWa ericas ^etficova fieyav eKfiakeiv cs rrjv 10 

yijp- (TvvapaxOkvTtov 8k t<ov irkoioiv (ovSe/tuai> ya/o 

^ ert KOfiiSrjP Is Kprjrrjv <£ati>€<r0at), kvdavra 'Tpfyv 

nokiv KrUravras KaTafielvai re /cat fierafiaXovTas avri 

V*v KprjT(ov yevkadai 'Irjirvyas Mecrcra7rtous, dirt 8e 

€u><u vqaiwras y)Treip<!rra<;. dnb 8k 'T/ouj? 7rdXto? rag 15 

ftMa? ot/ctcrat, ras 87) Tapavrivot XP° V V vcrrepov 7roXXa5 

^awordi/res TrpocrerrTaicrav /xeyaXeos, cScrrc <j>6vos 'EX- 

mjpwco? fieyiOTOs ovros 8^ kykvero irdvrcov tcov ij/xcts 

l fyt«>, avrcov re Hapavrivtov /cat 'PrjyLVcov, ot inrb Mt/cu- 

0ou rov XoCpov avayKa£,6pL€voi rS>v dcrrcov /cat a7rt/cd-2o 

/^ot TLfieopol TapavTivoicri dirkdavov T/oto"^tXtot ourcu • 

6. fcr Irca it*vtc : see on 7. 1 . 10. to ovofm. Cp. 7. 164. 7. — 14. avrl 

^icar 4pl: in my time. Cp. to ctvoi: without art., as 1. 210. 7, 

«ttr ifii 5. 58. 16. — 8. Xip$ <n>v- 6. 32. 6, a const, not found in 

fVTi»Tas: &zr*/ pressed by fam- Attic. The articular inf. occurs 

ine. Cp. 9. 89. 24 \ifi& orvoravTas some thirty-two times in Hdt. — 

Kai *a/iar<p. — 9. w$ Sc . . . -ycW- 16. rds 8-tf| : construed with the 

o^ai: for inf. by attraction in nearer ptc. — 17. IJavurrAvTfs : 

indir. disc, see on 7. 148. 19. conative. — irpoptfimurav : the de- 

— k<&t& 1t|nvyCt)v : Calabria, in feat occurred 473 B.C. — <|m5vos 'EX- 

southeastern Italy. — 10. woXa- Xt^vikos . . . l&>cv : cp. Thuc. 7. 

fttvra cr^fos: catching them up; 85. 17 wActbTos yap hiq <£dvosovros 

often of storm winds. Cp. 6. koX ovSevbs iXaaautv twv iv tu> 5t- 

27. 6 of pestilence. — 12. KO|nS4|v: kcAiko> -iroXifuo rovrq cyevero. — 

conveyance, ij. safe return. — 18. t«v 4||icts tS|uv: cp. 7. 20. 4. 

'YpCipr: now Oria, between Ta- — 19. ot: referring only to "PrjyC- 

rentum and Brundisium (Strabo, van/. — 20. twv&otwv: part. gen. 

p. 282). — 13. |icTaPaX6vTas : sc. with of. — 21. ovto: unusual posi- 



2 3 8 



HERODOTUS VII 



[169. & 



€K t<ov Meviktco TifKoprjfidrcop MtVcog iirepAfje (irjvuom^ 

Sa/c/ov/Ltara, on oi fiev ov o-uve£e7rpT]£avTo aura) rov c m. 

KajJiLKco ddvarov yevofievov, vfiels 8e efceipotcn rr/v e#« 

%Traprr)<; dpirao'deicrav xrrr dvSpbs fiapftdpov yvvauccL, 

ravra oi KpTJres cos aTrevuydkvra f/Kovaav, toyovro 

170 rfjs rt/LtoD/onjs. Xeyerai ya/o Mu>coi> Kara t^Tt)(Tiv AatSct- 

Xov dnLKo/JLepov cs XiKavirjv ty/v vvv SwceXtiyz/ /caXeo- 

fievqp dirodav&v {Siaico davdrco. dp a Sc yfiovov Kpifras 

deov <r<f)€a<; kirorpyvavTo^ Trdvra*; tt\t)v lioki^yirmv re 

/cat UpatcricDVy dirucopLkvovs otoXgj fxeydkco cs SiKavvriPS 

past. — 6. McW\c<p TiiMopTipdrcov : after the aboriginal Sucawty who, 
const, with verbal noun the same some 300 years before the Hellenic 



as with riynapdv. Note the poetic 
pi. of excellence. — MCvws . . . 
Scucpvitara : an iambic verse, pre- 
serving perhaps meter, dialect, 
and form of the oracle. — \i.r\vioiv : 
( = opyif 6p.evos) esp. of the wrath 
of gods and heroes. — 7. ol |*4v: 
i.e. Menelaus and his followers. — 
<rvvc(cirp4j{avTo : helped to avenge, 
Cp. €K7r p-q^acrBat. 7. 158. 8. — t&v 4v 
KajiiKw Odvarov < ycv6^vov: either 
the ptc. or modifier may stand 
outside of the attrib. order in such 
consts. Cp. 9 below. Camicus 
was near Akragas in Sicily. Od- 
varov (= </>6vov), sc. MtVo). — 
10. raOrtt kt4. : striking order, 
Tavra first, as connecting with the 
preceding, then oi Kpfjres, as com- 
mon subject. Cp. 1. 66. 14, 1. 
158. 5, 1. 160. 1. — So^ovto: = 
airtaxovro, as 7. 237. 14. 

170. 2. Zucavfriv: so called 



colonization, had been driven back 
into the southern and western 
parts of the island by the immi- 
grant 3tfceAot. See Thuc. 6. 2. — 

3. diroOavctv f3iata> Oavdrcp: at the 
palace of his host, the Sicanian 
king, Cocalus, whose daughters, 
when Minos demanded that Dae- 
dalus should be given up, through 
love for the latter's art slew Minos 
in the bath. The legend was the 
subject of Sophocles' lost play Ka- 
fjLLKLOL. — dvd 8i xpdvov : cp. 7* ia 
f 4, 7. 153. 7. Another tradition 
has it that it was the followers of 
Minos who met the fate described 
in what follows (Diod. 4. 79)* ~" 

4. irXTjv noXixvirlwv Ti Kttl lip* 1 " 
<rC«v : the inhabitants of Polichne 
(in the south of Crete) and of 
Praesus (in the eastern part) were 
prob. pre-Hellenic and so not cob* 
cerned about avenging Minos.-* 



W2.ii] HERODOTUS VII 241 

Kai rouri fly>oj8aTOt<rt, iare to Sevrepov eprjiModeurqs 
Kpifnjs ftcTa t&v xnroKovrroiV r/otrov? avrrjv vvv vefie- 10 
<r6<u KpyjTas. i) yuev 8^ UvOltj virofivrjcraaa Tavra 
ecr^c /Hovkofievovs TtfKopelv rotcrt ^EXXtjcti. 
172 QccrcraXol 8e vrrb avayKair}^ to irpcoTov ep/tjhicrav, a>s 
otcScfap, art ov <r<f>i rjvSave to. oi 'AXcvaSat ep>v)X a " 
wwa C7T€tTC yap hrvdovro ra^tora jueXXoira Sta- 
fiaipzw top Hepoyv es r^v Ev/oawnji/, Trkprnovvi Is tw 
laOfibv ayyekovs. €i> Se t<S 'I<r0/Lia> rjaav aXicrfievoiS 
ffpo/tauXoi r^s 'EXXaSos apcuprjuevoi anb t&v ttoXlcov 
Tup ja afieCva) (fypoveovaecov ire pi tt)v 'EXXaSa. a7rt/co- 
/tcpot 8e C7rt Tourous ra)i> ©€<r<xaX<Si> oi ayycXot iXeyov • 
Av&pes v EXXtji/€s, Set ^vkdaaecrd ai rrjv k<rfloXr)v rrjv 
OXvfjimicqv, Iva ©ecreraXnj t€ /cat 17 cvfiiraa'a y 'EXXas 10 
a> aKeirg tov iroXefiov. 'qftets [lev vvv erot/xot elfiev 

toutiv 8* ovpavoOcv fkiy «nyyayc 'AXcvdScu: see on 7. 6. 8. — 

Tr^fta Kpovwov, 3. 4ircCrc tAxio-to : *»>" primum. 

Xifiov of/uoiv kcu Xoifiov ' airo<f>0wv- — 5. aXurpivoi : cp. 7. 145. 2. aAi'- 

Ooxxtl 8c XaoC. £tiv = aOpoi&tv. Xen. (Auab. 2. 4. 

— 9. Ira . . . W|ico*ai: inf. in 3, 6. 3. 3 ; <rwa\%av Cyrop. 1. 2. 

dependent clause in indir. disc, J 5* *• 4- 14) alone of Attic classic 

as 7. 1 70. 9. — 4pn|i<»6ct<nis Kp^s : writers uses the word. — 6. dpaipt)- 

gen. abs. for esp. emphasis, though l** VOi : see on 7. 83. 6. — 7. t«v rd 

axrrqv occurs just after. — 10. rpl- &M™ +powow*«v : cp. 7. 145. 3. 

rovt . . . Kpflra*: a third popula- — 9- +vXAo-o-€<r0oi : be guarded. 

tion of Cretans now occupy it. — Cp. 7. 223. 10. The pass was that 

12. *rx«'- =a7T€crx€. of Tempe.— 10. -q : sing, though 

there are two subjs., doubtless be- 

THE thessalians and the pass cause the second subj. includes 

OF TEMPE (CC. 172-174) the first— II. 4v o-k^ tov uoX£- 

17a. 1. wo dvo/yKabp : inviti. |M>t> : under cover from the war, 

— mt SUScfav, 6V1: as they as 7. 215. 8. Cp. iv orcein; rov 

clearly showed, in that- — 2. ol <f>6fSov 1. 143. 1; Horn. £ 210 



240 



HERODOTUS VII 



[3 



avrcjp 8e TapaPTivoov ovk iirfjv dptd/id?. 6 8c Mtic 
ot/cerr/9 ka>v 'Ai/aftXcco, irrirpoiTO^ 'Pijytov /careXeXi 
ovro5 os wep eKwecrcov €k 'Prjyiov /cat Teyeqv rfjv *I 
8(ov ot/a/cras dvWr)K€ kv 'OXvfnrvfl Toi>$ wokkovs a 
171 aVras. dXXa ra fte*/ /cara 'P-^ytVous re /cat Tapair 
rot) Xdyou /xot irapevdrjicri yeyove. c$ Sc r>)i> K/c 
ipr/fxcjdeia'av, a>s Xey overt Ilpatcrtot, ecrot/ct£€cr0at 
Xovs re avdpdmovs /cat /AaXtcrra 'EXX^i/as, rptr 
yc^e^ /i€ra MiVcui/ Tekevnjcravra yeveadcu ra Tp 
ci> rotcrt ov <f>XavpoT(iTov^ <f>aivecr0cu kovras Kf 
Ti/JLiopovs Mci/cXea). dirt tovtojv 8e cn^t airovo(TTrj 
c/c TpotT/s Xt/ioV re /cat Xotfibv yeveaOcu /cat av 



tion at end for emphasis, as 7. 223. 

4. — 22. ovk 4irf)v &pi0|&6s: no 
numbering was possible, as 7. 191 . 
3.-23. lirCTpoiros: cp. 7. 7. 7. 
A sort of regency for the minor 
heirs seems to be meant. — 24. 4k- 
irco-wv Ik 'PiryCov : ace. to Diod. (1 1 . 
48, 11. 66) Micythus, after nine 
years' regency (476-467), having 
been prosecuted by the heirs and 
honorably acquitted, declined fur- 
ther guardianship and withdrew 
to Tegea. — 25. olic4j<ras: settled 
in y as 6. 33. 11. — tovs iroXXovs 
dv&pidvras: dedicated in fulfill- 
ment of a vow for the recovery 
of a son. Fifteen are mentioned 
by Pausanias as still standing at 
Olympia in his time (about 150 
a.d.) ; others had been taken 
to Rome by Nero. Cp. Paus. 

5. 26. 4. Fragments of two 



of the inscribed bases of 
were discovered in the e 
tions. 

171. I. T&KCLT&'PiryCvovs 
ters pertaining to the Rhegi 
— 2. irapcv(HjKT| : a digressi 

6. 19. 4. — 3. 4o-<hk(£c<t0cu & 
return to indir. disc. — 4. Tpi 
vej : Idomeneus, the Cretan 
in the Trojan War, was gra 
of Minos. Horn. N 45 1. — 5 
Mtva>v TcXcvHjoravTa : for < 
cp. irpo Svktos rjktov 7. 14 
GMT. 829 b. — 6. 4v roUr 
4>a(vco-0cu : for inf. in rel. cla 
indir. disc, see on 7. 170. 

7. Mcv&c<p: dat. after ti/u 
just as after ri/zcopciv. — 8. 
tc Kal Xoipov ycv4o*0ai: See 
Aen. 3. 137-139. For the i 
laic phrase, cp. Hes. W. ai 
242 f. 



W2.ii] HERODOTUS VII 241 

Kol rourt irpo/JdVoio-i, core to Sevrepov c/o^/xcu^cunj? 
K/nprys fiera t&v vTroXoiwcov t/oitovs avrrjv vvv i/c/x€-io 
(rflat KpfjTas. fj fjJev 8^ livdirq vno/JLinjcracra Tavra 
€a X c fiovko/iivovs TLfuopeiv tolctl ""EXX^cri. 
x/4 fcwcraAoi oc v7ro ai/ay/catT/? to wpioTov efirjOicrav, cos 
8t€8cfai>, art ov cn^i ^ji/Sai/c ra ol 'AXcuaScu e/rr^a- 
wwo. eireure yap hroQovro Ta^icrra fieXXovra 81a- 
flalvuv tov Hepcrqv c? tt)z> Ev/oawnji/, Trefnrovcri cs roi/ 
I<r0fioi> dyycXovs. ci> 8c raJ 'IcrfytaJ iy<raz/ aXicr/Ao/ot 5 
vpoflovXoi rfjs 'EXXaSos dpaiprjfxevoi dwo tiov ttoXlcov 
T(ov to. d/xeCva) (frpoveovaecov wepl ttjv 'EXXaSa. olttlko- 
H&oi, S£ C7rl tovtovs tS>v SeacaXcov ol dyyeXoi eXeyov • 
Ai/Spcs v EXX«^i/c5, Set (f>vXdcrcr€crd at rrfv €<r/3oXr)v ttjv 
OXv/iTTLiajv, Iva ©ccrcraXnj T€ /cat 17 crvpma.o'a. # c EXXd$ 10 
& o'Keirg tov iroXifiov. rifiels p.kv vvv eroi/iot el/xev 

Tdunv 8* ovpavoOev fiey iirqyaye 'AXcvdSat: see on 7. 6. 8. — 

irrjfux "Kpovuov, 3. IitcCtc T&x«»"Ta : cum primum, 

\qiw 6fuw #cai XotfAOV • airo<l>0ivv- — 5. aXurplvoi : cp. 7. 145. 2. dAi- 

flowi 8c XjojoL fciv = aBpolif.Lv. Xen. (Anab. 2. 4. 

-9. ira . . . W|M<r6ai: inf. in 3> 6. 3. 3 ; <Twaki%uv Cyrop. 1. 2. 

dependent clause in indir. disc, x 5> *• 4- 14) alone of Attic classic 

as 7. 170. 9.— 4pi||M»ec((n)s Kp^rtis : writers uses the word - ~ 6 - *P«W 

gen. abs. for esp. emphasis, though I*** 01 : see on 7- 83. 6. — 7. t»v tA 

avn/v occurs just after. — 10. t P C- V™ 4>povcov<r*»v : cp. 7. 145. 3. 

rout . . . KpfJTas: * third popula- — 9- ♦"Afo-owOoi : &? guarded. 

tion of Cretans now occupy it.— Cp. 7. 223. 10. The pass was that 

12. «crx€ : = da-coxc of Tempe.— 10. fl : sing, though 

there are two subjs., doubtless be- 

the thessalians and the pass cause the second subj. includes 

OF TEMPE (CC. 172-174) the first— II. tv o-k^ tov iroX*- 

17a. 1. viro dvo/yKahjs: inviti. jiov : under cover from the war, 

— 6t SUSifav, oVt : as they as 7. 215. 8. Cp. kv aKiiry tov 

clearly showed, in that- — 2, pI <f>6fiov 1. 143. 1; Horn. £ 210 



242 HERODOTUS VII [1 

crvfi^vkda'a'eiVy ire/Anew Sc \PV Ka * v/xcas or pi 
TroWyjvy a>s el [xr/ ttc/lw/^tc, kirixTTao'de 17/iicas 6/jlo) 
<reiv r<o Hkpcrj) • ov yap rot wpoKarrj/jLevov^ roc 
irpb Trjs d\\r)s 'EXXaSo? povvovs irpb vfieow Set 
Xc<r0ai. /3orj0€Lv Se ov /JouXd/xcz/oi avayKauqv 
ovbefXLav oloi rk care irpo&^kpeLv • ovSa/ia yap 
vacrirjs dvdyicr) Kpiccwv £<f)V. t^/acis 8c Treipiqac 
avTOL nva (T(tyrqpir)v firj^avd/jievoL. ravra e\ey* 
173 ©ccrcraXot. ot 8c ^EXXTpcs tt/oos ravra k/SovXeuo 
cs ©ccrcraXt^i/ irkpmeiv Kara ddkacrcrav ireCpv or/ 
<f>vkal;ovTa ttjv kcrfiokrjv. a><? 8c crvvekkr^di) 6 arp 
cTrXa Si* Evpt7rou. a7ri/cd/ic^05 8c rfjs 'A^atnj 
*AXoj>, diro/3a<; iwopevero cs ©ccrcraXtTji/, ras i/ca? < 
icaTaXi7Jw, /cat a7ri/ccTo cs ra Tc/utTrca c$ tt)i> cctjG 
17 TTC/o aTTo Ma/ccSoi/fys rqs koltco cs ©ccrcraXfyi/ 
7rapa Trorafibv rtyi/ciw, /xcrafu 8c 'OXv/xttou tc 
cdira /cat ttJs y Oo"(nj5. kvdavra kcrrparoiTehevovri 
'EXXtji/o)^ fcara fivpiovs cTrXirai cruXXeycircs, /cai 

€7rt OTKcn-as lor' dWfioto. — 13. €l Ma;/ inability. Cp. 8. 11 

l&j| W(i\|/ct€: minatory condition. Theog. 140. — 18. tyv: gnoi 

— £ir(o*TCur0c T||iias 6|&o\oy4jcrciv : ircipr)<r6|i.c0a |&t)x<iv<&|&cvoi : 

understand that we shall make ptc, as 7. 139. 8, 7. 148. 9. 
terms. This const, with imara- 173. 4. 'Ax<u£ip: in 

<r0€ is freq. in Hdt., rare in Attic, ern Thessaly, called also I 

— 16. o* pov\6|Mvot: though the tis. Cp. 7. 132. 3. — 5. ' 

ptc. is conditional, the neg is ov, on the west shore of the Pag 

because it belongs to the single Gulf. Homer (B 682) mc 

word. See on 7. 10. 10. — dva-y- it among the cities of Achi 

kclIt)v: compulsion, i.e. alone to op- 7. McmccSovCt)s rf|s k&t»: 

pose the enemy. Cp. the oath 7. Macedonia. Kara), along the 

132.6. — 17. oiSapd ydp...tyv: as against avo> (24), in 1 

for never is compulsion stronger terior. — 10. Kcwa (tvptovs: 



1W.2] HERODOTUS VII 243 

irpoarjv 17 QecrcraXa>v Ittitos. ecrrparrjyei Se Aa/ceSai- 

ILov'uav fiev Evaa/eros 6 Kapijvov £k rwv Troke/JLapxov 

ipaifyq/ievos, yeveos fievroi e<ov ov rov /JacriX^iou, *A.di)- 

vauov 8e ©e/uorofcXe^s 6 Nco/cXeos. efxetvav 8e oXiyas 

i/ftcpa$ evdavra • d7ruc6fievoi yap ayyekoi irapa 'AXef- 15 

cwopov rov 'A/iwreco di/Spo? Ma/ceSdi/os ovvefiovkevov 

v<l>i cwraXXaVrow^ai /i/ijSe fievovra^ ev r# ecrfiokr} 

K<LTairaTr)0r}vai virb rov <rrparov rov eiriovros, (njftat- 

wptcs ro wkrjdos re rrjs <rrparvr\s /cat rds z/cas. a>s 8e 

Wot cr<£i raSra <rvvefiovkevov (xpr)(rra yap eSdfceoi/20 

w/i/taiAevcii/, /cat <r<£i ciJi/005 e<f>aCvero l<ov 6 MaKeScjv)^ 

tiriiBovro. hoKeiv 8e /101, appcoSir) rjv ro ireldov, a>s 

eirvOovro teal akkrjv coCcrai/ ecr/3okr)v Is ®€<rcraXovs 

fewd T7ji> dVa> Ma/ccSoi/t^i/ 8ta Ueppai/3<ov Kara Yovvov 

iro'Xiy, r|7 7rc/o 87) /cat ecre/JaXe 17 crparvfj r/ Ee/ofcca. 25 

Karafidivres 8e oi *EXX7pes Itti rds *>cas oiricu) erro- 

lUpe&ovro cs toi> 'Icd/iov. avrrj eyevero r/ c? ®e<rcrak[r)v 

irrparnjy fiacrikeos re pekkovros hiafiaiveiv Is r^i/ 

10,000. — 12. Ik t»v TroX€(idpx*»v warned the Athenians of Mardo- 

dpaiptijUvos : chosen from the pole- nius' purpose to give battle the 

marchs, or six commanders of next day at Plataea (9. 45). — 

divisions (fiopcu) of the Spartan 22. 8okcCv 81 (tot: abs. inf. Cp. 

army, the chief command belong- 7. 24. 1. — appa>8CT) rjv r6 irci- 

ing regularly to one of the two 0ov : it was dread that persuaded 

kings (6. 56). — 15. 'A\c(dv8pov : them. Cp. oppwSta Thuc. 2. 88. 3, 

king of Macedon and public guest- 2. 89. 3. — 23. &Wt)v lovo-av &rf3o- 

friend (7r/>of€vos) of the Athenians. X^jv: for the three routes from 

He was sent by Mardonius to Macedonia into Thessaly, see on 

Athens after the retreat of Xerxes 7. 128. 6. — 24. kcit& Tdwov: 

(8. 136) to persuade the Athenians west of Tempe. Cp. 7. 128. 8. — 

to an alliance with the Persians 25. t^ ir€p 8tj ica£: by which very 

(8. 140). He it was, too, who route, indeed. Cp. 7. 168. 25. 



= 



244 



HERODOTUS VII 



[174 




hjvpa}7T7)p €K T179 Auitj? tfat coi/ro? 77017 et> Apvook 

Heo-craXot 8e ip7}fMi>&£pT€% avfif^d^mv outoj S^ ifn}Sia°av 

7Tpo&vjjL€t*s ouS' €Tt eVSoiatrriSs, gJotc eV roun TrpijypLao'L 1 

l<f>aLvovTo ^SacnXcI a^ Spes loWes xPV°' l t M< * yraT0L * 

175 Ox Se *EXX-rpes entire aVucaro €? rof 'Icrdiiop, iffiov- 

XtvQPTQ wpQ*; ra Xe^(#eWa if *AXefaVSpou r?j tc trnf- 

covrat top iroXe/xo^ tcai €v oioicri ^oxpoio't. ?} ptKaxra 

oe yvwfjLr) lyivEto ttjp €v B€p/xo7rvX?jo"L ic^oXrjP <j>vXd- 

fat - (TT€iPOT€p7j yap ic^atWro eoScra rijs Is BecrcraXtTji/ 1 

jcal a/xa /xta ay^oripTj re ttJs itovrwv. tt)p Sc arpa?r6V» 

oV 77 j* ^Xcufrai/ ot aXoWes 'EXX^^/coi/ eu BeppoTruXjjcrt, 

ouSe ]joWai/ eoScrai' irporepop rj Trep dirtKofjiepot e§ @)ep- 

poTrtfXas kirv8opTo T pyj^ipiaip. ravtrjv mp ifiovXtvtraPTQ 

<f)vkdcro'QPT€$ T7}v €0"J3o\tip p?) irapUpai 1$ T7}P 'EXXaSa 1 

top fidpfiapQP) top Sc vavTiKop (TTparbv TrXaj/ yfjs ttJs 

'loTtateuriSo? em f ApT€pi(rtop. ravra yap atyxov re 

aXXi£X<wt> io-rt fcJcrre 7rvp6dp€crdat ra Kara iKarepovs 



THE GREEKS AT ARTEMISIUM AND 
THERMOPYLAE. ORACLE OF 
THE WINDS (CC. I75-I 78) 

175* 2. I£: see on 7. II. 14 

o-T^trovTaL tov iroXtjiov ; see on 7* 
9. ft 2. — 3. t] vitc&cra <y v °*l Jk1 1 : ^ te 
opinion i/iat prevailed. Cp. 6. 
IOI. 10, — 5. rfjs *S @t o-o-aX£i]v : 

J£*. <^€p0ti(F>J9 eiTjSaATJS. — 6* K0.1 

#W #/ 0M& single and nearer to 
their own land, jxta, whereas in 
Thessaly there were two ways. 
dyxoT€prj f from (poetical) dy^ov 



(ay^t), only here. — 7. Si' ^v 4jX*>- 
a-ov at aXdvTts 'EaX^visv : note the 
alliteration. For the abundance, 
^AuKrap Qt oAwtcs, see on 7. 10. 
a 3. — 8. irpdTfpov ij ; cp. 7. 2. 5, 7. 
150. 4*— JO. jxt| irapUvai : //ftf A? 
let hy.— ll. -yfjs Tfjs "IcmaniTi- 
80s: ch orographic or part. gen. of 
place. This Histiaeotis was ill 
northern Euboea, not in Thessaly. 
— 12. TavTa: GkpfxarirvX&t and'Ap- 
TtfJLtaiQV. — 13. *krTf irvvOdvcordai. 
rd Kara tKaWpovs Idvra : ^t/ Ma/ 
Mc-k «wZi Avi/vr what was happen- 
ing about either division, Le* the 






176. 9 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



2 45 



176 COITO, Ol T€ X<t)pOl OVTG) C^OVCri * TOVTO fl€V, TO ' A/DTC- 

(jLicnov, €K tov wcXaycos tov ^pjjKiov c£ evpeos crvvd- 
yerau cs otc«>6i> cdira toi> iropov tov fiera^v mjcrov re 
%Kiddov teal r/ireipov Mayi^crir/s • c/c 8c roS crreivov 
rr}s Ev/Joir/s 17877 to % A.prefiia'iov Sckctcu aiyiaXds, ci> 8c 5 
'A/otc/uSos ipdz\ 17 8c av 8ta T/o^ti/05 ccroSos cs tt)i/ 
'EXXaSa cart ttj oTcti/oraTTj rj/JLinXedpov. ov pkvroi Kara 
tovto ye 'crrl to orciz/oraToi> rqs X^PV^ rf^ C1XX77S, aXX s 
efxirpoaOe T€ %epfiorn)ke(av KaX vmaOe, Kara T€ 9 A\irr)- 



force at Thermopylae could hear 
about that at Artemisium, and vice 
versa, — 14. otirct: looks forward. 
176. 1. toOto |Uv: the correl. 
is Sk aZ in 6. Cp. 3. 106. 3, 3. 107. 
1. — to 'Aprf fiCo-tov : without con- 
struction, placed as a kind of head- 
ing or summary of what follows. 
Cp. Dem. Phil. 1. 28 xfflf**™ T °*- 

vw * COTl /ACV ij TfXHJn] ktc. — 2. Ik 

to* viX&ycos: (coming) from the 
open sea, i.e. in the direction 
of. — toO OpQicCov : i.e. the north- 
ern Aegean. — 1£ ciplos : j£. iropov 
from is oravov iropov. — omvo/yc- 
tcu: it narrows. The subj. is 
easily supplied from the context 
(ircXayo? or iropov). — 4. Ik 8c tov 
<rrfivo9 : sc. iropov, from the nar- 
row passage. — 5. ri\s Evpohp: 
chorographic gen. with to 'Aprc/u- 
otov, which is subj. of SiKcraL (re- 
ceives you ; cp. v7ro8cWai 15). — 
to 'ApTci&Coxov : with part. gen. of 
place the governing noun is usu- 
ally without art., ' the (above men- 



tioned) A. 1 The region, which is 
without a town, gets its name from 
the shrine of Artemis. — 5. at-yia- 
Xos : a coast district, appos. to to 
'ApTc/uo-tov. — cv hi: adv. — 6. 8id 
Tpixivos: the district, as 7. 203. 
15, about the head of the Malian 
Gulf; usually the city (7. 199. 1, 7. 
201. 7). — Is tt|v 'EXXdSa : when a 
noun has several modifiers, one of 
these is in attrib. position, the rest 
may be outside. Central Greece, 
excluding Thessaly, is meant. — 
7. ttj o"T€ivot&tt|*: sc. iaTtv. — iccwd 
toCto* 7c: at this point. — 8. to 
o-TcivdTarov . . . t*js o\Xt)$: lit. 
the narrowest point of the rest of 
the region, where English idiom re- 
quires "of the whole region." S. 
1272 ; HA. 705. Cp. Shaks. Mid- 
summer N. D.v. 1, "This is the 
greatest error of all the rest." — 
9. icard tc 'AXirqvovs kt£ : more 
definitely explaining <Lp,irpocrQz . . . 
koI oiriaOz. The distance between 
the two narrowest points was about 



246 



HERODOTUS VII 



[176. 10 



vofcy omcrde eovras, eovaa a/x,afiTOS fiovirrj, Kal cft-10 
Trpocde Kara Qoivuca Trorafiov ayXpv 'AvdnjXrjs 7ro\to9, 
akkr) d/xa£i/ros /jlovvt). t<ov 8e ^epfioirvkkcav to fiev 
7r/oo? icTTreprjS 0/005 dfiarov re Kal airoKprj/jLvoPy v\\rq\6v, 
avartivov es rr/v Oltt/v • to 8c irpbs rfjv r)S> Trjs 6Sov 
0a\acrcra xmoheKer ai Kal Tevdyea. ecrTi Se kv Trj ccro8a> 15 
TavTTj dep/id Xovrpd, tol Xvrpovs Kakkovcri 61 kirvywpioi) 
/cat pojfios lOpvrai Hpa/cAeo? C7r avroim. edco/xiyro 



fifteen stadia (7. 200. 5). — 10. &ri- 
<r0€ : /.*. looking westward from the 
defile. — kowra dpa£iT6s: appos. to 
to o-TctvoTarov, the ptc agreeing 
with the pred. — 12. t»v tk Ocppo- 
irv\lo>v t6 (tev irpds £<rirlpi]s : /# /^£ 
west of Thermopylae. Cp. 14 and 
see on 7. 20. 15. The designation 
is inexact, since Hdt. writes as if 
the coast ran north and south, in- 
stead of east and west, as it does 
here. — 15. 0d\cur<ra . . . Kal tcvA- 
yta: hysteron proteron. The lo- 
cality is now greatly changed, the 
coast line being 'now some four 
miles eastward, and the marshes 
formed esp. by the alluvium of the 
" Sperchius occupying the interven- 
ing space. The other streams 
now empty into the Sperchius, 
which enters the gulf more to the 
south, and about eight miles dis- 
tant from its old mouth. In the dry 
season one may cross the marsh 
avoiding the Pass, where the 
road still runs. — 16. Ocppd Xovrpd : 
"The warm waters — whence the 



name Thermopylae — break out in 
bold springs at the base of the 
cliff. — There are two main springs 
and several smaller ones. The 
water is quite warm [104 Fahren- 
heit] and has an unpleasantly 
strong odor of sulphur; the pre- 
cipitation is such that now, for sev- 
eral hundred feet, the strip of coast 
over which the water makes its 
way to the marsh is covered with' 
a porous stone crust. The Pass 
must, of course, in this way be 
constantly widening ; but the actu- 
ally narrowest point is just south 
(more exactly east) of the springs 
and out of the petrifaction area. 
. . . The Pass, outside of the part 
covered by the stone crust from 
the springs, is grown up in green 
bush, and to the beautiful wall of 
Oeta cling oaks, myrtles, firs, and 
pines" (Ross, Konigsreisen^ 1. 
90). — XvTpovs: "Caldrons? the 
basins for collecting the water for 
the baths, which is hot and salt. 
— 17. ffo|tfe fSpvroi 'HpcucXfo: 



177. 3 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



247 



8c rCt^OS KOLTQL TOUTd? TGLS CCT)8oXcL5, /Cat TO ye 7TaXatOI/ 

m/Xat lirrjaav. c8ct//,ai> Sc <&<ofcets to TCt^os Sctcraj/rcs, 
eTrcl BcoxraXot fjXdov Ik ®to"rrp<tyr5)v olKujcovTes yrjv 20 

T1)V AtoXtSa, T>/^ 7TC/0 w)^ C/CTCaTat. ttT€ 8l) Treipto/JLCVtoV 

tS>v ®€(r&ak(ov KdTao'Tpecfreo'dai ericas, tovto trpotfyv- 
\d£avTO ol <&a)/ccts /cat to v8<op to dep/ibv Tore eirfJKav 
eiri tt]v ecroSov, a>s av yapahpiodeur) 6 x^/° 0? » ^^ 
fjLrjxavco/xevoL o/ca>9 [itj cr<f)i kcrfiakoiev ol OccrcraXot C525 

T7)V ^COprfP. TO fl€V VVV T€U)(OS TO dp^OLOV €K 7TaX(UOV 

re eheS/irp-o /cat to irkkov avrov 17817 xmo xpovov occtTo • 
TOtcrt 8c avrts opOdxrao'i c8o£c Tavrrj dira/ivveLv diro 
rfjs 'EXXaSos tov fidpfiapov. kco/jltj 8c cart dy^ordTa) 
tjjs 6S0S, 'AXirrji/ol ovvofia • e/c Tavnjs 8c C7rt0"tTtctcr0at 3° 

177 cXoyt^OITO Ot EXX171/C5. Ol //,€!> WV )((OpOl OVTOL TOLCL 

*EXXr/<7t elvai €<f>aivovTO €7rtT7j8cot • diravra yap irpo- 
CKeipdiAevoL Kal c7rtXoytor^ci/TC5 ort ovt€ wXyjOei cfovo"t 



hot baths in general were regarded 
as sacred to Heracles, according to 
the myth that they were prepared 
for his refreshment by Athena 
(or Hephaestus). Besides, on Mt. 
Oeta, near by, as tradition had it, 
was erected the pyre on which 
Heracles ended his sufferings. See 
Soph. Trachinians. — 18. t&s&tPo- 
X4s: pi. as 1. 185. 31; only the 
eastern pass is meant. — 20. U 
9co-irp«0T&v : name of people for 
country, as freq. Thesprotia was 
in Epirus, whence the Thessalians 
crossed over Pindus, drove out the 
Aeolians, and occupied the land 



hitherto called Aeolis, but hence- 
forth Thessaly. The dispossessed 
Aeolians migrated into Boeotia. 
Ace. to Thuc. I. 12, this hap- 
pened sixty years after the Trojan 
War. — 21. ticrlaTai : see Dial. § 4. 
3. — 22. tovto : sc. to KaraaTpi- 
cfreaOai. — 24. us av xapa&pwQcCT) : 
might be cut into gullies. For a>s 
av with opt., found chiefly in Horn, 
and Hdt., see GMT. 329, 1 b. — 
26.. 4k iroXatov : of old. — 27. Skcito : 
lay in ruins = ow€7r€nrci)K€i. — 
28. Tofori: sc. tols *E Wrj<Ti. — avVis 
ooO&crouri : postquam erexissent. 
177. I. ol |uv x^P 01 ovtoi: i.e. 



248 HERODOTUS VII [177. 4 

Xpf}(r0ai oi fidpfiapoL ovre Irnra, ravry a<f>L c8o£c 
SeKeadai tov kmovra kwl rr/v c EXXd*8a. a>s Sc kirvdovroS 
rov Tlep<rqv kovra kv Iltcpty, 8iaXv0ci>rcs c/c rov 'IcQ/jlov 
kcrrparevovrq avrcov oi p,ev c? Qep/AOiruXas ireQj}, dXXoi 
8c Kara ddXacrcrav err* 'A/orc/itcrtoi/. 
178 Ot fi€v 8rj v EXX«^i/C5 Kara rayps kfionjdeov SiaTa^- 
dkvres, AeX<f>ol 8* kv rovrw ra> XP° P V kxpr)<m)pid£ovro 
r<o dew virep €o)vt<ov Kal rrjs 'EXXaSos KarappwSrjKores, 
/cat <r<£i ixpyjcrdr) avkfioicri evxccrdai • peyaXovs yap 
rovrovs ecrecrffai rjj 'EXXaSt av/i/iaxov^. AeX<f>ol 8c 5 
8cfa/jt«/ot to iiavrrjiov npiora fikv 'EXXtji/oii/ tolcl /Sou- 
Xop,kvoicri elvai kXtydkpoMTi k&jyyeiXav rd xprjcrffevra 
avrolcTLy Kal cr<f>i 8c«x3s Karappwhkovcri rov ftdpftapov 
kijayyeiXavres ydpiv dddvarov KarkOevro • [ierd 8c 
ravra oi AcX<£ol roixri avk/xoLCL ftcofiov re dirk$e£av kv 10 

Artemisium and Thermopylae. — 9. t£ayyct\avrcs . . . Kai^Oivro: a 

4. cr^i £8o(c : where i/3ov\ewravT0 complete hexameter, prob. unin- 

was to be expected after irpocnce- tentional, but which Stein thinks 

\f/dfi.€voL Kal €7riA.oyi<r0€VT€s. Such due to a reminiscence from some 

changes of const, are esp. freq. poetic account of the event, per- 

with 80/cct. — 6. 4v Tlupl^i see haps a dedicatory inscription. Cp. 

on 7. 131. 1. — 8ia\v0lvTc$ &c toO 7. 225. 3 ; also 7. 169. 6 (iambic). — 

'LrOpoO: for const, cp. 8. 56. 8. Kar&tvro: laid up for thetns elves. 

178. 1. 8iaTax^vT€$ : in two — 10. kv 0v(xj : the locality is un- 

divisions, i.e. the one going to known. The heroine of this name 

Thermopylae, the other to Arte- was the legendary first priestess 

misium. — 2. kxpr\o"n\pi6ZovTo : cp. of Dionysus, and gave her name 

7. 140. 2. — 4. cr+i 4xp^o-0t] dW- to the Thyiades or women who 

pouri ctixtcfai • ace. to Clemens worshiped the god on Parnassus. 

Alex. Strom, p. 753, the oracle The connection of her name with 

was w AcA.<£oi XiaacaO* foepovs OvcWa (storm-wind) naturally 

Kal Aauov lorrcu. For a similar ora- suggested the placing of an altar 

cle to the Athenians, cp. 7. 189. — of the winds in her rc/tevo?. — 



180.6] 



HERODOTUS VII 



249 



©vtp, rg ircp rfjs Kr)<j)icrov dvyarpbs ®vlr)s to T€[iev6s 

koTly llf T)S /CCU 6 X^/°°? OVTOS TTjV €7T(0WILUqv cj(ct, Ka * 

dvaugcrl (r(f>eas nerrjo'av. AcX<^>ot fikv 8^ /caret to 
^(prqan/jpiov ert icat vvv tovs dve/iovs tXaV/coj/rat 

179 e O 8c vavrtKos Beptjeco orpaTos opfiaifxevos Ik ®€pp,r)s 
iroXtos wapc^SaXc irqvoi Tjjcn dpiara irkeovcrQO'i 8c/ca 
idv 2/ctadov, €vda fjcrait 7rpo$vkd<Tcrov<Tai pies rpcts 
'EXXiji/tScs, TpoL^rjPLT) re /cat Alyivabq /cat 'Attuctj. 
irpoiSovres 8c ovrot rds i>ca$ rail/ fiapfidpojv c$ <f>vyfjv 5 

180 G>pp,r)crav. rffv fikv hr) Tpoitflvvqv, Trjs rjpx* Tlpnrj^LVO^ 
avrt/ca alptovcn kirKTirofievoi ol fidpfiapoi • /cat eirtura 
tS>v emfiarkayv avrfjs tov KaWicrevovra dyayovres km 
ttjv irptppyv Trjs vebs €<r<f>aijav, StaScftoi/ iroieofievoi tov 
etkov t£>v 'J&Ckrjvtov irpS>Tov /cat /caXXtoroi/. t<2 8c 5 
aifcayiao'OkvTi Tovrtp ovvofia r\v Akcov • Tdya 8* dv tl 



12. hr j\s: see on 7. 40. 12. 
— 13. |MTQ<rav: approached. 

FIRST SEA FIGHT. THE HELLENIC 
FLEET AT CHALCIS ; THE PER- 
SIAN AT SEPIAS (CC. 179-183) 

179. I. vavruc&s orpards: here 
really the van (ten ships) of the 
fleet (7. 183). — 2. iraplftoXc: like 
hafiaWeLv, crossed. — &pwrra irXc- 
o^crn<rt : Sidonian fast sailers, ace. 
to 8. 92. 4. Cp. 7. 96. 3. — 3. IO^p : 
straight for. — 5. vpotS^rrcs ovtoi : 
i.e. the Greeks on the three ships. 

180. 4. StaS<£iov . . . KdXXi- 
vtov : making it a good omen for 
themselves that the first of the 
Greeks whom they took was also 



very handsome. 3ta3e'£to?, only 
here, an intensified 8e£td? = atcrtos. 
For the form, cp. vttoSc&o? 7. 49. 
10. For the force, cp. Horn. B 
353 Aarpdirrtov €7rt8c£t' ivaCa-tfw. 
<rqpa.Ta <f>aCv(ov, lightening on the 
rights giving a lucky omen. — 
6. Td\a S* &v n . . . tiravpoiTo: 
and perhaps he had his name also 
in some degree to thank for it, 
i.e. the name (A«ov), indicating 
preeminence, as well as his beauty, 
marked him as a fit sacrifice. For 
similar play upon a name, cp. 6. 
50. 14. The aor. opt. with av to 
express a supposition as to the 
past, as 9. 71. .19; oftener the 
pres. opt., as 7. 184. 17. 



250 HERODOTUS VII [181. i 

181 /cat rov ovvofiaros erravpoiro. r) Sc Kiyivavq^ rfjs 
erpirjpdpx^ 'Acraviftr)*;, /cat rivd cn^t 06pv/3ov irapeoye 
Hvdea) rov 9 Io~)(€v6ov em^arevovTO^ avSpbs apurrov 
yepofievov ravrrjv rr/v r)fiepr)v • 65 €7rct8^ f) vrjvs rjkC- 
cr/cero C5 tovto dvrei\€ fta^d/ici/o? I5 o KareKpeovpyrjO-q 5 
cwras. <Js Se wecrcov ovk diriOave dXX' 171/ ep,7n/oos> ol 
Uipcatj ol irep kirefiaTevov kiri rfov vecov, St' dperr/v rrfv 
€K€lpov irepiirovrjo'ai fiiv wepl wXeia'Tov kirovrjaavroi 
cTfiyppr/o'L re IcofievoL rd cX/cca /cat (Tti/Sdi/o? /SvacrCirr)^ 
rcXa/jtScrt /caretXtcrcroiTcs ' /cat /ui>, &>s orrUra) dirucovro 10 
€? to ia)VT(ov crrpaToirehov, iireheiKwcrav eKirayXeo/xevoL 
Trdcrrj rrj a'TpaTifj, wepicTrovres ev ' tovs 8e aXXov? rov? 

iS2eXafiov kv rrj irrji ravrrj irepiebrrov a>s dvhpdiroha. at 
fikv hr) 8vo tS)v pe£>p ovt<d kr^ipdiOiqa'av • 17 8e rptrty, 
r^5 krpvqpdp^Ei &6pp,o<; dinjp 'A^i/atos, (fyevyovca 
e^o/ccXXct €5 ra? e/c^SoXa? roC Ilrpctou, /cat rov ftci/ 
cnccu^cos kKparrjcav ol fidpfiapoL, tcov 8c dvhpwv ov. 5 
&>S yap 8^ Ta^iora kircoiceikav ri)v vka ol *A^i/atot, 
dirodopovTes /card ©ccrcraXt^i/ Tropevopevoi kKoiiLerdrjo'av 

18 z. 3. ImPaTevovTos : serving — II. lKira<y\c6|&cvoi : with great 

as a marine. Cp. 7.' 184. 8. — 5. Is admiration. Pythes was recap- 

tovto, Is 8: emphatic for cs o. tured by the Greeks at Salamis 

— KaTCKpcovp7^j0T) &iras: was all and restored to Aegina (8. 92). 
chopped into butchers meat. The 182. 1. al 8vo: the art. desig- 

comp., as well as the simple verb, nates part of a definite whole. 

un-Attic and rare. Cp. Aesch. — 4. !£okIWci: runs ashore, i$- 

Pers. 466 iraiov(TLy KptoKoirovcn indicating from the sea shore- 

$v<rnqv<tiv fxi\rj. For Kara-, cp. wards, while circoKeiXav (6) means 

/caraxopScvcov 6. 75. 18. — 9. <riv- ran upon the shore (cp. 6. 16. 5). 

Sdvos ftanrCvTis: of fine linen — 7. &iro0op6vrcs : Epic and Ionic 

('byssus linen'). Cp. 2. 86. 25. for Attic far&irri&qo-avTes. 



183.17] HERODOTUS VII 251 

1836? 'Adijvas. ravra ol "EXXiji/es ol cV 'Aprc/ucriG) arpa- 
TOTreSevopepot irvvOdvovrai irapa uvpcrcop £k XkmxOov. 
irvdopepoi Se /cat KaTappiohrjcravrts oltto tov 'Apre- 
fiicrtov peToppi^opro €5 XaX/aSa, (frvXaifjopTes pep top 
Evpiwop, \eiiropres Se rjpepocrKOTrovs irepl tol xn}rr)\a rrjss 
Eu^Somj?/ t<op he 8c/ca pewp tcop fiapfidpoov r/oeis eirrj- 
Xacrai> irepl to eppa to /xerafu ebp ^.kiolOov re ical 
MayiJTjcTMjs, /caXcd/jtei/oi/ 8e Mvpprfica. kvdavra ol /3dp- 
ySa/ooi €7T€tS^ ottJXtjp \idov erredi)Kap Kopicrapres eiri 
to eppa, opprjdepres avrol c/c ®eppr)s> a>s <r<£i to €//,7ro- 10 
Scjp lyeyopei KaOapov, eweirXeop iracr-gcn tyjctl ptjvo'^ 
ivheica -qpepas irapevres pera tt/p /Sa&iXeos eijekacrip 
€K Ocp/i/qs. to he epjLta cn£i Kar^yrja'aTo lop ep nopco 
pdkiora Ilappcop Xtcvpios. irapiqpepop he TrXeopres ol 
fidpfiapoL efjapvovai rf}<; Mayi^crfys X^/ 07 ? 9 ^ S^7rta8a 15 
tc teal top alyiakop roi/ peTaijv Kaadapatrjs re ttoXios 
lovra koll S^maSos d/cri^s. 

183. 2. irapd irvpo-wv : /hw*/frv- ships could avoid it. KaOapov, 

signals. The prep., used elsewhere usually applied to a place (clear 

in pers. const., prob. because irvp- of), here used of the obstacle it- 

(T€v6vr<av was in the author's mind, self (removed). — 12. iroplvrcs : 

— 5. 4||&cpocric6irovs : scouts who having let pass. — 13. 4k 04p- 

from high points watched the |M]s : f° r position of this second 

enemy's movements, which was modifier, see on h ttjv 'EXXdSa 7. 

possible only by day of course. — 176. 6. — <r+i Kan|y4j<raT0 : had 

7. t6 !f>|ui : the reef or sunken shown them. — lv irdp<p fxdXiorra : 

rock, now known to Greek sailors exactly in the fareway. — 15. V^x- 

as Leftari. — 10. afa-oC: i.e. the vvovcri: sc. ttjv 6B6v. Apparently 

main body. — «s<r<t>i . . . icaOapdv: intrans. (abs.), as 6. 139. 16. Cp. 

since the hindrance had now been KaTavvaas 6. 140. 5. — Tfjs Mcry- 

removed, ue. the reef was now vr\o-(i\s x&pT)S' chorographic gen. 

marked by the pillar, so that the with ^rpndSa. This promontory 



. 252 



HERODOTUS VII 



[184. i 



184 Mc^pt fiev wv tovtov tov )((opov /cat QepiiouvXecDV 
aTradrjs re k<ik5>v fy 6 OT/oaros, /cat irkrjdos rjv Tt)vv 
Kavra ert, a>s lyo) <rvfi/3aW6fi€vos evpicriCQ), rSiv fikv c/c 

TCOV V€(OV T(OV C/C TtyS 'AcTtTJS, COIKTCO)!/ C7TTa /Cat Swj/CO- 

criktov /cat xtXtecoz/, tov ^ v ap\cuov e/caoTcoi> t&v kQvkwv 5 
iovra o/u\ov Tecrcrepas /cat ct/cocrt /xvptaSa? /cat tt/>os 
^tXtaSa re /cat TCT/oa/cocrtovs, a>5 di/d 8tT//coo"tovs avSpas 
koyL^o/JbivoLcri £v c/cdory? i/ijt. kirefSarsvov 8c C7rt tov- 
toii/ tg>i> vt&v, )(a)pl<; ikdorcov t&v CTrt^cuptaw/ emfiaTecov, 
Hepo'ecjv tc /cat MtjSoiz/ /cat 2a/C€a>*> rpirJKovra av&pes. io 



was the southern extremity of 
Magnesia. 

ESTIMATE OF XERXES' COMBINED 
FORCES AT THIS POINT (CC. 
184-187) 

184. A general review and cat- 
alogue of the host has already been 
given (cc. 60-100), but only ac- 
cording to nationality and equip- 
ment, the general summary of 
numbers, which were continually 
swelling as the army advanced, 
being reserved till the moment 
when the threshold of Greece had 
been reached and just before 
storms and combats by sea and 
land had begun to change condi- 
tions. The dramatic effect of the 
enumeration, at this point, of the 
incredible host that seemed about 
to overwhelm Hellas is enhanced 
by the long-drawn-out statemept 
of numbers. 



2. vXf)0os tJv: the numbers 
should follow in nom. or gen., 
but the parenthetical ws . . . cvpi- 
(tk(d induces a change of const., 
tov fJLtv apx<uov o/uAov. in which 
the subject wXtjOos is renewed, 
being made to depend on evpCvKv. 
— 3. t»v |icv: repeated in rovro 
fxkv to vavriKov (18) and antithesis 
to tov 8c irc£ov (20). — 5. dpxatov : 
original, i.e. native crew of each 
ship before the addition of Persian 
and other marines. Cp. 7. 89. 2 ff. 
and 7. 96. 1 . — ficdo-Tuv t&v tOvfev : 
recounted 7. 89-95. — 6. 46vra: 
suppl. ptc. with cvpLo-Ka). Cp. 7. 
8. a 14. — irp6s : adv. — 7. «s . . . 
XoYitoplvouri : on the supposition 
that one reckons. S. 1497 ; HA. 
771 b. The pi., as 5. 53. 7, is un- 
usual. — dvd SiT|ico<r£ov9 &vSpat : at 
the rate 0/200 men y the usual crew 
of a Greek trireme, of whom some 
170 were rowers. — - IO. Tpi^icorTa : 



184.28] HERODOTUS VII 253 

oSros aXXos 0/11X09' ylverai Tpurfivpioi /cat c^a/ctcr^iXtot 
#cal npbs Snj/cdcrtot re /cat Sc/ca. 7rpoc0TJ<ro) 8 s crt 
tovto) /cat t<m nporepv aptdfico rovs c/c rail/ TrevrrjKoi^ 
repa>v, irovrjca^ 6 tl irkkov rjv avrStv fj eXacrcrov, av 
dySoKOvra aVSpa? kvetvai. crvveke^di) 8e ravra tol 15 
irXota, a>$ /cat irporepov elpedr), r/ota^tXta. ^817 all/ 
dvSpes av ctcz> Iv avrotcrt Teacrepes pvpidSes /cat ct/cocrt. 
toOto fi€v Br/ to €K rfjs 'Acrfys volvtikov fjv, (rv/JLirav lov 
irevTTjKovra ftu/otaScs /cat /ua, xtXtaScs Sc C7rct<rt C7rt 
Tavrgcrt €7rra /cat 77/009 c/caTOj/raScs If /cat Se/ca?. rov 20 
8c 7rc£ov if$ho[JLT}KovTa /cat e/caroi/ /xvptaSc? kykvovro, 
t5>v 8c t7nrca>i> 6/cto> fivptdSes. TrpocrdTJcra) 8' crt rov- 
rotcrt ra? /ca///^Xous tous cXawoiras 'A/oa^Stous /cat 
tovs ra ap/jtara At/Jvas, 7rXi}0os wowjcras Stcrftv/otov? 
dvSpas. /cat 87) to tc e/c t<Si> i/ca>i> /cat rov ttc^ov 25 
TrXijflos cruvTL0€p,evov yiverai Stij/cdcrtat re ftvptaSe? /cat 
rpirJKovra /cat /ua /cat Trpos ^tXtaSc? €7rra /cat kicaTov- 
raScs If /cat 8c/ca?. tovto ftei/ to cf avrijs r>Js 'Ao't'qs 

on Greek ships the usual comple- <rov : whatever there was of them 

ment of marines in early times 010/v #r /<?.m, /.*. on the average, 

was large, e.g. the Chians had at — dv . . . tvetveu : that about 80 

Lade 40 on each ship (6. 15. 5) ; men were on each. — 16. irpd- 

but as more reliance came to be T€pov: 7. 97. 10. — tjSt| «v: so 

placed on skillful maneuvering, then. — 17. &v clcv: for opt., see 

the number was reduced; at Sala- on 7. 180. 6. — 23. t&s KOj&tfjXovs : 

mis the Athenians had 18, in the dependent on iXavvovras and out- 

Pelop. War 10 (Thuc. 1. 49). — side of attrib. position, whereas tol 

1 1 . ovros &X\o$ SjuXos : note the apfxara in same const, is regular. 

rare omission of the art. The pron. — 'ApajUovs ical . . . A(0vas : see 7. 

is then usually post-pos. — 1 4. iroi^j- 86. With tovs tol apfxara sc. iXav- 

a*at: assuming, as 24 below and vovras. — 25. ical S^j : and so, as 

7. 186.6. — SrtirXlov . . . fl &a<r- 7. 186. 6. — 28. tovto: herewith. 



254 HERODOTUS VII [184. 29 

orpdreupa i^ava)(dev ct/OT/rat, avev re rrjs depairquris 
Trjs eiropevy)*; /cat rS)v (Tirayay&v irkoicov Kal 00*0130 
185 evhrkeov Tovrouri. rb 8e 8^ etc rf}<; Evpamrjs dyopevov 
crrpdrevpa crt irpoaXoyicrrea rovrco rravrl ra> eijripidpxf' 
pevco • 80/070x1/ 8e Set Xeyeiv. vkas pev wv oi dnb 
®prJKr)s "EWrives /cat c/c r£>v wjcrav r£>v iiTLKetpevcov 
rj} ®prjKrj trapeiypvro eiKotri /cat e/caiw. c/c p&v wvS 
rovrwv tS>v vecov aVSpes rerpaKio^iXiot /cat Stcrpvpioi 
yivovrai. iret.ov 8e rbv ®/0>}/ce9 irapeiyovro Kal Tla'oves 
Kal 'EopSot Kal Borrtatot /cat rb XaX/ct8t/coi> yevos Kal 
Bpvyoi Kal YlUpes Kal Ma/ccSwcs /cat Hep pat/3 ol Kal 
'Evifjves Kal AdXo7T€9 /cat Mdyirqres Kal 'Amatol 10 
/cat oo"ot ttJs Opg/ays t/)z> rrapakirjv vepovrai, rovr<ov 
rcov edveoov rpirJKovra pvpiahas So/ceco yevecrdai. avrai 
a>*> at pvpidhes eKeivrjCi irpocrredelcrai rfjcri e/c rfj? 
'Aotijs yivovrai at Traa'at dj>8pa)i> at fta^t/iot /xvptaSe? 

— 29. £{avaxMv: note the ptc. dKovorea 3. 61. 17. Such neut. 
(where there is another modifier) plurals of adjs are esp. frequent. — 
outside of attrib. position, whereas 3. 86k^o-iv Xfyciv : ///#£* # guess. 
in 23 the noun modifier was so 80*170-1?, which occurs only here 
placed. — 31. 4v6ir\cov: used, as in Hdt., is found several times in 
cvctvat (or ir\ziv and clvai iv), of Soph., Eur., and Thuc, but else- 
the men belonging to a ship ; hn- where prob. only in late writers. — 
7t\€lv (€7rctvai, €7rt)3aTcvciv) of the diri . . . 4k : change of prep, for 
marines and all who sailed in addi- variety. — 7. IlaCovcs . . . Maicc- 
tion to the crew. The regular Sdvcs : tribes belonging to Mace do- 
crew were mostly below the deck, nia. — 9. IIcppcupol . . . 'AxcuoC: 
the others above (Stein). tribes belonging to Thessaly. — 
185. 2. irpoo-XoyKrWa : for im- II. to^twv r&v lOvfov: resumes 
pers. verbal with dependent ob- 7rcfov. — 14. al ircurai . . 



ject, see S. 2152; HA. 990. For Scs: fuller explanation of the pre- 
the pi. (esp. poetic and Ionic), cp. ceding fivpia&e*. The repetition 



187.2] HERODOTUS VII 255 

. S177/C o<ri(u Kal iijyJKovTa Kal recrcre/oeg, eTretcri 8c ravrjjcn 15 
185 cjcaroirtiSc? e/c/caiSc/ca /cai Sc/cds. roS /xa^i/xov 8c 
tovtov kovros dpidfiov tocovtov rr/v 0epa7rr)Cr)v tyjv 
ivofievriv tovtoktl /cai rows ei/ roicrt crtray cry olcri d/cd- 
tomti coiras /cai jxaXa kv tolcl dXXoicri 7rXototcrt to tcrt 
d/ia ttXcovcti ry crr/oariTj, rovroug 7W jxa^ifxcDv avhpS>v.$ 
ov Sokcco eu>ai eXdcrcrova? dXXd wXeovas. /cat 817 
ericas 7rotcco titrov? €/ce«/oicri ctvat ical ovre 7rXeova5 
ourc cXdcrtroi^ag ovScv • etjicrovfievoi 8e ovroi raJ fia^L/xoj 
CK7rXij/ooucrt rag Tcra? fivpidhas cfcctpoicri. ovtco 7rcz^ra- 
Ko<rias re fivpidSas /cai ct/cocri /cai- 6/cra> /cat ^iXtdSa? IO 
T/)ct5 ical cKaroz^rdSag Suo ical Se/cdSa? 8vo <xi/S/oa>i/ 
fjyaye Hc/ofy/s 6 Aapeiov /xe'^/oi S^mdSos ical %epp,o- 
1B7uv\€q)v. o5to<; fiev 8f) tov (ruvdiravTos tov Bepfjeoj 
OTparevfiaTOS apidfios, yvvaiKcov Sc criT07roi<oi> ical 

of the art. with the attribs. (at 7ra- crrpaTifj. For irreg. position, cp. 
<rai, ai fidxifioi) gives esp. empha- fiera^v 7. 124. 2. — tovtovs : sum- 
sis. Hdt.'s estimate of the total ming up the foregoing, while tu>v 
fighting force was, then, 2,641,610, fta^t/twov av&puv repeats tov fmxt- 
composed as follows : from Asia, on fiov of 1. 1. — 6. Kal 8^j ericas 
triremes, 241,400; marines, 36 210; iroico fcrovs IkcCvokti ctvai: as in 
on penteconters, 240,000 ; infantry, Greek armies, where every hoplite 
1,700,000; cavalry. 80,000 ; camel- had his Oepdirmv, to carry his bag- 
• drivers and charioteers, 20,000 ; gage, provisions, and shield, every 
from Europe, naval force 24,000, horseman his i7r7ro*co/Aos or groom. 
foot force 300,000. But the proportion would hardly 
186. 1. to© paxCpov: collec- hold for a Persian army, made up 
tive, as to Ittttlkov 7. 87. 7. — as it was in the main of light 
— 3. dKdroi(ri: small, light ves- troops. Furthermore, it is clear 
sels, strangely used here for trans- that Hdt. had in mind when speak- 
ports. — 4. Kal pdXa: and again, ing of the Ozpxirrj'rj only the land- 
fidXa for fiaXa av, as 8. 66. 14 force, not the fleet. 
and freq. — 5. &pa : governing ttj 187. 1. tov crvvdiravTos toO . . . 



25 6 



HERODOTUS VII 



[187. 






I 



(XV €L7TOL a,Tp€K€0£* 

teat twv akX&v 



mak\aK€tDV /cat €vvov)(0}V 

apidpov * ovo av viro^vyiojv T€ /cat twv aAAeuy /en)— 
vkwv rmv d)(doff>6pwv /cat kvvwv 'IvSikwv rmv iiro— i 
ptimv, ovo av tovtojv vwo irXij^eo? cnvScts av zIttol, 
apidpov. ware ovSzv poi &o*pa Trapuxrarai wpo— 
oovvat ra ptlOpa t£jv irorapwv ion £iv } aXAa paXXoi^ 
oKti)$ ra citia avre^pTjo'e &w pa poi pvpido'i Toa'avrrjoi. 
tvpiffKO} yap trvpjSaXXopevosi ti ^otVt/ca irvpiov e/cacrrog tc 
rrj<; ripip-qq £Xdpf3ave real pr}$€V ttX4oVj l*/Se/ca pv~ 
ptaSas pe&ipvatv T€keopeva^ hr Tjpipjf e/cacrrr/ real 
TTphs TpirjKou-lov^ re akXovs p^Lpvov^ Kal reoo-tpd- 
Kovra. yvvat^l Be Kal €vvov\otoi Kal viro^vyLOLcrt /cat 
Kv&i oi \oyt£opai. dv8pu>v o kovaimv tooovtwv pvptd- i$ 
8(tiv /caAA>€o$ re etWfca kol peyddeos oiSels airrtov afto- 
viK&rtpa? r^v avrov Eepf eo> i)(€iv tovtq to Kpdros. 
IBB '0 Se 8^ vavTiKos crTparos CTretxe oppiq&tls eVrXei Kal 



rrptxrvb \uvro% 1 repetition of art. as 
7* 1 85. 14. — 5 . kuv»v 'IvSikwv : on 
account of their size and strength 
used in lion hunting. Cp. 1. 192. 
19 — 6. oii& ov. . . ovScls av : the 
av repeated with repeated nega- 
tives. — 7. irap£<rt<«-(u : as 7. 46. 
13. — ifpo&oijvai : 3 iwikiTT^LV (7. 
21. 4). Cp. roir <f>pdyp.aro<s Trpo- 
ScSojkotos 8- 52. 7. Cp. Xeno- 
phanes frg. I, 5 aAAos $ oTvos 

CTotftOS OS 0V7TQTC ^TfCTt tTpoSiiMTttV . 

— 8. Sori <2v : = farutiv. Such forms 
are esp. freq. in Thuc. S, 2514; 
HA. 998.-9* AvT^xpTio'e: as 7. 
127. 10. — Owjia : rhetorical repe- 



tition. — 10. <Vpt0*KH> O*V|A0ft\X6n«- 
vos : as 7. 184. 3. — xoivtica. ttjs 
^jiipT|s : the smallest day's radon, 
given even to servants. Cp. Horn. 
t 27 ov yap atpyov ave£afmt os kck 
c^jwJs ye ^otVtKos an-Ti^rm. — 1 1 . fv- 
Sck» ffcuptdSas fif SCfivatv *crf. ; a mis* 
take in division. There were 48 
choeniccs in a medimnus, and divid- 
ing the total number of men h\ 
we have 5,283*220-48 = 110,067$, 
— 12. TeXiopivas: Spent, consumed, 
— 16. d|iovL«oTf pos : worthier (lit. 
' worthier of victory 1 ), to which the 
inf. clause cx«v rovro rb Kpdros is 
epexegeticaL 









188.i 5 ] HERODOTUS VII 257 

Karinrxe rfjs Mayj/r/crt^s x^PV^ ^ TOV aiyiaXoi^ tov 
lieraijv KacrOavairjs re 770X105 kovra. /cat S^7ria8o5 
a/crijs, at fiev 8^ 7r/oa>Tai tcSi/ *>ea>y opfxeop 7rpbs yrj, 
aXXat 8* C7T* €K€Lvr)(TL err ayKvpecov • arc yap toS atyta- 5 
XoS coitos ou fjLtydkov irpoKpoaaai opfxeov to es ttovtov 
fat C7Ti 6/cra> vcas. ravrqv fiev tyjv €v<f>povr)v outcd, 
a/ia 8c opOpco ££ aWptys re /cat vr)vefiir)<; rrjs ^aXacrorjs 
Jccracnjg kirkireak cr<f>i \eifL<!)v re /xeyas icat 7roXX6s 
apc/tos aTr^Xtcin/s, tov 8^ 'EXX^crTroirop icaXcovcrt 01 10 
jtc/d! ravra ra ^o>/)ia ot/a^eyot. ocrot /u,ei/ *>vi> avr5>v 
ai£6fi€i/ov efiaOov tov dve/iov icat rotcrt ovra> €t^c 

• op/ioVy oi 8* €<f>0r)O'av tov ^ctjutaiva avao'Trdo'avTZS rag 
rcas, icat avrot re Trepirjaav /cat at veeg avrvv • ocras 

8e raw vc5v ^era/ocrtas cXa/Je, rag fiii> efjtyepe 7rpb<; 15 

12. 1. — 9. tco-doro: fig. Cp.Verg. 
THREE DAYS' STORM; PERSIAN ^ , /<fw/ freth ^, 

losses; the Hellenic fleet rmmus ^ b 

AGAIN AT ARTEMISIUM, THE „ He ^^ ^ de t() ^ ^ 
PERSIAN AT APHETAE; FIF- a , ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

TEEN TRIREMES CAPTURED AT c .* - , 

of the passage. — 10. avcuos airn- 

APHETAE (CC. 188-I95) * , . 7 , ,» cw / » 

v 7J/ Xm&tt|s: i.e. o a<p ^Atov 7rv€tov avc- 

188. 2. KaWo*x<: landed, intr. jaos (cp. 4. 22. 3). It is Boreas to 

as 8. 41. 1 and as usually in Attic, the Athenians (7. 189. 1) coming 

— 4. al |uv irp&Tcu : part, appos. to them from the Hellespont, i.e. 

to 6 vavriKos. — 6. irp6icpo<r<rai : in from northeast. — 'EXXTjcnrovrCTiv : 

raws, perhaps lit. ' with prows pro- cp. Plin. 2. 121 Caeciam qui vo- 

jecting like battlements.' The cant Hellespontiam. — 12. Toyri 

passage is doubtless due to a remi- ovrw ftxt Spjiov : who were so 

niscence of Horn. H 33 ff. — t& moored. For gen. with outcd l^ctv, 

Is vtfvTov: seawards (adv.). — see S. 1441 ; HA. 757 a. — 13. ol 

7. tirl oktm Was : eight ships deep. 8': Si in apod., as freq. in Horn. 

The gen. is more freq. in this andHdt. — avao-irdo-avrcs : = dvcA- 

COnst. — ity ctyp6yi)v: see on 7. Kwravres. — 15. |icTapo'Ca$: in open 



258 HERODOTUS VII [188. 16 

'Iirvovs Kakeopivov? roi>$ ev EtyXtoj, rds 8c cs rov 
aiyidkov • at 8c irepl avrrjv rr/v X^irtaSa Trepiemrrrovy 
at 8c '5 Mekifioiav irokw, at 8c cs Ka<rOavairjv cf- 
€/3pd<T<rovTo. rjv 8c tou yeiiiStvos xPVI ia d<f>6prjrov. 
l89\eycTat 8c Xoyos a>s 'AOrjvalot rov Bopeiqv c#c Qeorrpor 
mov erreKaXeaavro, cX0o&ros cr<£t aXXov ^ orjOTrjpCov rov 
yafi/3pbv en-LKovpov KaXecracr0at. Bo/oItj? 8c Kara toi/ 
'EXXt^gw Xoyov c^ct yvvaiKa 'AmKjjv, 'QpeiOviav rt]v 
'Epc^^cog. Kara 8^ to *a}8os rovro ol *A0r)va2oL, a>5 5 
charts opfirjrat, avfifiaWopevoi cr<£tcrt rov Boperqv yap.- 
fipbv elvai, i>avXoxcoi>T€s r^s Ev/Jot^g cj/ XaX/a8t a>5 
epaOov av£6fievov rov xeip,<ova rj Kal irpb rovrov, eOv- 
ovro re Kal lireKaKeovro rov re Boperjv Kal ttjv 'flpct- 
dvuav rip,(0pf)(raL cn^urt icat SiacfyOelpai r5>v fiapfidpcov io 
Ta? veas, a»9 /cat irporepov irepl ¥ A0<ov. ei p.ev wv 8ta 
raSra rotcrt fiapfidpoLO'i bppeovai 6 Booe^s eirerre<re, 
ouic c^a) ctTrctv " ot 8' &v 'Adrjvalot, <r<f>C<n Xcyovcrt 
/3orj0yjcravra rov Boperjv irporepov Kal rore eKeiva 
Karepy daacB 'at, /cat ipbv direXdovres Bopeco t$pv<ravroi$ 

sea, poetical form for Att. /actcc!)- 189. 2. &XXov: i.e. besides 

pows. — 1 6. 'Iirvovs : " Ovens.'''' — those of 7. 140 f. — 3. ya|ipp6v : lit. 

18. M cXCftoiav : between Pelion * marriage-relation,' here brother- 

and Ossa, mentioned as one of in-law, as 1. 73.6. — 5. T&K4)Sot: 

the cities of Philoctetes. Horn, affinitas. Cp. Thuc. 2. 29. 16. — 

B 717. — 19. tov x<ipwvos XP% a : •** <|>&ti$ Sppipxu: as the story 

the periphrasis of xPVf^ 1 w ^^ £ oes i as 3* 5^- 5* Usually Aeye- 

gen. to express something of great <r$at is added, as 4. 16. 1. — 

strength or violence, borrowed 7. vavXox^ovTfs : as 7. 193. 2, 8. 

from colloquial language, is freq., 6. 4, = Att. bppuovvr^. — 11. »pd- 

esp. in Hdt. and Ar. Cp. I. 36. 2 npov: cp. 6. 44. — 13. 8* «v: at 

vos XMF 1 P*Y k% ^ n y raie% — J 5' ****•****: ap- 



191.5] HERODOTUS VII 259 

lBOrrapd irorafibv 'IXmtow. iv rovrcp r<3 ttovo) via? oi 
cXa^tOTa? Xcyovcri 8ia<£ 9apfjv<u, rerpaicocricW ovk 
ikcUrcovaSy dvhpas re avapL0in)Tov<; xprj^drcap re 
irkfjOo? dxf>0ovov ' ware 'Ajxeivo/cXeL rq KprjTLvea) dvSpl 
MdyvrfrL yqoyiovTi irepl S^iriaSa p,eyd\<o<; 17 vavr)yvq 5 
avTTj iycvero X/ 01 7 OTT ?' ° s 7roXXa fiev ypvaea. irorrjpLa 
vorepo) XP° V( ? €/c)8/oacrcrdjX€^a avei\ero> iroXXd 8c dpyv- 
pea, Or)<ravpovs re t5>v Ilepcrecjv cv/oe, aXXa re [x^ " 6 **] 
dcfxxTa xpTJp,aTa irepizfidXeTo. dXX* 6 fiev raXXa ovk 
evTV)(€(t>v evpTJpacn fiiya 7rXoucrto5 iyevero * rjv ydp 10 
re? Kal tovtoi' a^a/HS <rvfi<f>opr) Xwreovcra iraihofyovos. 

191 (rLTayayy£>v Sc oXicdScw /cal raJy aXXa>v tt\oiq)v 8(,a<f>0€ipo- 

fieviov ovk hrr)v dptdfio^ axrre SelaavTts oi arparqyoX 

rov vavruKov crrparov firj cr<£i ice/ca/coojueVoicri iiridiaiVTai 

oi ©ccrcraXoi, epKos vpr/kbv Ik t<ov vavrjyicov ireputfid- 

\ovto. rjixepas ydp 8q i^e^a^e r/o:is # tc'Xos 8c evrofids 

parently in the sense of KartXOov- [\pvo-ca] : see App. — 9. ircpicfto- 

tcs, returned home. — 16. irapd Xcto: fig. acquired, as 8. 8. 6. — 

vorapAv 'IXunrdv : because, ace. to &XX' : belongs really to the ptc. 

the legend, it was while plucking clause, for there is the main 

flowers on the banks of the Ilissus thought, explained by rjv yap 

that Oreithyia had been carried ktc. — 10. rjv Xwlovo-a : more 

off by Boreas. The scene is the emphatic periphrasis = cAvirci. — 

subject of a famous vase-painting. 1 1 . irai8o<|>6vos : poetical term. 

190. 1. mSvcp: struggle, as 8. Ameinocles, it is probable, un- 

89. 1. — 2. Xfyowri: belongs to wittingly killed one of his own 

the principal as well as the rela- children. 

tive clause. — 5. yipxfovrt: hold- 191. 1. Sicufricipopivuv : impf. 

ingland, only here. — |u-ydXa>s . . . ptc. The pf. or aor. ptc. would 

Xpip-Hi*. cp. ftcya 7rXovcno? below have been more natural. — 2. o$k 

(10). The separation here is for lirf^v &pi0|&6$: as 7. 170 22. — 

emphasis. — 6. airrt]: see App. — 3. iccicaica>plvoi<ri : in evil plight. 

8. 0T|o-avpo6s: treasure chests. — — 4. tpicos : poetical term. — 5. 2v- 



2 6o HERODOTUS VII [191.6 

T€ 7TOICOITC9 KCU KCLTaeCSoVTeS yofjcTl 61 MdyOL Tfi) 
aV€fl(py ITpOS T€ TOVTOLCL KCU TTj ®€Tl KCU TfjCTL ^rfpTfUTL 

Ovovres hrav<Tav Terdprrj rjfiepr), fj aAAai? /ca>9 auros 
iOe\a)v CKOTracrc. ttj Se ®eri eOvov 7rv06fi€vou irapd 
T(ov *\wvg)v rov \6yov a>s €ac rov )(a>pov tovtov dp-io 
iraarOelr) virb n^Aeos, 6^ re aVacra rj aKTr) r) S^mas 

192 iiceivrfs re kcu tw aXXcoi/ NrjprjiScjv. 6 fikv hr) re- 
Tdprg rifiipri iirerravro * rotcri 8e "EXXt/cti, oi rffiepo- 
(TKonoL dirb rSiv dicpojv rSiv Ev/36lk<ov KaTaSpa/JLovres 
hevreprj r)fi€prj air* ^9 6 ^ei^v 6 irp&Tos eyci/ero, 
icrrjficuvov irdvTa rd yevofieva irepl tt)v vavqyirqv. 6i$ 
§€ w 5 im&dovTo, TlocreiSeWi croyrrjpi ev^d^voi kcu 
O"irov8d<; irpo\4avre<; tt)v tcv^Jxttt]v oiricrw Tfireiyovro 
€7rl to 'ApTefiicnov, i\m<rai/T€<s oXiyas rwas o"<^t dirt- 

193 ^oov? ecrecrdcu vias. oi fiev Sr) to hevrepov iXdovres 
irepl to 'Aprefilcriov ivavkoyzov, TlocreiSecovos crayrfjpos 
iiriovvntyv dirb tovtov en kcu €$ rdSc vofiitpvTGS * ol 

TO|ta : = o-^ayta, ace. to a schol., Xfos : i.e. to become his bride, 

from cutting off the heads of the Thetis assumed all sorts of forms 

victims. Cp. 2. 119. 9, and for to elude Peleus, among them that 

similar ceremonies to appease the of the cuttlefish (<rrprCa), whence 

winds, see Xen. Anab. 4. 5. 3 and the name of the promontory. For 

Verg. Aen. 2. 116. — 6. ica/racC- the story, see Apollod. 3. 13. 4 

Sovrcs Yofjo-i tw &W|x<{>: singing and Ovid Metamorph. 11. 229-265. 
incantations to the wind with en- 192. 4. 6 irp&Tos : apparently 

chant nients. #caTaci Sovrcs = Att. for to irpGrrov. — 8. aXCyas nv6i : 

€7ra'8ovTcs. — 8. <hravo-av : sc. rov only few. ns, generally postpos. 

avtfjiov. — TfTAprn tih^PT1 : m triat with adjs., serves to intensify or 

quarter a rainstorm does not usu- weaken, as the context requires, 

ally last more than three days. Cp. 7. 104. 13. — Avrigfoi*: cp. 

— 9. IkIitoutc: abated (lit. '•got 7.49.15. 
tired''). — 10. dpirao-6cCt| vir* Hi)- i93» 3* vo|*4ovTfs: using, with 



19*4] HERODOTUS VII 261 

oc /?ap/?apoi, d>5 inavcraTO re 6 dvtpos Kal to Kv/ia 

coT/xwro, KCLTacnrdcravTes ras peas crrXeo^ ira/xx ttjvS 

fjirupov, KafjAJjavre^ 8c ttjv dtcpyv Mayi^crir/s Weav 

eirXtov €9 top koKttov top iirl Hayao'€Q)v <f>€povra. 

ccm 8c ^(5/oo5 cy ro> koXttoj Tovra T7J5 Maypr/crir/s, 

iv$a Xeyerat toi> 'H/oa/cXca KaTaXeu<f)0r)vai two 'lrjaovos 

re /cat rail/ (rvveraipojv 4k rfjs 'Apyovg cir* i$8a>/) irefi- 10 

<f>0€vra> evre iirl to kohls iirkeov eg Alai> rfjv KoX^tSa * 

ivdeorev yap ifieWov vSpevadfievot cs to irekayos 

drnjo'eiVj iirl tovtov 8c to) X^PV ovvofia yeyove 'A^crai. 

194 iv tovt(o &v opfAov oi Bc/ofco) iiroiiovTo. irevreKalSeica 

8c Tall/ V€(OV TOVTdiV €TV)(6v T€ VO"T(LTCU IToWbv i£j<XV- 

ax^urat koll kco? kclt€l8oi/ ras err* *A/>TCjxtcrta> tw 
'EXXiji/oh' i>cas. c8o£aV Te 877 ras atyeripas c?i/at 01 

ace. as several other times in tion represented him as left on the 

Hdt., though oftener with dative, coast of Mysia, where he had gone 

— 5. Sorrporo : was calmed. This out to search for his beloved Hy- 
fig. usage seems to be poetical, las, who was carried off by the 
Cp. Horn, y 158 io-Topeo-ev 8c water nymphs while getting water. 
0cds fuyaKqrca irovrov. — tcara- See the beautiful idyl of Theoc- 
oTrdo-avT€«: antithesis of ava<nrd- ritus (13). — 10. r&v cruvcTaCpwv : 
crarrcs (7. 188. 13). — 6. tt|v elsewhere simply lYai/oos. — 11. to 
fecprp : not Sepias, but farther K&as : i.e. the golden fleece. — 
west, the Turatrj aKprj of Apoll. 13. d.iHjo-civ: sc. rrjv 'Apya>, or 
Rhod. 1. 568. — t04av: sc. 686v. perhaps intr. here as in Thuc. 7. 

— 9. X£ytT<u : for const, see on 7. 19. 21. — Iirl tovtov : see on 7. 40. 
56.4. Heracles was early brought 12. — 'A+craC : in the proper name 
into the legend of the Argo, though the aspirate of the common dialect 
the earlier poets differed as to his is retained. — 14. Sppov 4iroi4ovro # : 
part in the expedition. Pherecy- periphr. for tbpfieov. 

des says he was left at Aphetae 194. 2. iroXX6v : adv. modifying 

because the Argo could not bear vo-Tarat, like 7roAAa>. — 3. kcUkus: 
his weight. A widespread tradi- (< and somehow ') by chance. — 



262 HERODOTUS VII [194. 5 

fidpfiapot Kal irXeovres iaeirecov cs tovs iroXe/uov? * 5 
t£>v i&Tpanjyei 6 dnb Kvfir)? rfjs AioXiSos virapxos 
%av8(OKr)<; 6 ©a/xacriot;, rbv 8^ irporepov tovtqjv /3a<rv 
Xcv? Aa/)€t05 err' aiTi'77 toujSc Xafiuv aveoTavpaxre, 
iovTa t<ov fiaciXr) i(ov SiKaorecov. 6 £ap8w/a?? iirl 
XpTJP'CLO'i' a&ucov Slktjv eSi/cacre. avaKp€pa<r0€VTO<; 8>vio 
avrov \oyu£6pevos 6 Aa/aeto? eSpe oi 7r\ca> dyada rS)v 
afiapTt)jxdr(t)v Treiroi/qpiva es oXkov tov /3a<riXijiov ' 
evpcov 8e rovro 6 Aapeios Kal yvovs a>s rayyrepa avros 
^ <ro<f>a/repa ipyaapivos €177, iXvcre. fiaaiXea pkv 8rj 
Aapelov ovtoj 8ia<f>vy<ov pur) diroKiaOai irepvrjv^ Tore §€15 
€5 tovs "EXXiji/a? /caTa7rXa>cra5 ipeWe oi to Sevrepov 
§iatf>vy<ov eaecrOaL * a>s yap cr^eas eI8oi> Trpotnrkiovras 
oi "EXXipes, paOovTes avr<ov rf/v yivopivt\v dpaprdSa 
195 iTravaxOevTes eimerecos ericas etXoi/. ei> tovtojv p,ijj 
'ApiSaiXi? ttXcW 17X0), rupavvos *A\a/3dv8a)v t£>v iv 
Kaptrj, iv STepr) 8e 6 Hd<f>LO<; arpanqyo^ Tlzvdvkos 6 
Arjpovoov, 09 ^ye /xcv 8ua>8e/ca v€as €* Hd<f>ov y airofia- 

6. 6 dird Kv|U)s . . . Wapxos : Cp. adjs. (or advs.), both may be in 
TovtK&ao-KvXtLOvvTrapxovS. 126. 8. the comparative. S. 1080; HA. 
Cyme, apparently, then capital of 645. — 15. Siou|>vy&v pr\ diroXIcrOcu : 
the Ionian satrapy, to which Aeolis fiy with inf. expressing negative 
belonged ; Magnesia sometimes result after verb of negative mean- 
so regarded. — 8. fir'aMxi ToifjSc : ing. S. 2740; HA. 1029. Cp. 7. 
see a similar story concerning a 11. 3. — 17. Sicu^vyuv &rc<r0cu: 
judgment of Cambyses, 5. 25. — poetical periphrasis for the fut. 
9. twv PcuriXT)(<i>v SiKcurT&i>v : who, perfect. GMT. 81. Cp. Soph, 
seven in number, formed the su- O.T. 11 46 ov <nwnq<Tas &rc*; Ant. 
pre me court in Persia. — 10. &Sikov 1067 &vti8ous cfo-a. 
SCkt|v ISCkuo-c : note the parechesis. 195. 2. 'A\apdvS«v: Alabanda 
— 13- TaxvTfpa 1\ o-o<))coT€pa : when was in Caria south of the Maean- 
the comparison is between two der. — 4. Ik Ild^ov : in western 



197.3] HERODOTUS VII 263 

Xow 8c c(f)€wv ras evSeica Tq> ^ci/xcSi/t r<£ yevoficva) Kara 5 
SijrriaSa, fuji rg irepuyevofievji KaranXewv iir 'Aorc- 
Ilutiov rj\(o. tovtovs oi ^EXXtji/cs ifjuoTopTJcraiTes rd 
ifiovkovro irvOeaOai dnb rfjs Bep£ca> orpart^g, a7ro- 

Tr^LTTOV<Tl 8c8c/Aci>OVS €5 TOI> KopivdlCJV IcdflOV. 

' 196 e O /zc^ &7 ^avrwcos 6 iw f!iap{iap(x)v orpards, irdpef; 

tw irevreKaiheKa vewv tS>v cvrrov 2aj>8a>#cca crrpanqyeiv^ 

airucovTO cs 'A^cras. Bcp^rjs Sc ical 6 7re£o9 iropevdels 

8ta ©ccnraXnjs ical 'A^ati^s ccr/Jc/JX^iays 9jv ical 877 

rpi/raibs €5 MijXicas, ci> ©ccrcraXirj /xcv a/uXXap 7Toitj-5 

<rdfi€i/os Imrwv tS>v icavrov, a7ro7reipct>fx,ci>o9 ical rfjs 

©ccrcraXnfjs wnrov, TruOopevos a>s dpicrnj th) tS)v iv 

"EXXijcri • cvfla 8^ at 'EXX^i/iScs ?7T7rot cXci7roi/To 7roX- 

XoV. raw /xe/ uw a> OecrcraXtTj irorafi^v % Ovo\(ovo^ 

fiovvos ovk aTrexjyqae ttj arpari-Q to peiupov mvofjitvos * io 

twv 8c iv 'A^atiy TToraficov peovrcov ov8c ocrrig fieyi- 

OT05 ayr&v iaTL 'HttlSclvos, ov8c oSrog avre<r)(e ci jxt) 

.97 <f>Xavpa)$. C9 *AXov 8c t?)s 'A^aii^s dmKOficvco Bepiy 
oi KarrpyefAovts rfjs 68ot) fiovkofievoi to irdv i^r/yeurffaL 
iXeyov oi iin\(apiov \6yov, tol 7rcpl to ipov tov Aa^v- 

Cyprus. — 5 . tA« IvScxa : for art., phrastic for ivefJepXyKU. — ical S4j : 

see on 7. 182. 1. — 8. dird : termi- = fjSrj, as 9. 11. 13. — 5. 4v 0c<r- 

nus ex quo, where wepi is more o-aXfy j^v: the antithesis is cs 

common. Cp. 7. 167. 15. "X\ov hi 7. 197. 1. — 9. 'Ovdx«- 

vos: on this and the Apidanus, 

see on 7. 129. 1 1 . — 10. to fciOpov : 

for const., see on 7. 43. -*. — 
(cc. 196-107) ,„ , ft , '„ , s / .2 J 

^ 7// 12. o«8f ovtos: ovde with epana- 

196. 1. 6 ... 6: for the repe- leptic dem. repeating ovSk ooris. 

tition of the art., see on 7. 185. 14, 197. 2. to irav : everythi?ig pos~ 

7. 187. 1 . — 4. lo-f3cpXi)K&s rjv : peri- sidle. Cp. 7. 50. 4. — 3 . tov Ao^v- 



XERXES IN THESSALY. ATHAMAS 
AND THE LEGEND OF HALUS 



264 



HERODOTUS VII 



[197.4 



(ttlov Aids, o>s 'AOdfias 6 AidAov ifirj-^apTJo'aTO <Pptfja> 
fiopov crvv *Ivol /JovXevcrag, fiereTreiTa Se o)S f €K Oeoirpfcs 
ttlov 'A^aiol irpoTideicri tolcti €K€lvov airoyovoi&i ae- 
OXovs toiovctSc * 09 av y rod yeveos tovtov irpeafivraro^ 

consequence probably of some pes- 
tilence that visited the land, Atha- 
mas, as being guilty of the death 
of his son and so the cause of the 
plague, was about to be sacrificed 
as a purificatory offering (icaOap- 
fios), but was rescued by the op- 
portune arrival of Cytissorus, son 
of Phrixus, with the news that 
Phrixus was alive. Athamas being 
thus relieved, the debt due the god 
must be paid by Cytissorus and 
his descendants, the first born in 
each generation becoming a victim 
to the god. But a way to evade 
the literal penalty was found in 
the substitution of the political 
death (IpytaSaji tov irpvrairqiov) 
of the eldest son for his actual 
death. — 4. <**: haw, after eXcyov, 
as below (5, 11). — $p(£y: note 
that in the earlier tradition there 
was no mention of a sister, Helle, 
who was also plotted against and 
escaped with Phrixus. — 5. vvw 
Tvot : the legend was that she, by 
getting all the seed corn secretly 
parched ((f>pvyetv), caused a famine 
and then procured an oracle that 
the god must be appeased by the 
sacrifice of Phrixus. — 6. vpon- 
Ocio-t : see Dial. § 4. 4. — AttXous : 
tasks, as 1. 126. 6, 4. 10. 12. — 



o-tCov Aids: Zeus the Devourer 
(from Aa<£iW«v), so named from 
the human sacrifices offered in his 
worship. The bloody worship of 
Zeus Laphystius and the legend 
connected therewith of Athamas 
and his child-offering belonged to 
the old pre-Hellenic race of the 
Minyae, both at Boeotian Orcho- 
menus and at Thessalian Iolcus. 
Zeus Laphystius laid claim, as 
Moloch and Melcart of the Phoe- 
nicians, to all that was first born, 
and the house of the Athamantids, 
in which the priesthood of the 
cult was hereditary, as a sacrum 
gentile, had as a duty to offer up its 
first born. But in course of time, 
when human sacrifices ceased, a 
symbolic ram had been substituted 
for the human victim, though the 
one thus relieved had to go into 
exile. In the local legend, as told 
by Hdt., the god is relieved by 
transference of the guilt to human 
beings : Athamas is there induced 
by his second wife, Ino, who was 
jealous of the son of the divorced 
Nephele, to plot against the life 
of that son, Phrixus. He, how- 
ever, escaped on the golden-fleeced 
ram furnished him by Nephele and 
reached Colchis. Afterwards, in 



197.2 5 ] HERODOTUS VII 265 

tovtg) emTagavres epyeauai rov Arqirov ayroi <puAa/cas 
e^oixri (\rjiTov Sc KaXeovcn to Trpvraviqi.ov ol 'A^aioi)' 
rjv 8e icekOyy ovk coti o/ccog efcicrx 717011/ ^ 0vcrecr0ai 10 
/xeXAy ' (S5 re crt 737065 tovtokji 7ro\\o! 17S77 toi/tg>i/ 
raii> /llcXXoktcov Ovaeo'dai SeicravTes ofyovro airo- 
SpdVrc? eg aXXiji; ^copTjj/, )(p6vov Sc Trpoiovros oiriao) 
KareAuovTes riv akUrKonnai cotcXXoi/to eg to 7rpv- 
tolwJlov * a»5 Overai re ifyyeovTo arefipacL was irvKa- 15 
cruets zeal a>9 o"ui> irof^wfj i(ja)(0e[$. ravra Sc 7racr^ovcrt 
ol KvTLQ'O'ojpov rov fbpifcov 7rai8os aTroyovot, Start 
Kaudpfiov rr)$ X^P 7 )* ?rot€Ojxci/ctfi> A^atcov e#c ueoirpoinov 
9 A0dp,avra rov AtdXov Kal fiekkovroav fiiv Oveiv diriKo- 
fjuevos o5ros 6 Kvr uro'iopos itj A1779 tt}s KoX^tSog ippv- 20 
craro, Tronjcas Sc roCro rotcrt e7rty€i>oftei>otcrt c£ ean/rov 
Ilj\viv rov^deov ivepake. Scp^ty? Sc ravra dicovcras a>s 
Kara to aXcros iylvero, avros tc epyero avrov Kal r# 
orpaTij} irdarj) iraprfyyeLXe, tow re s Addfiavros diroyor 

VCQV TTjV OlKlt]V OUOtO)? Kal TO T€fJL6VO$ i<T€/3eTO. 2$ 

8. to© XijCtov : .town hall or pryta- porated in the w? clause which 

neum, from Aiyos, old Ionic for Acois. depends upon it. The word is 

— 10. o£k Jkrri Skms SJeto-i : cp. 7. bracketed by Stein and Sitzler. 

102. 11. — irplvij: with subjv. as — iros iroicao-Ofte : all covered, 

7. 8. /?8. — 11. Jhn irpos tovtomti : adj. for adv., as 7. 181. 6. — 

j/*7/ farther, modifying eXeyov 16. us : sc. Overai, prob. the sim- 

understood, on which <5>s depends, pi est explanation of this confused 

— 12. Ofo-ctHku: with pass, force const. d>s is unnecessary. — 22. 1 vi- 

only here. — olxovro &iroSpdvTc$ : PoXe : rare with dat. (rotor lirvytvo- 

doubtless their escape would be /xeyown) for more usual const, two. 

connived at. — 14. KarcX06vrcs : in c& ti. Cp. 7. 134. 1 toio-i . . . /care- 

case they returned, regular term for otc^c. — 23. to aXo-os : the sacred 

return from exile. — 15. 4Jity*ovto : grove of the Ipov (3) . — 25 . 6\ioU*s 

resuming IXcyov (3) and incor- Ka( : in like manner as, as 7. 86. 8. 




7}fL€py}v yiVeTcu. wepl Se rbv 

THE COUNTRY ABOUT THERMOPY- 
LAE (cc 198-20 J ) 

198. 3. Iv t^ afrrru>Ti$ , . , ylvt- 
Tai: in the neighboring Euripus, 
particularly the northern part, the 
ebb and flow of the tide, at new 
and full moon, is esp. strong and 
regular, whereas in the Mediterra- 



re Kai p^X 17 } ava iratrav 
k6\ttop tovtov i<rri )(Uipos 

nean generally the rise is slight, 
seldom over one or two feet ; hence 
the exception Is the more marked. 
The flatness, too, of the coast in 
lli is region, makes the tide more 
perceptible. Cp. the same state- 
ment concerning the Arabian Gulf, 
2* II. 8, For lira ira&av fjfxtpTjv, 
every day, ep. 7. 106. 4 avh iraV 







199. 7 ] HERODOTUS VII 267 

7rc8tyo9, rp fife cvpv?, rjj 8c *al Koipra orcu/ds • ircpl s 

8£ tw \5>pov 6 pea vt/tr/Xa Kai a/3ara Trepuck-gei iracrav 

rf/v MrfXCSa yrjv, Tprrj^iv iax irerpai KaXcd/xci/ax. irpdrrq 

\iev vw wdXtg carl c*> t<£ koXttoj iouti a7ro 'A^aiiTjs 

*AvTuaipr), trap' fjv Stt^p^cios 7rorafto9 /5cg»>. <?£ 'Eviif- 

j/coi/ €? uaKaccav ckoloou airo be tovtov Ota eiicocrtio 

kov araStGH/ aXXo? 7rora/xo5 to) ovvofia iccircu Avpas, 

tw fiorjOeovra 'H/oaxXcZ Kaiop.4va) \6yos core ava<f>avrj- 

vcu. airo 8c tovtov 8t* dXXaiv cwcocri oTa8ia>j> aXXos 

l997roTa/xo5 cort os .KaXcTrai McXas. Tpi^s ^ irdXig 

euro, tov McXcwos tovtov irorapov ircvTe oraSia arrest. 

ravrg Bk Kai evpirrarov core iracr)? ttjs X^PV* Tavrqs 

€K r&v 6p£(x)v cs 9d\a<r<rav y Kar a T/otj^Is 7rc7rdXiarat * 

Stor^tXta tc yap /cat Stcr/ivpta irXeOpa tov irehiov coti. 5 

tov 8c opco? to w'cpt/cXgct tt)^ yr/i' t^v Tprjxwfyv eari 

hiaucrtyaJ; irpbs fi€<ra[i/3pC'r)v T/nj^ti/o?, ^ t( * ^* r 9 9 ^ ta ~ 

Iros. — 5. vtSivot : i.e. alluvial, for Iole, but which was consum- 

from the Sperchius and neighbor- ing his flesh, erected for himself 

ing rivers. See on 7. 176. 15. a pyre on Mt Oeta and found re- 

— Tfj piv: about Trachis. — t^ W: lief by death thereon. See on 7. 

at Thermopylae. —Kai Kapra: cp. 176. 17. 

7. 16. P 10. — 8. Wvti: for one 199. 1. TptrxCs: on a bluff high 

going. S. 1497 ; HA. 771 b. Cp. above the plain. In the year 

XoyLfco/AcvouTi 7. 184. 8. — 9. 'Av- 426 B.C. the town was refounded, 

mrffn): to be distinguished from under the direction of the Spartans, 

Anticyra at the foot of Parnassus six stadia southward, on the left side 

in Phocis. Both were famed for of the Asopus ravine, and called 

hellebore. — 10. Sid: see on 7. 30. thereafter Heracleia. — 2. tovtov: 

6. — 11. kcCtoi : = pass, of rlOrjfu. note the intrusion of the dem. 

— 12. 'HpcucfoC Kaio\Uvif : Heracles into attrib. position since the name 

in torment from the Nessus-robe (Me'Wos) is treated as a second 

sent him by his wife, Deianeira, modifier. — 4. ko.t &: where. — 

merely to cure him Qf his passion 5. irXftpa: doubtless to be taken 



268 



HERODOTUS VII 



[199. 8 



v-^VJ 



cr^ayos 'A(TG)7ro5 irora/xos pci irapa ttjv vir^peqv rov 

200 opcos. cart 8c aXXos Qoivii; nora/ibs ov fieyas irpb? 
fiecafifiptrfv rov 'Acrco7rov, 05 c#c tow opeW tovtwv peon/ 
eg toj> 'AcrGMTOP ckSiSoi. Kara 8c toi> <£ou>i/ca irorafibv 
otcivotcltov ioTt ' afAa£iTos yap fxovvr) [/wa] 8co/iiyrdt. 
anb 8c rov <I>ouaicos 7rora/xou irevreKaiheKa oraSta corts 
eg 0cp/xo7n5Xas. ci/ 8c t<£ fieratjv &oivuco$ (re) irora- 
fiov Kal ®epfio7rvkio)v Kcofir) re coti r# ovvo/xa 'AvOrjkr) 
jccirai, wap' 771/ 89 irapappecov 6 'Acrawro? cs 6akaar<rav 
cicSiSoI, Kal \5>po<; irepl avrrjv tvpvs, cp r$ Aiy/i/iyrpos 
re ipov 'Afi<f)t,KTvovi8os iSpurai Kal eSpat cicrl 'A/ju^i-io 

KTVOCTL Kal aVTOV TOV ' Afl<f>t,KTVOVO$ IpOV. 

201 BacrtXcvg /ic*> 8^ Hcpfy/s ccrrparoTrcScucro r^5 ,M^ 
X1809 cy ttj ipy)\ivi^ oi 8c 8^ "EXXijpcs «> t# 8io8a>- 



as square measure here (a little 
less than a quarter of an acre), 
since the figures are too great for 
linear measure. — 8. 'A<rom6s : a 
rushing stream, which soon after 
emerging from the ravine crossed 
the road and flowed then parallel 
to the mountain range (wapa rrjv 
mriapirjv) through the marshes, re- 
ceived the Phoenix just beyond 
the first narrows (7. 200. 3), and 
emptied into the gulf short of 
Thermopylae. 

200. 1. $otvi{: the name prob. 
in consequence of the red deposit 
on its banks from its sulphurous 
waters. — 9. A4j|ii|Tpo$ 'A^iktvo- 
v(8os : patron goddess of the Am- 
phictyony. She was called also 



ITvXata. — 10. 'Aji^hktvoot. : the 
delegates of the twelve states be- 
longing to the Pylaean Amphicty- 
ony. commonly known simply as 
the Amphictyonic League. The 
spring meetings of the Amphicty- 
ons were held at Thermopylae un- 
der the auspices of Demeter, those 
in the autumn at Delphi, under 
the auspices of Apollo; though 
there is some doubt as to the ex- 
actness of this statement. — 11. to* 
'Ap^iKTvovos : mythical ruler at 
Thermopylae and founder of the 
league. 

201. 2. 4v tq SsAhip : i.e. in the 
space between the two narrows 
(co-oSot), which space was itself 
called also Thermopylae, The 



202. 9 ] HERODOTUS VII 269 

jcaXctrat 8c 6 x&po? ovros V7rb pev t<ov nXeovcov 'EXXtj- 
ihdv SepfioirvXaty wro Sc rS>v i7n\(opuov /cat TrepioiKcov 
IlvXat. iorpaToireSevovTo fiev vvv iKarepoi kv tovtoici 5 
Touri x.(t>pioi(Ti, crrc/cpa-rct, Sc 6 fikv tS>v 737069 /Soperjv 
dvefiov i^ovTdiv Trdvrwv p>exP l ^PTJX^ ^ 0L ^ ™ v 
irpbs vonrov Kal ixeaafifipCrju (frepovrwv to C7rl Tavrrjs 
202x779 rjireCpov. fjtrav Sc oiSc 'EXXtji/cui/ 01 viroficvovTes 
rbv TUpotjv Iv rovro) T(o X^PV ' 27ra/m?>TcW re rpur)- 
KocriOL oirklrai teal TeycTircW zeal Mavrwetav x^ tot » 
rjiMicreLS ctfaTC/>G>i>, i£ 'Op^oftci/ou tc ttj? 'A/oicaSn;? 
cucocrt icat c/carw ical c#c T79 Xot7nJg 'Ap/caStTjg xtXtoi ' 5 
roaavTOi fiev 'Ap/caScwi/, a7r6 Sc Kopivdov rerpaKoaou 
ical dirb Qkiovvros Sltjkoctioi kol MvKTjvewv dySwKovra. 
ovtol fiev dirb HeXoirowTJaov iraprjaav, dirb Sc Bomdtwv 
Seairieaiv re C7rraicoo*iot kol ®ri{iaL<ov rcr/oa/cdcriot. 

camp was behind the restored mainland, adverbial and modify- 

wall (r&yps 7' 176. 18, 7. 208. 8), ing <f>ep6vru)v. Cp. 7. 20. 15 and 

and before the wall, beyond the 7. 126. 6. 

western narrows, was stationed 

the advance guard. The three muster-roll of greeks at 



days' combat was about the west- 



the pass; leonidas and 
ern narrows, whose defense was HIS spartans (cc. 202-207) 
aided by the Phoenix gorge, 202. 4. T|pC<rci$ licaWpav : prob- 
and surged back and forth be- ably, as Stein says, a closer con- 
tween the Asopus and the wall nexion is not implied. The two 
(Stein). — 6. 6 jUv : Xerxes. — irpbs towns were situated on a shut- 
Pop6|v : more strictly it should be in plateau, now called Tripolitza. 
Trpos k<nr£pr)v. See on 7. 176. 12. 8. ovroi \uv d/ird IIcXoirovWj<rov : 
— 8. vpte vdrov ical \u<ra\iftpLr\v : Ephorus (apud Diod. 1 1 . 4) adds 
the same superabundance as in 1000 Laconian Perioeci, perhaps 
7. 129. — ^cpdvrwv: for variety to make the total of the Pelopon- 
after iypvwsv. — t6 4ir\ TavTtjs t^s nesians tally with the xtAta$€? rero- 
tpnCpov : on this part of the pes of the inscription cited 7. 228. 6. 



270 HERODOTUS VII [203. i 

203 717065 Toyrouri i7TLK\r)Tot, eyevovTO AoKpoC re ol % Oiro\h>- 
tlol irai/OTpaTif) Kal QcoKecov ^iXiot. avrol yap cr<£eas 
ol "EXX^i/cs €7T€fcaX€cra^To, Xeyoi/r€$ 81 dyyekw a>$ 
avrol /x€*> rJKOLev irpoSpofidi tS>v dXXa>i>, 01 8e Xot7^oi 
raii; avp.p.d)(wv ripbcrhoKiiAOi iraaav elev r)fiepr)v> rj$ 
ddXacrcrd ri cr<f>L eh) ev <f>v\aK-j) \rrf *A0r)vai€ov re 
<f>povpeofX€vr) Kal Aiyivryreoyp Kal tS>v €$ tov vavrucov 
crrpaTov TayQevTtnv, feat <r<f>i eh) heivov ovhev ' ov yap 
deov elvai tov emovTa inl tt)v 'EXXaSa dXX* avdpayirov> 
elvai 8e Ovtjtov ovheva ovhe eaeordai r<p KaKov cf apyi)? 10 
yivofxevo} ov crvvefii)(Oy)> rotcrt 8c /leyioroio'i a\rrS>v 
/xeywrra' otyeikeiv 2>v Kal top iireXavvovra, a>s iovra 
dvr)Tov, dnb rrj? oo£r)<$ 7T€a , cti/ [di>]. ot Se ravra uw- 

204 davofievoi efiorjdeov €? r»7i> Tp^ti/a. rovrbwrt ^(rai/ 
/xcV vw fcal dXXoi (TTpaTTfyol /card 7roXis eKaoTtov, 6 8c 
0cu/ia£o/A€i>o5 /xdXiara Kal 7rai>r6s rov orpareuftarO? 

203. 1 . MkXi)toi I^vovto : //#</ under guard, pass, of c^ccv cv 
^» summoned. Such periphrases <j>v\aicrj (7. 207. 5). Cp. £v (tkcttq 
with verbals are freq. in Hdt., rare tov 7ro\£fxov 7. 172. 11. — 8. ot 
in Attic. — 'OirotfvTioi : including -yap 0c6v ctvat: change to accus. 
the 'JZiriKvrjiifikoi, who lived next to and inf. — 10. ctvot Sc 0vi|tov o*- 
the pass. Hdt. distinguishes also Siva . . . oi rovcu(xOi) : for the sen- 
el sew here only AoKpoL 'Oirovvriot timent, cp. Pind. P. 3. 81 %v wop 
and '0£dAxu. — 2. iravorpaTtfj : i<rX6v Trqyja.ro. ovvbvo Sauovrax fipo- 
because they were in immediate rots aOdvaroi and Soph. Antig. 
danger. — avroC: independently, 613 ovSkv 3/nrct Ovarvv purry tof 
i.e. without appealing to the fede- Aios cktos eTras. See on 7. 46. 
ral council at the Isthmus. — 14. — i£ bpxHt yivoyAvy ; straight- 
3. ol "EWijvcs : i.e. those at Ther- way from birth. Cp. Horn. Y 128, 
mopylae. — 6. <r+i : for them, i.e. rj 198. — 11. rolax Si . . . ptytora: 
the Locrians and Phocians, as see on 7. 10. €5. — 13. [oV] : see 
<r<f>i, in 9. — cttj 4v ^v\aic{) : was App. 



205. io] HERODOTUS VII 271 

Tyed/xevo? AcuceScu/ioi'io? ?jv AcaviSrjS 6 ' ApatfavSplSeo) 
tov Aiovros tov EvpvKparCSea) tov *Ava£dv8pov tov 5 
EvpvKpaTeos tov IloXvScbpov tov 'AXica/ieveo? tov Tt/Xc- 
kXov tov 'Ap^cXcai tov 'HyqcriXea) tov Aopvartrov tov 
Aeayfiarreo) tov *Ej(€OTparov tov c Hyio9 tov \Lvpva0eveos 
tov 'ApLoroSTJfiov tov * ApLOTOfid^ov tov KXeohaiov tov 
*TXXov tov 'HpaicXcos, KTrjadfievo^ tt)v /3acnXr)L7)v ivio 
»5 ^trdprrri i(j airpo&hoicqTov. Sl£<ov yap ol iovnav Trpear- 
f$vr4p<av aSekfacDv, KXeo/xeVeo9 r€ fcal Aco/neos, dneXij' 
Xaro rij9 <j>povTL$os irepl ttj? jSatrtX^nj?. dirodavovTos 
8c KXeo/xeVeo9 a7rcu8o9 iptrevds yovov, Acuptco? r€ 
ovkctl iovros dXXd TeXcvnjcravTos fcal rovrov cV SuceXir), 5 
ovro) 87) cs AewviSrfp dvefiaive r/ /JctcriX?^, kou Stort 
7rporcpo5 iyeyovei KXeo/xfipoTov (ouro? yap 771/ vewra- 
T09 9 Ava£av8pl8-Q) irals) fcal 87) fcal cl^c KXco/xci/co? 
0vyaT€pa. 05 totc tJci/ €9 QepfioavXas imXetjdfjLevos 
dvSpas re rov9 fcar€crr€CtlTa9 TpurfKoaiov^ fcal rolcrno 

204. 4. Ac«vCSt)s 6 'Ava(avSp(- $povr(Sos : &**/ £^» far removed 

8cm: the genealogy of the elder from the thought. — 4. &ir<uSos 

house of kings; the younger is Ipo-cvos y6vov : see on 7. 61. 16. — 

given when Leotychides takes com- Aupilos . . . 4v HiKcXtfl: see on 

mand of the fleet 8. 131. The 7. 158. 7. — 6. AWpcuvc: see on 

introduction of the full table of avex^p-qve 7. 4. 7. — 8. teal St) teal 

illustrious ancestors is an act of ctyc : transition to independent 

homage to the distinguished man. const. — 10. tovs KaTco-TcwTos Tpitj- 

See also the case of Pausanias icoo-Covs: the usual (lit. * fixed') 

9. 74. — 10. KTrprdpcvos . . . 4J three hundred, picked men who 

&*poc6oiri|Tov : 491 B.C. For the were always ready for war and 

adverbial prep, phrase, cp. Ik tov went out under the personal lead- 

ifx<f>av€os 7. 205. 17. ershipoftheking. They were also 

305 . 1. SigAv: (Attic &<row), called iinrefc. Cp.8. 124. 13; Thuc. 

here = $vb. — 2. AircX^jXaTO Tfjs 5. 72. 20. — rotai irvyxavov irat- 



272 HERODOTUS VII [205. n 

irvyj^avop VatScs iovres. 7rapakaj3a)v Se amKero /cat 
%r){iai<ov rov9 €? top apiOfxov XoyicrdfLevos ehrov, t£>v 
iffTparrjyeL Acoi/TtaS^s 6 Evpvjua^ov. TOvSe Se elveica 
tovtovs cnrovSfjv eTrovrjcraro Ae<ovi8r)<; fiovvovs 'EWrj- 
p(op irapakafielvj on crc^cW /xeyaXcu? Kd¥qyopyyro firjSi- 15 
£€«/ • irapeKaXei &v C9 rov noXefiov deXcov eiSevat eure 
(TvyLirep^ovcTL ctrc feat airepeowi ck tov cfu^ai/co? tyjv 
'EWrjvcov (rv/x/xa^^i/. oi 8c a\\o<f>pov€OPT€<; ine/nroy. 
206 tovtovs fiev tovs a/A<f)L AecovCSrjv 7rpo5rov5 aTreirefiAJfav 
tirapTLrJTcu, Xva tovtovs 6p£>vT€<s oi aXXoi (rv/x/uta^ot 

OTpaT€V(OVT(Ll flTjSk KCU OVTOL ^SurOKTi, fjv aVTOVS 

Trvvddvtovrai vnepBaWoLLevovs * ucra 8c, Kapveua yap c 
crept tji/ cfiiroocov, c/acaaoi/ opraaravre^ /cat <pi)Aafca?3 
Xt7rdj>T€9 ci/ r^ ^7rdpTYj Kara ra^o? /3or)0€w iravorfitet. 
oi? oc /cat ot Aot7rot ro)i/ (Tv/x/xa^cwi/ ci/ti/aipro icat avroi 
crcpa rotaura iroirjcrew ' rjv yap Kara raWo 'OXvftmas 
rovrotcrt rotcrt irprjyiiacri crvinreo'ovara 9 ovk 2>v So/cc- 

Scs idvrcs : that in case of their death Kapvtia : the great Dorian festi- 

their family might not die out. — val in honor of Apollo celebrated 

12. 4s tov dpiGjiov Xcyto-dfwvos : see for nine days every year toward 

7. 202. 9. — 15. 6ti . . . iMjSCguv: the end of August, during which 

because they were loudly accused all Dorians abstained from arms. 

of medizing. The inf. after Karrj- — 7. «s 8i teal . . . taX afoot trcpa 

yoprjro for the regular on or <5>s. rotavra : strongly pleonastic. — 4W- 

Cp. Thuc. 1. 95. 17 Karrjyop€LTo vwvto : see Dial. § 1. ii. 8. — 8. ^v 

ovtov oi>x rJKLa-ra firjBi<Tfi6s. — ropirco-oftra : cp. 7. 1 90. 10. — Kara 

17. aircpfowi : will renounce, Cp. twvtA tovtouti toCo-i irp4JY|Murt: 

cbrcwra/Acvos 7. 14. 5. — 18. &X- see on 7. 3. 2. — '0\v|Mrt6*: as 

Xo<t>poWovT€s : though otherwise often in Pindar, for Attic 'OAvfurta. 

minded, i.e. inclined to medize. The fifth and last day of the festi- 

206. 4. vircppaWo|Uvovs : put- val fell this time upon the second 

ting off (sc. oTparcveirOai). — full moon after the summer solstice. 



208.6] HERODOTUS VII 273 

ovtgg Kara rax°? ovtq> SiaicpWrfo-ecrdaL top Iv Qepfio- 10 
yokyo'L Trokefiov eTrefMirop tovs npoSpofiovs. 

2w OvTOL fl€P $7) OVTO) 8l€P€P(OPTO 7rOL7](T€LP ' Ol 8c ip 

®€piJL07rv\r)(ri "EXXt^i/c?, en-eiS^ 7rcXa9 iyepeTO rrjs icrfio- 
\r}s 6 Heparjs, KaTappwoeopres ifiovXevopro nepl dirak- 
Xayi/9. toutl flip pvp aXXoiox YltkoiroppTqaioicn eSo/cei 
eKdovai C5 Tlekoiropprjcrop top 'IctO/jlop e\eip * v <f>vXai<r} • 5 
AeaWSrjg 8c <2>a>*ccW kcll AoKpwp irepLcmep^deprcop ttj 
yp<o[iji Ta&rg avrov re fiepeup ixfrrj^C^eTO nefineLP re 
ayyekovs cs ra9 7roXia9 Kekevoprds afyi i7n/3o7)0€iPi (09 
ioPTtop avr&p 6\iy<0P arparbp top MtjScjp aki£aardai. 
fcOBravra PovXeuofiepcop or<f>e<op eire/iire $3,€p£r)s fcarao7co7roi> 
Imrea Iheadai okoctol elcrl Kal o tl iroiioiep. aKrjKosi 
8c crt €<!dp ip SeaorakCr) a>9 dXwr/xci/^ €117 Tavrrj arpaTi/ff 
oXiyrjy Kal rov9 rjyefiopas a>9 elyjcrap Aa/ceSai/xoVioi re 
Kal A€(opiSrf^ i<op yepos 'HpaKXelhrjs. a>9 8c irpoairj' 5 
Xacrc 6 t7T7T€V9 7T/)09 to orpaToireSop, iOrjeiTo T€ fcal 

— 10. kcmtA rdxos ovr» : possibly the context the force of the com- 

merely an emphatic way of saying parative. For the dependent inf., 

so quickly (cp. 7. 47. 6, 7. 223. 4) ; see S. 1063 ; HA. 952. 

but the words may be rendered 

just as they come, not expecting WHAT XERXES ' SCOUT *™ted 

that with speed would thus be de- OF THE GREEK ARMY ? XERXES 

tided the contest at Thermopylae. Questions demaratus (cc. 

207. 5. tx€tv4v+v\aKfi: cp. cf- 208-209) 

vox bf <t>v\jOLKrj 7.203.6. — 6. ircpi- 208. 2. tS6r0ai: in Ionic the 

<nrcpxWvT»v : &/#£■ indignant at. active and middle are used practi- 

Valckenaer thus emends for A-cpt- cally without distinction. — 6k6<toi 

<nr€pxcavT<ov 9 because everywhere cUrl Kal 8 ti iroiioicv: change of 

else the verb is <nr€px€<rOcu. Cp. mood as often; see on 7. 151. 10. — 

*• 3 2 ' 3> 5* 33* l 9* — 9* o\fry»v: 4. tovs rryc^vas : proleptic accus- 

too few. The positive gets from ative. Cp. 7. 18. 10. — 6. ^ijcvto: 



274 HERODOTUS VII [208. 7 

KdTcopa irav fi€v ov to (rrpaToireSov ' tov? yap iaco 
Terayfievovs tov Tel)(€ S> to dvopdwravres et-^ov iv 
(f>v\aKrj y ovk old re rjv KaTihicrdai ' 6 8c tovs c£a> ifidv- 
9ave, tolctl irpo tov rei^eo? tcl oirka €K€lto. £tv)(ov 8c 10 

TOVTOV TOV yfiOVOV AaK€8cUp,6viOL ££(0 T€Tayfl€VOL. TOV? 

p,€v 8rj a>pa yvyLva^oyiivovs t<ov dvSpav, tovs 8c ras 
fcd/xa? KTevil^ofievovs. Tavra Srj 0e<ofievos e#a>/xa£e 
Kal to nkrjdos ip,dv6ave. fiadwv 8e irdvra aTpekiois 
aTnjXavve ottlo-co /car' r)(rv)(L7)v' ovre ydp tis eSuo/ccis 
d\oyir)<$ re iKvprjae iroWfjs direkd<av T€ cXcye 7T/DO? 
209 Bep^rjv ra irep oirdmei irdvra. aKovtov 8e Bipfrfs ovk 
€LX € ovp.fiaXio'dai. to iov, art TrapearKevd^ovro cws airo- 
Xeofievoi re Kal dnoXeovres /cara Svvafiuv* dXX* avra> 
yeXoia yap i<f>alvovTO 7roi€u>, /x€TC7rcjLw/raro ArjfidprjTOv 
tov ' Apiartovos, iovra iv r<S orpaToneS^. aniKo/Aevov 5 
8c /aii> elpdora Scpfr/g Scaora tovtcdi/, idekav fiaOelv 
to nouofievov 717069 tS>v AaKeSaLfiovuov. 6 8c cl-wc* 
v Hfcoucra9 ftc^ zeal irpoTtpov fieo, cure opfiiofiev im tt/v 
'EXXdSa, 7rcpl toii/ dvSpwv tovtcdv • dfcoucra? 8e yekorrd 

see Dial. §4. 10. — 7. ofi : accented ojJtc ... Tt: for the correlation, 

because postpos. and emphatic; so see on 7. 8. a 2. — 16. dXayCvp 

esp. in contrasts with ficv and 8c. lK\>pr\<rt iroXXijs : practically pass. 

Kr. Spr. 67, 10, 2. — &r«: note of Iv aXoyiy €\€iv (6. 75. 25). 
the irreg. position. Cp. fieraiv 209. 2. tA46v: the reality, ex- 

7. 124. 2, 7. 183. 7. — 10. Toto-i plained by the on clause. — 7. rl 

. . . ckcito : whose post was in iroic6|i€vov : the pass, of iroulv is 

front of the wall. — 12. tovs Tds not freq., yiyvccr&u being com- 

k6\lcls KT€vttopL€vovs : the Spartans monly substituted. — irp6«: with 

had worn long hair since the bat- gen. to express agency, as 7.2. 12. 

tie of Thyrea, ace. to 1. 82. 39.— —8. irpdrcpov: 7. 101 If. — 9. 7*- 

15. KaT Vr* 1 )" : undisturbed.— XwtA |m ttco: you made me a 



210.6] HERODOTUS VII 275 

fie effeo Xeyovra Trj irep l a>p<ov eK^aofiepa 7rprjyfiaTa 10 
ravra • ifiol yap tt)v dXrjdeirjv a^riiklv avria cre'o, /Jacri- 
Xcu, dya>i> /ueyiord? ecrri. (Lkovctov 8e fcal iw. 01 
dvhpes ovtol dm/carat fia^rjcrofxevoL r)fiiv nepl rf}<; 
ecrdSov fcal ravra irapaaKevd^ovrai. v6p,os yap cr<f>L 
€\<av ovtq) ioTL * iireav fieWcocTL KivSvveveiv rfj ^ruxV^ 1 S 
Tore tol$ fc€<^a\a9 KoorfieovTai. eirUrTaao 8e, el tovtovs 
ye /cat ro vnofievov eV ^Trdprrj KaraoV/ietyeai, ecrri 
oi&ev dWo Z9vo<z dvOptimw to ore, ^SacnXev, VTTOfievei 
Xec/>a? avraeipofxevov * i>vi> yap 777009 fSaoriky)ir)v re 
icaXXurnju ra)i> eV "EXX^cri irpo&fyepeai fcal di/8pa9 2o 
apiorovs. Kapra re Srj Bep£r) diriara i<f>aCvero rd 
\ey6fieva elvai KaX Sevrepa eireipwra ovriva rpoitov 
toctovtoi eovres Tjj ecuvrov a-rpaTifj /xa^croi/rat. 6 8e 
ehre* *£l jSacriXev, ep,ol xpyjcrd at a>9 dv8pl t^evory, ^ 
210f"7 ravra rot Tavrrj eVc/Jy Trj iy<o Xeycu. ravra \eya)v 
ovk eireide top Uep^rfv. Tecrcrepas /xeV 877 naprJKe 
rjfiepaSy ekm^v aleC <r<f>ea5 diroSprjcrecrOaL ' ire/mrr) Se, 
a>9 ovfc d?raXXda , croz/ro dXXd 01 e<f>aivoi>To avaiheirj re 
#cai dfSovkirj StaxpedfievoL fxeveiv, Trefnrei eV avrov9 5 
Mi/Sovs re fcal K«rcriov9 9v[JLQ)0ei<z, evreikafievo^ crc^ea? 

laughing-stock, as 3. 29. 7. Cp. 18. virofuvit x«?P*s AvTaciptyivov : 

7. 105. I. — 11. &Xi]OcCt|v do-Kctv dv- see on 7. 1 01 . 8. virofiiv€LV, await, 

riaiHo: cp. 7. 101.16. — 12. d/ywv remain (as in 17), in the const. 

lUyicrrfs 4oti : with ifioi, it is my with suppl. ptc. gets the meaning 

greatest endeavor. — 14. raOra dare. — 19. $a<ri\r\lr\v Ka\\C<rrqv : 

vapao-Kcvdgovrai : are making these the royal family of the Heraclidae 

preparations, i.e. to this end (to was the oldest and most famous in 

fight). — 17. tA frropivov: collec- Greece- — 23. too-oOtoi: only so 

tive neuter = tovs v7rofiivovras. many, i.e. so few. — 24. xprjaQai: 

Cp. to vytatvov 7. 157. 18. — inf. for imv., as 7. 159. 8. 



276 HERODOTUS VII [210. 7 

£ayyp7](ravTa<5 dyeuv €9 ohjjlv ttjv Ioxvtov. a>9 8* ia'cneaov 
<f>ep6fJL€voL C9 tov9 "FXXrjvas oi M77801, imirrov 7roXXo£ 
aXXoi 8* iirecrfjo'av Kal ovk dmjXavpop, Kaiirep fieydkca^ 
TrpocirraLOVTes. SrjXov 8' iiroteov iravri rcai feat ovk 10 
rJKiara aura) /JacriXeZ art noWol fiev avdpconoL elev, 
oKiyoL be avopes. cyt^cro oc 7) <ru/xpoAi) dt r)p,€pr)<;. 
211 inetre 8e oi M77S01 Tpr)x*<*>s irepieCirovro, ivdavra ovtol 
fiev V7re^rj(rap i oi Sc Tlcpcrat cfc8efa/i,€J>oi i7rfjaav, tovs 
adavaTovs cfcaXa fiap-ikevs, t£)v rjpx e 'TSapj/r/s, a>9 8^ 
ovrot ye €V7T€T€G>9 Karepya(r6fxevoi. a>9 8c feat ovrot 
crvv€fJLio m yov rolai ^EXXijcrt, ovSci/ 7rXcoi> i<f>€povro rfjss 
crTpanfjs Trjs Mrjhucrjs aXXa ra aura, are €i> oreivo- 
iropo) re X^PV /^^o/xci/ot feat Sdpacn /3paxyT€poi<ri 

Xpe<0fl€VOL 17 7T€/D 01 "EXX^I^ Kal OUfC ej(O^T€9 7t\tJ0€L 

XP'i)o r ao'dcu. AaKehaifiovLOi 8c ifidxovro a£uos Xoyou, 
aXXa re OLTroheiKvviievoi kv ovk hriOTa^ivoiori /xa^C(r^at 10 
itjeiriOTdfievoLy Kal ofco>9 evrpe^eiav to. vSrrOy aXei? 



THE GREEKS DEFEND THE WEST- 
ERN ENTRANCE FOR TWO DAYS 



211. I. Tpqxfas wtpwCirorro : 
«*?>-£ roughly handled. Cp. 6. 15. 
2,6.44.12. — 2. 4k8«£Ajuvoi : /#£- 
(cc. 210-21 2) ^ ^ /r ^^ relieving them. — 

210. 7. &r6irc<rov . . ., Shriirrov: tovs a0ava«rovs : cp. 7. 83. 3 ff. 

note epanastrophe — comp. fol- — 3. «s 8^: as though, as 7. 17. 

lowed by simple verb. — 8. frrwrrov 8. — 5. o^Sev irXlov 44>^>ovto : cp. 7. 

. . . 4irc<r{j<rav Kal ovk airtfjXavvov: 168. 23. — 7. S6pcuri ppaxvrlpourt : 

impfs. because these things re- cp. 7. 61.6. — 10. &XXa airoScitcvv- 

peated themselves throughout the juvoi : showing otherwise, though 

day with every onset (fapofievoi 8). aAAa is cogn. ace. with diroScucvv- 

— 9. pryd\a>s irpoo-irratovrcs : fail- ficvoi, on which the suppl. ptc. 

ing greatly; (lit. 'stumbling'), as ^eirurratuvw. depends. — 11. feet* 

7. 170. 17. — II. avOpuiroi, avSpcs : 4vTp6|rciav tcL v&ra . . . Sf|#cv: 

differing as homines and viri. whenever they turned their backs 



2128] HERODOTUS VII 



277 



^€uyco7coi> 8r}0ev> oi he fidpfiapoi opwvres <f>evyovras 

#oj} re Kal wardyw iirjjorav, oi 8* av KaTakafifiavo- 

\mvoi, vrrearpe^ov avrioi elvai roicn fiapfidpouri, /xcra- 

vrptjpofievoi he KarefSaWov nXijdeL dvapidpLyjrovs t£>v 15 

ncpo-ceoi/ - eirnrrov he Kal avra>v tcov ^TTapri^reoyv iv- 

v&vra 6\£yoi. iirel he ovhev ehvvearo irapakafieZv oi 

Ec/ocTai ty}s iaohov Treipd>p,evoi Kal Kara rekea Kal irav- 

%2toicds npo&fiaXkovres, a7nj\avvov OTrUra). ev Tavrycn 

TV "** Trpoo-oSoio-i f rrj<z fta^5 Xeyercu /JacriXea drjeo- 

fi&op rpls dvaopapieiv oc joy dpovov, heixravra irepl rjj 

^Panij. Tore /iev ovt<o rjy(ovCq m avTQ J rrj 8' vaTepaCrj 

0L /3dpfiapoi ovhev ap.eivov ae0\eov ' are yap 6\iy<ov 5 

€o **ra)v, ekTTuravre*; or<f>ea<$ KaTareTp<op,aTLcr0ai re Kal 

° w c 0101/9 re eareo'Qai en \elpa<; dvraupao-dai avvefiaX- 

w**. ol §6 v EXXtji/€9 Kara raft 9 re Kal Kara edvea 

tn ** body they would flee appar- on 7. 56. 4. — 0t|c6|i€vov: this 

en *Zjr m Iterative opt., as 6. 12. 3. was quite possible from the lofty 

^568; HA. 914, B 2. <£cvyc- Trachis (cp. 7. 201. 2), so long as 

0*0^ j s coordinate with aTro&eucvv- the combat was before the en- 

'^^^c, the const having changed trance. — 3. avoSpapctv 4k toO 0p6- 

,° ***iite verb, as 7. 6. 11 and freq. vov : cp. 7. 15. 2. Hdt. would seem 

* -^~^dt. — 13. &v: with v7T€ctt/o€- to have had in mind Horn. Y 61 

Jp > *'> iterative impf. S. 1894; HA. Scicras 8' ck Opovov SXro Kal ic^c 

.35 - — 15, vVtfjOa avapiOpriJTovs : p.-q oi vwepBev | yaiav avappy- 

nr ^**tnerable multitudes, lit. ' in- £«€ IIo<rci8aW cvoo-i'x&ov, de- 

****>erable in multitude. 1 — 17. o*- picting the terror of Aides at the 

^foiWaTO irapaXafktv : were not earthquake caused by Poseidon. 

**" to win any success. For form — 5. &8\cov: as 1. 67. 2 = 

^Swcaro, see D. § 4. 3. — 18. rf^s ipuayovro. — 6. KaTaTCTpaparCo-Oai : 

^^fcov ireip£|uvoi : trying the pass, had been disabled by wounds, as 

^ia. 2. rfjo-i irpo<r6Souri Tfjs Thuc. 7. 80. 3. For pf. inf. see 

^X*!*: msets of the battle. Cp. GMT. 109. — 8. K<vra to£«.s tc Kal 

^23. 3. — X£ycT<u fkuriXla: see Kara 20vca: by companies as well 



278 HERODOTUS VII [212. 9 

K€KO(riM7)ll€l/OL fjCTCLV KOI iv fl€p€l IfCaOTOt ifld^OVTO^ 

irKrjv &<oK€Q)v' o&roi 8c €9 to opo$ erd^B^crav <f>v\d- 10 
govres tyjp arpairov. a>9 0€ ovoev evpiCKov aKKoio- 
repov oi UepaaL fj rfj irporepairj iva>pa)v, dmjXavvop. 
213 airopeovros 8c fiaonkeos o n xpyjcrrjTai t$ irapeovri 
irptjyfiaTL, 'EmaXr^ 6 EupvS^/xov dvrjp Mr)\iei><; fj\0€ 
oi €9 Xoyov9 fc>9 /xeya rt irapd /JacrxXco9 8ok€<ov olcreo'd ai, 
e<f>pao-€ re tt]v drpairbv Tt)v Sid tov opeos (frepowrav C9 
0cp/xo7n;Xa9 fcal 8i€<f>0eipe rov9 tolvt-q VTrop*eivavTas 5 
e EXX7fi/ot)i;. vorrepov 8c Seura9 AaiceSaifiopiovs £<f>vy€ 
€9 %tararakiy)v J koli oi <f>vyovri vnb t5)v HvXayopav, tS>v 
9 Afi(f)LKTv6va)v C9 rr)j> Ili/Xai'tyi' (TuXXe-yojucVcuv, dpyvpiov 
iireKiqpvxdy). XP° V( ? ^ varrepov, Karrj\0e yap €9 'Aiti- 
KvpyjPy diredave vtto 'AOrjvdSea) dvSpbs Tpr)xiwov. 6 10 
8c *Kdy)vdhy)s ouro9 directive fiev *^midXrvjv hi dXXrjv _ 

dtf £y nations. Cp. 9. 33. 1 #cara S. 1523 a; HA. 772 a. — 6. Aaicc- 

Idvta kol Kara rcAca. — II. tt]v ScupovCovs : as chief of the states 

&rpair6v: cp. 6. 1 75. 6 and 7. 216, in the Amphictyonic League. — 

217. — 12. £v<&pa>v: sc. iv rots "EX- 7. tcaC 01 4>vy6vn Apyvpiov lircicq- 

Aiyo-t. The impf. describes the pvy(fir\: and for him when fie had 

continuance of an action already fled a price was proclaimed. — 

past, where we should use plpf. t«v IlvXaydpav : the deputies of 

the twelve Amphictyonic states 

treachery of epialtes. hy- who constituted the assembly (II v- 

darnes gets round by the \airj) . See on 7. 200. n. There 

path anopaea into the werCj besides these, UpofLvrjpm**, 

rear of the greeks (cc. a sort f standing local commit- 

213-218) tee charged with matters of reli- 

213. 1. & ti \fyf\tn\rai t$ irap- gious worship and administration. 

c6vti irp-fj'Yp.aTi : how he shall — t«v 'Ap^ncrudvitv : appos. to 

manage the present matter, o tl HvXayoptov. — 8. i4|v IlvXahjv : sc. 

is cogn. ace. — 2. rjX6* ol h X.6- avvoSov. — <rvXXryojUv«*v : inexact 

■yovs : came to speech with him. for aor., as 7. 237. 6. — 9. xar^XOc : 



215.i] HERODOTUS VII 279 

atrt^i/, Ti)v iy<b iv rowrt om<r&e Xoyowri crr/fiaveco, 
zitiTi/jajOr) fievroi virb AaKeSatfiovCoiv oiSev Jjcaop. *Em- 
oXttjs fi€P ovto) vorepov TovTtov dtridave' cart 8c 
eircpos Xcyop,ci>o9 Xoyo9, a>9 'Ovrjrr)<; re 6 Qavayopeco 
dvrjp Kapvarios koI Kopv8aXXo9 'Ai^rtfcvpeu? elcn oi 
c&ratTC? jrpo? jSacrtXca tovtovs tou9 Xdyoi/9 *al Trepnq- 5 
yrf<Tafi€V0L to opo9 7010*1 Ilcpcrgcn, ouSa/xcos efioiye 
71x0x09. rovro p,ci> yap t<£8c vp>) oTafytaKTaa^at, art 
01 to>i> 'EXXTfi/cui^ IlvXaydpoi iir€Kr) pv£av ovk im 'Ovtjtji 
T€ Kal Kopv8aXX<3 dpyvpiov dXX* €7rl *E7rtaXrg ra> 
Tpnrfxivitp, irdpTQ)? kov to drpefccoTaroi> irvOopevoL • 10 
rovro 8c ^evyovra 'T&iridkTrjv Tavrqv tj)v oXtv^v otSa- 
/icr. ctSfoy jhci> yap ai> /cal ca>i> firj MrjXievs Tavnqv 
rffv OLTpairbv 'OinJTTjs, el Tjj X^PV noWa w/uXtj/cox? €177, 
dXX* 'EttioXtt^ yap cart 6 7r.epi{r)yr)crdfxevo<; to opo9 
L5#card IH71/ aTpairov, tovtov oZtiov ypd<f><o. Sep ^9 8c, 

see on 7. 197. 14. — 12. 4v to&ti /u,ev. — otSapcv: as 2. 17. 5, 4. 46. 
fcno-Oc Xdyouri <ri||iaWtt : this prom- 5,9. 60. 16; usually t8/xev in Hdt. 
ise was not fulfilled. See D. § 4. 6. — 12. c18cCt| pev y&p 
214. 2. Sort Si . . . \6yo$: as &v: a slight ellipsis must be sup- 
7. 150.2. — 4. Kapvo-Tio«: Carys- plied, something like this: "But 
tus was in southern Euboea. — the other story is not inherently 
5. ircpiiryipr&iLcvoi tA 6pos roto-t improbable, for — ." — k&v \x.r\ Mt|- 
II^KrQ<rt : the ace. is governed by Xictfs : the ptc. in this context is 
Trcpi-, as in 14 below ; the dat. by conditional, hence /xij, else we 
the verb, as in 7. 215. 6. — 8. lire- should expect ov, since Hdt. has 
irijpu£av o4k to 'OWjtq : note the stated that Onetes was a Ca- 
repetition of the prep, here, a sim- rystian (4). — 13. cl . . . uiuXtjkus 
pie dat. in 7. 213. 7. — 10. irdvrws cttj: if he had had much inter- 
won'. as7. 157. 7. — t& &TpcK&nra- course with that country. See on 
to*: cp. rrjv &rptK€vqv 6. 1. 8. — wfjLiXrjo'av 7. 26. 10. Cp. Thuc. 
1 1, favyovra : suppl. ptc. with 018a- 6. 55 . 19 (rwc^uis ayAiAi/Kei rrj apxfr 



2 8o HERODOTUS VII [215.2 

€7rcl yjpecre ra vneo^eTo 'ETriaXrr;? KaTepydo-eadcu, 
avTUca irepv)(?Lpy)<z yevofievos ene/ine Toapvea icat top 
icrTpanjyeL e T8api/7/s. op/xearo 8e 7r€pl X^i/cui/ a<£as 
€fc roG crTparo7rc8ou. tj)i> 8c drpairbv Tavrrjv ifjevpovs 
fiev oi im)((opioi Mr)\i,€L$, i^evpovrts hk QccrcraXowrt 
KaTr)yrj(ravTO iirl <£a>fc€as, rorc are pi 4>a)icct5 <£paf ai/rcs 
T€t^€t tt)j> i(r/3o\r)v rfcrav iv a-Kemrj tov TroXefiov " ck r€ 
tocov Srj fcareSeSefcro eovcra ovSei/ XP 7 !** 1 ^! M^Xtcvct. 
216 €^€t 8c <58c r/ aTpanbs avn? • apteral fiev dirb tov 
'A<romov Trorafiov tov 8ia ttjs Siacr^ayos piovro^ 
ovvofia Se t<o opeu tovtco kol Tfl aTpanto towto /cetrat, 
'Ajwaia* retVct 8c 17 'Avoiraia avrr) #cara p<**X lv 
tov opeos, \rjyei 8c fcara re 'AX^i/ov irokiv, irpdrrfv^ 
eovaav t5>v AoKpiScw 717009 tS>v Mt/XicW, kclI Kara 

215. 3. t«v lo-TpaT^-yci : i.e. Horn, a 320 opvts 8* ws dvoinua 
a the Immortals." See 7. 83. — hA-KTa.ro. The path is now called 
4. ircpl \v\vttv d.4>ds : about lamp' Mowon-an, .»>(£/* path (Stein). 
light. Cp. the phrase " early can- — 5. 'AXirrprov: cp. 7. 176. 9 
dlelight." — 7. t6tc: see 7. 176. 30,7.229.5. — 6. t«v AoKplfov: 
19. — 8. 4v o~k4itq tov iroX4jiov : as sc. irokemv. — irpos r&v Mi|Xii»v : 
7. 172. 11. — 4k toVov: sc. yp6- toward the Maliatis. — k«t& Mc- 
vov, terminus ex quo, where we say, Xapiriryov r% . . . fSpas : the legend 
" for so long a time." — 9. icaT- was that once, as Heracles was 
cS&ckto . . . Mt)Xic(kri: sc. ff asleep at the stone named, after 
ia/BoXy, had been proz>ed by the him, Melampygus, the Cercopes 
Malians to be of no use, i.e. for stole his weapons and paraded up 
warding off an enemy. and down in mimicry of the hero. 

216. 2. 'Ao-omov: see on 7. When he awoke he seized the 
199.8. — 3. KctTcu: = t€0€itcu. — little creatures, swung them tied 
4. Av6ircua : etymology and mean- together head downward on a pole 
ing uncertain. Cp. Empedocles, over his shoulders, and went his 
frg. 168, where avviravov is ap- way. They in this position ob- 
plied to fire biasing up; also serving his characteristic of /ucXa/i- 



218. 2] 



HERODOTUS VII 



281 



yLeXafiiruyov Te Kakeofievov \idov kcu Kara KepKamwv 
17 eSpa?, tq ical to areivorarov eari. Kara Tavrqv Srj rf/v 
arpairov /cat ourcu exovorav ol Hepaau top 'Aaombv 
hitiCpavres iiropevovro iraaav rffv vvKTa, iv Se&fj fikv 
expires opea tol OiTauov, iv api<TTepy 8e Ta Tprjxwiw. 
17015 re hi) hiij>aive j^al ol iyevovro in aKflaynjpia> tovs 
opeos. Kara Be tovto tov opeos i<f>v\acr(rov, a>9 fcal 
irporepov fioi etprfrai, ^(oKetov ^tXtot ottXItcli, pvo/ievoi 
re tt/v ar^repifv x^PV^ Kal <f>povpiovr€<; ttjv aTpanov. 
if fiev yap fcaro iafioXr) ifyvkdarorero vno rS)v eipryrai . 
rf/v he 81a tov opeos aTpanov eOeXovral <E>a>fC€i9 vno8e- 10 
lB^dfiei/OL AeapiSj) i<j>v\ao , o m ov. efiadov 8c <r<f>€a<; ol 
<£>aifC€i9 a>8c ava/SefiriKOTas ' dva/3alvovT€$ yap c\aV- 



mryos, and being reminded of a 
warning of their mother to beware 
of such a person, were greatly 
amused. Heracles, asking the rea- 
son of their laughing and chatter- 
ing and being told, got into such 
a good humdr that he turned them 
loose. — 7. Mc\a|fciriryov : a rather 
coarse nickname of Heracles as 
the manliest of all heroes. — Kcp- 
k«mt»v: lit. 'tail-fellows 1 (cp. Kcp- 
#cos), dwarfish, droll, and mischiev- 
ous ape-like creatures, differently 
named in different countries, but 
always connected with Heracles. 
The tradition became localized at 
Thermopylae the more naturally 
as the Heracles-legend was firmly 
fixed in the region. See on 7. 
176. 17. They figured consider- 



ably in early Greek art, e.g. in the 
metopes of the temple of Selinus 
in Sicily, and were the subject of 
the Homeric poem Ke/oKunrcs. — 
8. rfi : the rocks referred to in 7 
are part of the cliffs that shut in 
the narrow pass. Between these 
and Alpenus the way led down. 

217. 5. T€ . . . icaC : for this para- 
tactic arrangement (Homeric coor- 
dination), see on 12. 2. — of: de- 
monstrative. The usage is rare. 
— 7. j>v6\uvoi tc . . . Tt|v &Tpair6v : 
the Anopaea ended in the moun- 
tain road which led from Alpenus 
over Callidromus into the valley 
of the upper Cephisus. The Pho- 
cians guarded at once this moun- 
tain road and the Anopaea. — 
10. viroScgdpcvoi Aca>v($x|: having 



282 HERODOTUS VII [218. 3 

Qavov oi n.ep<rai to opo? nav ibv Spvcop iiriTrkeov. rjv 
fiev Srj pyvefiirjy \li6<f>ov Be yivo/ievov 7roXXoS, o>9 oIkos 
rjv (f>vX\<ovvir6K€)(yiia/(»)v viro tolctl tto<tL> dvd T€ iSpa-s 
fiov oi &Q>Kel<; Kal iv&vvov r<x 07rXa, Kal avruca oi 
fidpftapoL naprjcrav. a>9 8e elSov dvSpas ivSvofievovs 
o7rXa, iv Ow/ian iyevovTO ' iXno/JievoL yap ovhev c<f}i 
fyavrjarecrd ai dvTi^oov iveKvprjcrav or/oara). ivdavra 
'TSdpvrjs KaTappwSrjoras fir/ oi <2>a>fC€t9 cawrt Aaicc8at-io 
fxovLoi, euptTo 'EmaXTfji' o7ro8a7r&5 e"rj 6 orpard?, 7rv06~ 
/a€i>09 §€ drp€K€<o<; 8i€Ta<r<r€ rov9 Uepcras a>9 €9 fid^rjv. 
oi Se <l>cDfC€t9 a»9 ifidWovTo touti rofcvfiacrt 7roXXota , t 
T€ Kal ttvkvoIctl, ol)(ovto <f>€vyovTes iirl Toy 6peo<z 
tov Kopv/M^ov, imorTdfievoi a>9 inl <r<j)€as opiirjunqaav 15 
dpxyjv, Kal irapecTKevdSaTo a>9 a7roXcd/A€i/oi. ovrot /&«/ 
877 ravra i<f>p6veov y oi 8c d/xc^t 'ETriaXr^i/ feat 'Thdpvea 
Uepcrai <t>a)Ke(ov fiev ovSeva Xoyov idoUovTOy oi Se icare- 
219 fiaivov to 0/009 Kara ra^o9. Totcrt 8c €i> ^epfionvXr/o-i 
eovcri 'EWrjvw 7rp<orov [Lev 6 fidvTis MeyiorCrjs ecriSaw 
C9 tol ipd €<f>pa(T€ top fiekXovTa ececffat dfixi r/oX <r<f>i 

promised Leonidas. Cp. V7ro8c#co- \^i v : adv., originally adv. accus. 

/xcit 7. 158. 22. — 18. ovS^va \6yov tiroiiorro: cp. 

218. 3. tA fipos: governed by 7.13.3. — ol 84 : Homeric repetition 

dvtt^tttvovTcs. Cp. 18 KaTtfiawov of the subject. See on 7. 6. 24. 
to o/oos, and 6. 134. 16 KaraOpw- 

(TKOvra rrjv alfmmrjv. — 8pvfiv M- ™E ALLIES SENT HOME, EXCEPT 
irXcov: these mountains are still the thebans and thespians ; 

covered with fine forests of oak THE SEER megistias; the 

and pine.— 5. Avd tc ISpajtov : as FINAL STRUGGLE (CC. 219- 

7. 156. 5. — II. 6iro8air6s: cp. 5. 22 S) 

13. 6 o7ro8a7r>;. — 15 lirwrrAjicvot : 219. 3. tA Ipd: as 7. 221. 5; 

believing, as freq. in Hdt. — 16. dp- usually ret cr^ayta. — &fia rfoX. : #.*. 



220.9] HERODOTUS VII 283 

Odvarov. inl 8c Kal avro/xoXot ijcrai/ oi i£ayyei\avres 
tS>v Hepcrecov rf/v irepiofyov. qvtoi fiev m vvktos ecnf- 5 . 
[irjpaPy rpiroi 8e ol ruiipoarKOTroi fcaraSpa/^dVres dnb 
t5>v aicp<av fjSrj §ia<f>aivovo'Y)<; rjiieprjs. ivdavra i/3ov- 
\euovro ol v EXXtji/€5, feat <r<j>ea)v eay^itpmo at yvaj/xai , • 
ol fiev yap ovk ca>i> rr/v rd^iv cfcXi7rcii>, 01 8c dvrerewov. 
fiera 8c tovto 8iafcpi0cz/T€9 ol fxkv diraWdcrarovTO Kal 10 
SuMrfccSacrfoTc? Kara iroXis cfcaorot Irpdirovro, ol 8c 
220avra»> dfia AewpiSy ^evtiv avrov TrapevKevdESaro. Xeyc- 
Tai 8c Kal cws avro9 <r<£ca9 a7rc7rc/^c Aca^iS^?, fir/ 
airoXiovrai K7)S6fievos \ aura) 8c k xl %TrapTir]r4(av rolcri 
napeovcn ovk €%eiv evTrpeiT€<os cfcXi7rcu> rrfv rd^iv C9 
rfjv tfkdov <f>v\d£ovT€s dpxrjv. ravrrj Kal /jlolWovS 
yv€&[ir)v irXturros ei/xi, AewviSrjv, iireure rjo-0ero rov9 
cru/jtjLia^ov9 iovras anpoOvfiovs kal ovk idikovras crvv- 
hiaKivhvv€V€iv y fccXcvcrai (r<f>£as a7raXXacra"€O"0ai, aira> 
8c dmevai ov fcaXa>9 €x<eiv. \x,4vovri 8c avrov #eXco9 

the next morning. They fell on 16. — t<ivtq Kal paWov yv&\i.r\v 

the morrow (c. 223). — 4. Iirl irXcurros ctju : ///#/ way even more 

Sc* : afterwards, adv., answering to / #/« inclined in my opinion. Cp. 

irpwrov par. — 6. ol 4|pc0o<ric6iroi : 1. 120. 19 ravrrj ttAciotos 777 yvtafirj 

sc. i<n}ii7pHLV. See on 7. 183. 5. ci/it, 5. 126. 2 'Apurrayoprj 17 7rAci- 

— 9. o4k Imv: as 7. 143. 16. — 0T17 yvwfirj rjv, and Thuc. 3. 31. 

1 1 . Kard «6Xif Ikcuttoi crpdirovro : II to irkeZorov ttjs yvvfirjs d\^v 

turned to their several cities. on rdx^rra rfi IIcAoTrovnyo-y vd- 

aao. 3. erfr<p : for himself (em- \iv irp<xrfu7£ai. The expression 

phatic). — 4. o*k lx€iv : dependent yvvfirfv TrActoros ei/u — 7rA.eioTos 

on a verb of saying (C$17) implied yiyv<oovca> or 7rA.c«rros yvtofirjv ride- 

in aircrrefAxl/e or a verb of think- fiat. There is a kind of confusion 

ing (cvo/4i{e) implied in tcrfiofievos. of thought in the use of both com- 

For similar change of const., cp. parative (fiaXXov) and superlative 

7.203.9. — 5. &px4 v: cp* 7- 2l8 « here. — 8. **t$ Sc . . . o* koX&s 



284 HERODOTUS VII [ 

/xeya iXeCireTo, Kal r) XndpTrjs evSaifiovir) ovk e 

<f>€TO. €K€)(p7)(rTO ydp V7TO T^5 Hv0L7)S Tolai I 
TMJTYjCTL X/0€G)flci/(HCn, 7T6pl TOV TToXeflOV TOVTOV 

kolt apxas iy€Lpofievov y rj AaKtSaifiova avaor 
yevecrOcu vnb tcop fiapfidpcov rj rov ^acrukea c 
anoXeo-dcLL. ravra 8e <r<f>L iv ineai i^afierpoKn 
€)(0VTa a)8c • 

'Tfiiv 8\ <5 %Trdprrj<5 oitcrJTopes €vpv\6poio^ 

*H fiiya dcrrv ipucvSes vn dvhpdari UepcretSrja'i 

HepueTcu, ff to fiev ov^iy d<f> 9 'HpaicXeo? 8c ycvei 

Uevdrjcrei /HacTLkrj <f>0Lp,evov AaKeSaCfiovos ovpo 

Ov yap tov Tavpcov cr^r/a-ei [levos ovhe \e6vTo>v 

5 A.vrtfiir)A ' Zrjvbs yap e^a fia/09 ' ouSe € <j>r)/ii 

%XV (re(r @ aL i Ttp iv t&vS* irepov 8ta irdvra hdarjT 

Ixciv: depends prob. on a verb of pov Aa/cc8at/xova. — 18. &o 

saying implied in #ccA.ev(r<u, though kvS& : note the unusual sy 

it might be construed with yv*a- — vir AvSpdcri : by men, lit. * 

firjv ttXcio-tos dpx. — 10. cXcCitcto : (local). — 19. irlpOcTcu : pr 

change to independent const., as present. — 20. Pa<ri\f) : poe 

if simply expressing the senti- traction (/fooxAca) . — A** 

ment of the historian, though the vos ovpos: cp.7. 141. 16. — 2 

thought is Leonidas'. — 12. ad- sc. Ilcpcnyv. — crx^o-€i &v 

tCkoi KaT &px&s: as 7. 88. 9, 7. shall withstand ('hold i 

148. 6. — 13. tycipo|Uvov : see on flict'). — 22. o*W % $r\\u 

7. 148. 7. — AvAqrarov: see on 7. <r0cu: nor will he be chec 

56. 7. — 14. <ycW<r0<u : for the aor. think. — 23. wplv . . . hi 

inf. expressing the command or //// one or other of these h 

warning of the oracle, see GMT. have torn in pieces, i.e. tl 

98. — 17. € Y|i£v8': the oracle turns or the city. The Persian 

now (with 8c) to the Spartans in ured as a raging monstei 

distinction from the rest of the 71701V, without <xv, with the si 

states that were consulting. — cfc- tive, cp. 4. 157. 11,6. 82. 7 

pvx*poio : cp. Horn, v 414 tvptyy idea of complete destructk 



221. 7 ] 



HERODOTUS VII 



285 



Tavrd re 877 iirikeyofiepop Ae&viSrjv /cat fiovkofievov 
fcXco? Karadeadai fiowcop ?£irapTir)T€Q>p> d7ro7T€/xi/jat 25 
tovs crv/x/xa^ov? fiaXXov rj yp&fir) hiev€i\04vra^ ovtcj 
ttld/cooyxco? OL^ea-daL tovs oiypiiepovs. fiaprvptop Se /xot 
/cat toSc ovk ekayioTov rovrov rripi yeyove, on /cat rop 
fidvTLV 05 ct7T€TO rg (rrparifj ravrrj, Meytortrp TOP 
'AKapirijpa, Xeyofiepop elpcu rd aveKadev diro MeXd/x- 
ttoSos, rovroy r rop elirapra c/c r<op lp<op rd fieWoprd 5 
cr<£t CK/8d«/ctV; <f>avep6<; eort Aecui/tS^s diroir€fi7r(op y Ipa 
jirj (rvpairokyyral cr<^t. 6 8c diroirefiirofiepo^ avros /xei/ 



. . . SaoT/Tai) is intensified by 
vdvra, which modifies hepov. Cp. 
iras 7. 197. 16. — 24. im\cY6|u- 
vov: =\oyi£6fjL€vov. — AftovCSrjv . . . 
dflw*|u|rai : return to indir. disc, 
dependent on yvwfirfv ttAciotos 
ct/u. — 25. k\&>s KaTcUMo-Oai |«>v- 
v»v 2iraprii)Tl«v : to lay up glory 
for the Spartans alone. kAc'o? 
KOLTaOeo-Oou, as 9. 78. 7. — 27. ol- 
Xf<r0cu rovs olxopivovs : for the 
const, and alliteration, cp. 7. 175. 
7 rjXoxrav 01 aXovres. 

G. B. Grundy (The Great Per- 
Han War, 1901, p. 305 ff.) argues 
that the view here preferred by He- 
rodotus came from Spartan sources, 
but that what really happened was 
probably as follows : when Leoni- 
das learned that Hydarnes had 
been sent round by the path to cut 
off his rear, he divided his forces, 
dispatching about half (3500) to 
meet Hydarnes at a point above 



the east entrance to the pass (near 
the modern village, Upper Drako- 
spilia), remaining himself with the 
Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans 
(about 2800), to hold the west en- 
trance. What happened to the 
3500, if sent against Hydarnes, is 
of course not known. This theory 
gives a reasonable explanation for 
the retention of the Thebans (see 
on 7. 222. 6), as well as explains 
more adequately the conduct of 
the Thespians in remaining with 
Leonidas ; but any such view was 
entirely unknown in antiquity. 

221. 4. Td AvlicaOcv: by de- 
scent, adv. phrase freq. in Hdt. — 
&iro Mc\d|Liro8os : a famous mythi- 
cal seer, whose winning of the 
hand of Pero, the sister of Nestor, 
is told by Horn, o 225 ff. — 5. toO- 
tov: emphatically renewing the 
subj. of the sentence (McyioTiiyv) . 
6. &iroirl|i.ira)v : conative impf. ptc. 



286 HERODOTUS VII [221.8 

ovk d7TcXt7T€, top 8c 7raZ8a ovoTpaT€v6n'evoi/> iovra oi 

222 fjLovvoyevea, diriirepA^e. ot /xeV vw dv\i[iaypi ol ano- 
7rc/X7ro/xci/ot o*xovt6 re amovrt*; /cat ineidoirro Accoi/tSy, 
©€0-771615 8c feat ®r)/3aloi Karifiuvav fiovvoi irapd 
AaiceScufiovCoMrL. tovtcov Sc (Sty/Jaiot fikv decodes 
ifievov Kal ov ftovkofievoi (/caro^ 6 y^P o"<£cas Aceoi/tStjss 

CI/ OfirjpCDV K6yC0 7T(Hcd/X€I/Os), ®€CT7rt€t9 8c CfCOJTCS 

fidkiOTa, ot ovk c^acfai/ d7roXt7roi>Tcs Acaii/tStji/ Kal 
Tov? /act' avrov a7raXXdfccr0at, dXXa /cara/Acti/aircs 
avvairidavov. ioTparrjyei 8c <lvt5>v Ar)[i6<f>Lkos Ata- 
Spofieco. i° 

223 Ecjpfns 8c €7rct 17X101; di/arctXaj/ros cr7roi/8ds ^iirovrj- 
craro, C7ricrvft>i/ ypovov c? dyopfjs kov fidkiara^ irKyy- 
da>pr)v irpocroZov €7rotctTO ' /cat yap inearaKTO cf 
^TTtdXrcct) ovro) * d.7ro yap roij opco? tj /card/Jacrts arvv 
TOfJLGorepr) re cart /cat ftpaXyrepos 6 x®P°s iroXkbvS 
rj irep 7) irepioSos re /cat di>d/}acrt9. ot tc 8^ fidpfiapoi 
oi dfi(j>l *Biip^t]v irpocrrjcrav Kal ot^ aM<^l Aca>i/t8iji/ 
"'EXXtpcs, ws ^ cm davdrco e£p8ov iroieofievoL, r)8r) 
7ToaK(5 fidXXov r) Kar d/o^ds ine^gaav cs to evpvrepov 

— 8. dir&iirc: abs. as 7. 170. 8; puted by Plutarch (de Malig. Hdt. 

with obj. expressed 7. 222. 7. 33) ; and some modern scholars, 

222. 4. <5Ukovtcs xal ov fiov\6- esp. Grote, take the view that the 

licvoi: positive idea repeated nega- Thebans remained of their own 

tively, or vice versa, freq. in Hdt. accord. 

and Soph. — 6. kv Ap^pcav \6y<# 223. I . tjXCov avortCXavTOS <r*ov- 

Troic6ft€vos : counting them as hos- S&s tiroi^traro : cp. 7. 54. 5. — 

tages. Cp. 3. 125. 15 Iv avfipairo- 2. ayopfjs ir\i)06pi|v : full market, 

8o>v \6y(o wouoficvos cfx^- This i.e. the forenoon from about 9 to 

statement of Hdt. with regard to 12. — kov ndXurra : cp. 7. 22. 3. — 

the Thebans is criticised and dis- 9. Is to cvpvTtpov toO avx<vot : into 



223.21] 



HERODOTUS VII 



287 



too ai)(€vos. * to fikv yap epvfia rov rei^eos €<£vXcur- 10 
trero, ol Sc di/a ras irporepas wucpas v&e£i6vT€<i c? ra 

OTtWOTTOpa €[lO)(OVTO. TOT€ 0€ <rVflflLOryOVT€S €£0) T(OV 

(TT€lvo)v emirrov irkrjdei iroXXol tS>v /3ap/3dp(ov * onicrde 
yap . ol fjyefioves rS>v rcXcW exovres /xaoriyas ippd- 
m4oi/ iravra avopa, atei cs to 7rpoaa> €7rorpvvovre<;. 15 
ttoXXoi //,ci> S77 icremirrov aircov €9 r^y dakawcrav /cat 
huetyOeipovrO) 7toXXg> 8* erx 7rXcoi/c5 KaretrariovTo £a>ol 
w s aXX^Xcwi/. ^1/ 8c Xoyos ovScls rov diroWvfiivov. 
are yap iirv^rdfievoi rov fiiKKovra <r<f>iaL ecrecdai 
ddvarov e/c t<ov 7repu6vT(ov to opos, aTrtheiKvvvro pcofir)<; 20 
oaov ex\ov fiiyia-rov cs tovs /8a/o/8apov9, 7rapaxpc<o- 



the wider part of the pass, i.e. 
where the pass opens out toward 
Trachis (2£o> tw otcivwv 12). — 
10. to (uv *ydp 2pv)Mt . . . £<|>v\d<r- 
o-rro : for the fence of the wall was 
kept under guard. For this wall, 
cp. 7. 176. 18,7. 215.7. — 12. totc 
6c <rv|fc|&C<ryovTfS 2£« t»v otcivwv: 
parallel to wre&oVrc? €s tol otcivo- 
vopa (11) and with the same subj. 
(ot "EAAiyvcs), so that the const. 
would naturally continue cbrcicTci- 
vav iroWovs tw /?. Instead of 
this there is a sudden change of 
const, with 7roAAoc tw f3apf3dp<Dv 
as subj. In view of the sudden 
change of subj. here and back 
again in 1. 18, St. suggests that 
the words eirurrov (13) . . . airo\- 
XvfUyov (18) may have been added 
later by the historian. If these 
words are an aft^r addition, there 



was originally a full stop, not after 
ifiaxovroy but after otcivwv, or 
some verb has fallen out after 
otcii/wv. — 13. ir\4j0ci iroWoC: a 
vast multitude, as 6. 44. 12, and 
freq. Cp. 7. 20. 4. — 14. cxovtcs 
|&d<nvyas: cp. 7. 22. 5. — 18. ijv 
Sc X670S ovScls rov diroWv^vov: 
and no account was made of those 
that perished, rov anroW.vp.cvov 
is doubtless collective for tw 
a7roAAv/A€va>v. Cp. 4. 135. 3 tw 
rjv iXaxurros anroWv^ivoiv Aoyos. 

— 19. &Tf 7dp 4m<rrd|uvoi ktI. : yap 
gives the cause of the great losses 
of the enemy, but with a sudden 
change of subject (to the Greeks). 

— 20. £w|rqs oo-ov ct^ov pcyioTov : 
all the strength they had in the 
greatest degree. The part. gen. 
depends on otrov, which is intensi- 
fied by p.iyifTTOv. — 21. irapaxpc<&- 



288 HERODOTUS VII 

22* fievol re /cat ajreqvres., Sdpara fiev vvv roicri n 
avT<ov rrjj/LKavra r)8rj ervyxave /carcrjyora, ol 8c 
fw^ccrt hiepydtpvro tovs Heparan, /cat Acctn/tStjs 
tovto) ra> 7rd^a> iriirrei aprjp yevofievos dptoro' 
erepoi fier avrov ovofiaoTol S7raprttjTC(&>^, rail' ej 
avopmv aqi(x>v yevofieviav eTrvuoiirjv ra ovvofiara 
dofirjv Se /cat airavnov rS)v rpir^Koaioiv. /cat 89 

(TCCUI/ TTlTTTOVai €V0aVTCL CtXXot T€ 7ToXXot Kdl OVOfli 

itfoe or) /cat Aapeiov Svo 7ratSc9, ' A/Jpo/co/x^s 1 
tf tirepdvdr)^ c/c TTJ5 *Aprdvea) dvyarpos Qparay 
yeyovores Aapeta). 6 8c 'Aprdvrjs Aapeiov fie 
jSacrtXcos rjv dScX^cos, e To"Tdo"7rco9 8c rov 'A'pa 
7rat? ' 05 /cat c/cStSovs ttjp dvyarepa Aapelw tov 
irdvra tov icovrov cVcScw/cc, cos fiovvov ol iov<rr)<z t 

225 TCKVOV. Sep^€(0 T€ $Y) SvO ClScXc^COt ivOaVTCL 7TL71 

pcvoC T€ Kal &tcovtcs i with reckless koo-Uov : Hdt. may have r< 

disregard of life and blind fury, names on the column in 

oItcci) elsewhere in classic Greek therewith which was erecte 

only in Horn. Y 332 the grave of Leonidas at 

, , , + ~ A „ , , when his remains were n 

Aiku, rc« a »& Oew areovra ^^ ^ ^ fi c Cp j 

• ^iT* ' « A' ' 14.1—9. l»»tt|»C: c 

avruiTLrjXcLwos unpApoio page- formula in Hdt. where some 

at » or thing is to be singled c 

224. 2. ol 84: Homeric repeti- total, iv 8c is adv., ofcoi 

tion of the subj. Cp. 7. 6. 24. — 10. <t>paTcryovvt]s : for the si 

3. Sicpydtovro : dispatched, in this of Darius, see on 7. 3. 19. — 

sense freq. in Hdt., rare in Attic. 8t8ovs : giving in marriag 

Cp. Eur. Heracl. 174. — AcwvCotp English "give away" (the 

Ti : corresponding to ical ty IIcp- — tov oticov : his property 

<rcW (7). — 6. &{(<i>v -ycvo^vwy: 53. 12. — 14. brfficucf : g 

sc. irvOiaOai ra ovvofmra avT&v. — dowry. Cp. Horn. I 147 

bnA6\L7)v 8c Kal dirdvrwv r&v Tpii)- eVt fxetkia &wcr<D ttoXXJol fxdX 



225.i 7 ] HERODOTUS VII 289 

fxa^ofieuoL (/cat) vnep rod veicpov rod AcowtSeco IlcpcrcW 
re KauL AaKehatfjLovLcov Q)0L&fib<s eyivero 7roXXds, cs o 
toutov re apery oi "EXX^^c? xm^eipvcrav /cat irpe^avro 
Tov? ivavriovs rer/oa/cts. tovto Se <ruvecrTTJKei p>£XP l 5 
ovoi <rvv 'ETTiaXrg napeyevovTo. a>s Sc to'jovs jjiceiv 
hroBovro oi "FXkrfves, evOevrev 17817 Irepoiwro to 
vet/cos* €5 re yap to crreivov ttjs 680O ave^peov 
oTrCcroi /cat TrapafjLeLxfjdfievoL to rct^o? cX^oVres t£oi/ro 
€7Ti rbv koXcjvov 7raWcs aXets ot aXXot irXr/v %r)fiai(i>v. 10 
6 8c *coXa>i/o? cort ci> ry €cro8a>, o/cov iw 6 Xldivos 
\4<ov iarrjKe iirl AewviSr). Iv tovtco or<f>€as tco X^PV 
aXc^o/xa/ov? /xavatpyjcrt, rotcrt avrtov iTvyyavov crt 
Trepueovcraiy /cat X^P " 1 KCLL (r TOfiaaL /carc^axrai/ ot pap- 
jSapot jSaXXoircs, ot //ip e£ ipavTii)*; cVto"7rd/xci/ot /cat 15 
to epvfia tov ret^eo? (rufyoxTavTes, oi Se irepiekOovres 
iravTodtv irepixrrbZ&v. 

225. 3. xal . . . tto\\6s: an assumed to be the one here men- 
accidental hexameter. Cp. 7. tioned. — 12. X*»v: manifestly with 
178.9. — It S: ««///; Herodotean. reference to the name of the hero. 
GMT. 616. — 4. farfgc(pv<rav : only Cp. Simonides' epitaph for this 
here in classic Greek. The sim- monument : 
pie verb is poetic and dialectic. — x , , 
5. tovto Si <ruv«rHJKCi: this con- °nP™ 9™ Kaprurro, cyo>, Ovarw 
flici continued. — 7. 4v0c«Tiv ^8t,: h ''?' r % Yw ; 
from that point on. Cp. 6. 7 6. +P™P»> T ^ Ta ^ ^^ ^ 



5. — irfpotovTo: changed (Attic 



flaws. 



^AXocoSto), as 2. 142. 19, 9. 102. &*' d W,<V°" 7* A ™" ^" •»" 

II. -9. Horro: posted them- , TV/*?' 

selves, as 6. S . 14. - 1 1 . 4 Si k<A«- ovk » •»» T ^¥ T< ? 8 £,r< V« 

*6t : between the eastern entrance 7rooa«. J 

and the dtpfia Xxmrpd (7. 176. 16), — iirl AfavlSQ : in honor of Leoni- 

on the left, there is a hill that is das. Cp. Horn, if 776. — 16. mpuV 



290 HERODOTUS VII [226. i 

226 AaKebaifiovCcov Se kcu %ecnriea)v tolovtcov yevo/xevajv 
o/xo>9 XeyeTxi aptoTos avrjp yevecrdai %napTM]Tr)s 
Airfveicris' tov roSe <f>a<rl eWelv to eiros irplv rj avfi- 
fieltjai ericas tolctl MijSoiari, iruOofitvov irpos Teo t&v 
Tpr)^ivi(ov o)5 eireav ol fidpfixpoi amiaxri tol Totjevfiara, 5 

TOV rjkcOV VTTO TOV 7r\7]0£O<; TO)V dicTTCDP airOKpVTTTOVCTl ' 

toctovto irXrjdo? avrcov e?Wt * tov Se ovk eKirXayevra 
Tovroicri elnelv, ev akoytrj iroieofitvov to Mrj&oov irXrjdos, 
o>s irdvTa cr<j>i dyada 6 Tpi^iVtos (jelvosayyikkoL, el 

aTTOKpVTTTOVTtoV T(DV Mrj8(OV TOP rjklOV VTTO CTK17) €&OLTO IO 

227 7rpos avrovs 7) p<<*>XV K0LL OVK * v V^V' Tavra pep /cat 
aAAa TOiovTorpoTra erred <f>acri AirjveKea top Aa/CcSat- 
fioviov \iirecr6 'at fivr)fioo~uva. /xcra 8c tovtov aptcrrcv- 
crat XeyovTai Aa/ccSat/xoVtot Svo d8eX<f>eoC, 'AX^cd? Te 
/cat Mdpcov 'OpafydvTov 7ratScs. ®eairiect)v he evSo^s 
Kifiei fidkiara tg> ovvofia rjv Ai#upa/z/3os 'Ap/iartScoi. 

228 $a<f>0eurL 8c or<f>i avrov Tavrrj ttj irep eirecrov /cat touti 

6<Svt€s irdvToOcv irf purra86v : note practically pass, const. — 5. &vt- 

the alliteration ; iravroOtv irtpurra- fan : Att. d<^t<ocri. — 6. fori to$ 

80V modifying KaTc^coo-av . . . ir\4j0fos: cp. 7. 187. 6. — 7. tw 

PdWovTes. Cp. Thuc. 7. 81. 24 84: resuming tov above (3). — 

ipdWovro ir£pi<TTa&6v. 8. iv AXoyty iroicdficvov : treating 

with contempt, Cp. 7. 208. 16. — 

individual heroic deeds; EPi- n . Kal * K 4v 4|X£<p : see on 7. 40. 

TAPHS TO THE FALLEN; FATE ^ 7. 46. 13, 7. 222. 4. 

of two survivors; conduct 227 . 2 / Totovrdrpoira: found 

of the thebans (cc. 226- on i y here in Hdt., but four times in 

2 33) Thuc. (2. 8. 12, 2. 13. 32, 4. 25. 

226. 3. irplv rj <rv|ipct{at : see 20, 8. 84.20). — 3. Xiirfo6ai |m|- 

on 7. 2. 5. — 4. irv06|uvov irp6s ^onn/a: cp. 24. 3. 

tco: rare const, for tivos or irapd 228. 1. Oo^Ocfo: Att. ra- 

rtvos, or perhaps this is treated as felai. — avroO Tcrfrfl : see on 7. 



228.14] HERODOTUS VII 291 

irporepov Tekevnjo'acn fj xmo AetoviBea) airo7refi<l>0€PTa<; 
ofyecrdcu, iiriyeypaTrrai ypdfifiara \eyovra rdSe * 

Mvpidaiv wore 1778c r/Ha/cocruus ifid^ovTo 

'E/c Tlekonovvdcrov ^tXtaSc? Teropes. 5 

Tavra fiev 8fj rolcri iracri imyeypairrai, tolctl 8e %irap- 

*fl £eiv t dyyikkeu/ Aa/ccScu/xo^iois otl TjjSe 
KeifieOa tois kclvojv /yrjfiacri ireidofievoL. 

AaKeSaLfiovLOLcri fikv Srj rovro, ra> 8c fidvn rd8c ' I0 

Mvrj/ia rd8c kXcii/oio Meyioria, oV wore Mrj8oi 
%ir€p)(€i,bp tTOTafiov Kreivav d/xcii/ja/tcyoi, 

Mcurios, 05 Tore ¥Lfjpa<$ iirepxofievas ad^a ciSa>? 

Ovk crXtj XirdpTqs riyefiovas irpoXurelv. 

Io. 12. — 2. irpdrfpov 4j: with vdo-ov: Doric form, as is also tcto- 

inf., as 7. 2. 5. Cp. 7. 226. 3. — pes (= recoupes). — 8. dyy&Xciv: 

3. ypdwM&Ta : inscription, epitaph, inf. for imv. — 9. fHjpao-i : = vo- 

There is an inexactness in state- fiouri. Later authors give vofii- 

rnent here, for the inscription, /aois, but pypaxn seems to be used 

taken with Hdt.'s expression (0a- with reference to the prjrpai of the 

<£0£icri), would imply that 4000 fell, Lycurgean legislation. Cicero's 

whereas after Hydarnes' circuit of translation of this most famous of 

the pass had become known, Hdt. the epitaphs (Tusc. 1. 42) is : 

tells us (7. 222) all had been sent ^ . „ , „ » . 

, . :, . . . ., Die, hospes, Spartae nos te hie 

home except the Spartiatae, the . ,. . , 

_,, . Jt , m, , ~ vidisse tacentes, 

Thespians, and the Thebans. Fur- _ .,.,.,, 

x , ., . . A . , Z?///w sanetzs patriae legibus obse- 

thermore the mscnption says ck . 

IIcAo7rovvao-ot; ^tAtafe? riropts, ^ 

whereas ace. to the enumeration — 11. Materia : Doric gen. — 

in 7. 202 the number was 3100. — 12. d|Mu|rdpcvoi : = Sta/JaVrcs. Cp. 

4. pvpido-iv Tpiaxoo-C us : an exag- Hes. Theog. 749; Aesch. Choeph. 
geration even of Hdt.'s numbers 965 ; and 7rapa/jt€t^a/A€vot 7. 225. 9. 
as given 7. 185. 14. — 5. IleXoirov- — 14. oiic JItXtj : did not endure, as 



292 HERODOTUS VII [228. 15 

iTnypdfip.acri ficv vvv Kal cmjXjjo-i, e£a> fj to tov fidv- 15 
rios inCypafifia, 'Aficfcucruoves el&C ericas ol imKoanrj- 
oravres ' to 8c tov [icIvtlqs MeyiariCG) Si/xou'iSt^ 6 
Ac{y7r/0C7r€O5 cart /caret ^eivvqv 6 imypdxfjas. 
229 Avo 8c touto)^ tw t pvr)Koo:L(t)v \4yerai Evpvrov Te 
Kal 'ApioToSrjiAOv, irapebv avToicri afixfrorcpoicrt, kou/q) 
koyto XPV cra t l ^ POLO ' L V OLTTOcrcodrjvai Ofiov c? %irdprqv, 
a> 5 fiejACTifievoL T€ ycrav c/c tov (rrparo7rc8ov vnb Aco- 
^tSect) Kal /carc/ccaro «> ' A\7rr)vol<ri ocfydakfiirnvres es to 5 
eoyaTov, ^ ct yc /xt) ifiovkovTO vooTrjaai, airodavelv 
afjLa tolcl aXXowri, irapeov <r<$>i tovtwv tol crcpa 7rof,€«> 
ovk ideXfjcrai ofio^poveiv, dXXa yva>fiy hi€vev)(0 arras 
Evpvrov fiev uvdofievov tcov Hepae&v Trjv irepiohov 
aiTTjaavTa re ra 07rXa /cat cySiWa ayeiv avrbv /ccXcScrat t 

freq. in Horn. — 1 5 . c£o> -q : except, as Themistocles, and Pausanias . — 

2. 3. 12. Cp. 7rA^v^ 6. 5. 15. — tA 18. icaTd gcivhpr 6 tnvypdijras : *.*. 

. . . brtypappa : the regular const. he had the inscription set up in 

would be tw iiriypafiiMLTi, but honor of Megistias on account of 

the ace. is dependent also in guest-friendship. Cp. iiriyeypa- 

loose const, on cmKooyAiJo-avTcs. irrai above. He was the author of 

— 17. SifuovtSTp : of Ceos (556- all three epitaphs here quoted. 
468 B.C.)? as a lyric poet second 229. 2. irapc6v: ace. abs. as 

only to Pindar, and surpassing all 6. 72. 4, 6. 82. 3. Cp. i£eov 7. 

others in the noble epitaphs in 230. 3. — koiv$ X6y<p xf")< ra f J ^~ 

elegiac verse dedicated to the voto-t: if they had been of one 

heroes of the Persian wars. He mind, = ofwQpovrjaao'i (8). — 

was an intimate at the courts of 5. h r6 So^aTov: extremely. — 

various tyrants, first of the Peisis- 7. irapedv : repeating irapeov of 2. 

tratidae at Athens, then of the — 8. Yv<o|ig Sieve ixMvras : as 7. 

Aleuadae and Scopadae in Thes- 220. 26. With this in part, appos. 

saly, finally of Hiero at Syracuse. are Evpvrov fikv . . . 'ApKrro&rjfwv 

In the Persian war period he was 8c. — 10. afodv: pers. pron. for 

the friend at Athens of Miltiades, reflex. S. 1228 a; HA. 684 a. — 



230.3] 



HERODOTUS VII 



2 93 



tov ctXanra is tovs fta^o/xa/ov?, okcds 8c avxbv rjyaye, 
tov fi€v ayayovra ot^ccr^ai (frevyovTa, tov 8e ianeaovTa 
C5 tov ofiikov 8i*a<f>0apf}vai, *ApiorTo8r)fiov Se Xnrou/v- 
-)(iovra \eufrdfjvai. el fiev vvv r\v fiovvov 'ApioToSrj/ioy 
akyrjcavTa aTrovoorrjo'cu' cs ^irdprqv, r) /cat 6/jlov 15 
<r<f>ea)V afi<f>or€pQ)v tt/v ko/ilStjv yeve&dcu, Sokzlv i/JLol 
ovk dv <r<f)i ^Traprirjras firjviv ovSc/xiai/ irpoaOecrdai ' 
vvv 8c tov fiev avr<ov airoXoixevov, tov 8c Trjs fiev avrrjs 
i^ofiivov irpofydcrios, ovk edekrjaavros he aTroOvrjcictiv, 
avayicaLG)? cr<^c ^X €LP l ir ) p ^ craL p*£yd\a>s * KpicrTohrffia). 20 
30.ot fiev vw ovtq) cwdfjvai Xeyovcri * Kpio'Tohrffiov cs 
%TT<Lp*n)v kox Sia irpo^aciv roirjvhe, ol Se dyyekov 
7T€fi(f)0€VTa €K tov orTpaToirehov, itjebv avrcp Kardkafieiv 



n. rov ffXnra: Lacedaemonian 
hoplites were attended by at least 
one Helot, who as Oepdirtov carried 
his shield and must be close by 
him in battle to give succor. The 
Helots fought, too, as light-armed 
troops, and were used to get pro- 
visions, work on fortifications, etc. 
The number of Helots at Ther- 
mopylae is unknown ; Stein infers 
from 8. 25 that there were at least 
3000. At Plataea each hoplite 
was attended by seven (9. 28. 5). 
— okms : Attic ws (ore) . — 12. fcnrc- 
<r6rra : = pass, of €fc/?aAAa), with 
force of middle here. — 13. Xiiro- 
+vX&rra : losing courage, as Soph, 
frg. 440; usually swoon. Valcke- 
naer conjectured plausibly fyihofyv- 
ytavra. — 14. et \Uv wv tjv : if 



now it had happened. — 15. 6Xyf\- 
o-avTa: = voarjaavTa, referring to 
his ophthalmia. So almost all 
editors read for dXoyrjaavra. — 

16. tt)v ko|uSt)v ycvlo-Oai: lit. the 
return had been made. — Soicctv: 
abs. inf. See on 7. 24. 1. — 

17. <r+i : them, because the prot. 
refers to both, though actually the 
anger affected only one. — irpoo-01- 
<r0ai : display. Cp. 7rpoa-Ti$rffii, 
inflict, 7. 11. 5. — 18. tov Sc . . . 
irpo<j>d<rios : clinging to the same 
excuse, i.e. with no better excuse 
than the other. — 20. Avayicafos 
o-<|>i <=x ctv : = avdyKrp/ avrois elvca, 
dependent, as irpocrd&rdai, on 80- 

KtlV ifJLOL. 

230. 3. 4Jc6v: cp. 7. 229. 2. — 
KaToXapctv ttjv pdx T ) v 7«-vo^vqv : to 



294 HERODOTUS VII [230. 4 

rfjv p>d)(qv ywopjjrqv ovk idekfjo'cu,, dXX* vnofieivavra 
Iv tJ] 68a> irepiyevecrOaL, top 8e ovvdyyekov avrovs 

231 aTriKOfievov cs tt)v p>dyy\v dirodavelv. . airovocrrrja'a^ 
he C5 Aa/ccSai/xoixx s A/oiordS'q/xos dyciSds tc et^c Kal 
arniiy}v ' irdcrxtav 8e roidSc ^tl/koto ' ovre oi irvp 
ovSels evave ^TrapTirfTetav ovts SisXeyero, oyciSds tc cTj(€ 

232 6 rpeora? ' ApiardSTyxos /caXcd/xews. dXX* 6 /*€*> ci/ rp 
ci/ nXaraiyjcn ficLxV dveXafie irdcrav rr/v enei/ei^ewtdv 
axrvqv. Xeycrat Se /cat dkkov a7ro7T€fi<l>0cvTa dyyekop 
C5 &ecrcrakir]v rcav rpv^Koaitav tovtcdv irepiyevicrdai, rco 
ovvofia €u>cu IlavrLTTjv ' voarqaavra Se rovrov c? %irdp- 5 

233T7JI/, &>s rJTCfiayro, dirdyijacrdai. 01 Sc ®r)/3cuoi 9 T(ov 6 
AeovTidiSrjs iarparrjyei, tco>5 /xei> ficra rail' 'EXXtji/Gw 
coptcs ifid)(ovTO in dvayKair)*; c^d/xcpoi 7rpos t^p /}a- 
crtXcos crrparvrjv ' a>s Se eTSoy Karmreprepa tS>v Ylzpatw 
yivofieva rd irpijyfiaTa, ovtq) Stj, raw ctw Aect>i/iS]j 'EX- 5 
Xrjvtav eVa^o/teW^ eVl tov koXcovov, d7rocrp(Mr0eVres 

find the battle going on. — 5 . on»v- Cic. de Off. 1.52 pati de igne ignem 

dyycXov: only here. caper e. — 5. 6Tp6ras: the craven* 

231. 3. v&aryjav TotdSc : defin- the sentiment against whom at 

ing the nature and extent of the SpartaisexpressedinTyrt.frg.il. 

aTifjLia in this case. At Athens 14 Tpcco-avrwvS'dvS/xov too*' diro- 

aTifiCa (cp. infamy) was the loss A.a>A' apery. 

of civil rights total or partial. At 232. 2. dWXafk : made good, 

Sparta the punishment depended effaced, as 8. 109. 9. He died at 

upon public opinion, which was Plataea after prodigies of valor, 

generally fearfully severe. See and Hdt. considered him far the 

Resp. Lac. 9. 4 f. ; Plut. Ages, bravest there, but says he received 

30. — irvp ovScls ivavc : would give no public honors because the Spar- 

him light for a fire, an act of tans thought he wished to be slain 

neighborly kindness which ordi- in consequence of his imputed 

narily was a sacred duty. Cp. guilt (9. 71). 



234.1] HERODOTUS VII 295 

tovtcw \eZpd<; re irpoerewov /cat yaav aacrov tS>v /Jap- 
fSdpaiv, \eyovres top akrfdeoraTov rS*v \6ycov, a>s /cat 
fjiTjS Clover l Kal yrjv re /cat vScop ev Trpdnoiai eho&av 
/JacrtXeZ, \mo 8c dVay/catr/s er^ofievoi es Qepnouvkas 10 
a7rtKbtaro /cat di/atrtot ctc^ roS rpew/jtaro? roi) ycyoporos 
jSacrtXct. cootc ravra Xeyoyrcs Ttepieyivovro ' efyov 
yap Kal Seorcahovs tovtcov tcov Xoy&v /xaprupas. ov 
fiivroi rd ye irdvra €vrv)(r)crav * cos yap avrovs ekafiov 
ot fidpfiapoi ekdovras, rovs p>ev rwas Kal aireKreivav 15 
irpoatovras, tovs 8c 7rXcoi/as avrcov KekevaavTos Hcp^ccu 
€oti£oi> arCyfiara jSacrdX^ta, dp£dfievoi a7ro rov orpa- 
rqyov AcojrtaScco, tou tw 7ratSa Evpvfia^ov XP°* V( ? 
ft€T€7T€tTa e^ovevaav IlXaratcts OTpar^yrja'avTa dv- 
Spwi/ %r)fiat<ov rerpaKo<ri(s)v /cat aypvra to dcrrv to 20 
nXarateW. 
234 Ot ftci/ 87) 7rcpt SepfiouvXas "EXXtj^cs ovrco r)ya>vl- 

233. 7. ao-o-ov : = cyyvrcpw, ace), * •*• on the forehead with hot 

Ionic and poetic. — 8. t6v &Xt|M- iron. Cp. like treatment of cap- 

o-raTov tAv \£y«v : cp. 7. 104. 3. — tives by Samians, Plut. Per. 20 ; 

9. pTjSCtovo-i . . . diriKotaTo : note by Syracusans, Plut. Nic. 29. See 

change of mood. See on 7. 151. 10. on 7. 35. 4. — 19. prrlirciTa: at 

— 11. to6 rp£)M&ros : damage, loss, the opening of the Peloponnesian 

as freq. in Hdt. — 12. &vrt : and War (spring of 43 1 ) . — o-TpaTTrY^j- 

so, it ague. — 14. rd 71 irdvTa cvtv- <ravra: rather a prominent The- 

Xiprav * cogn. ace. Cp. 7. 190. 9. ban aristocrat, who negotiated 

— «s Ydp . . . IXOdvTas : the real with certain Plataeans, desirous of 

apod, to this is tov% & ktL, and revenge on some of their fellow- 

tois fi€w rivas foreKTeivav irpooriov- citizens, the introduction of The- 

Tas, though grammatically coor- ban soldiers by night into Plataea. 

dinate, is really subordinate. — See Thuc. 2. 2 ff. Another Leon- 

17. fcrntov vrlypar* pcuriMjia : tiades a hundred years later be- 

brandedwith royal brands (cogn. trayed Thebes to Phoebidas. 



296 HERODOTUS VII [234.2 

cravTO, Ecpfqs 8c /caXccras Arjfidpryrov eipdrra dp^d/ievo? 
ivdevSe ' Ar)iidor)T€, dvr)p ct? dyados. rc/c/xiupa/jtat 8c 
Tjj akrjdeLT) ' ocra yap eliras, diravra awe/Si) ovrco. vvv 
8c fioi elire, kootol nvis ctcrt oi koiirol Aa/ccSat/idptot, 5 

/Cat TOVTtoV OKOCOL TOLOVTOL TO. 7ToXc/£ta, CtTC Kdl air(LVT€S. 

6 8c €t7T€ * *fl /SaaxXcv, 77X^05 p.kv iroWov irdwwv twv 
AaKeSaifiovicav /cat 7rdXt€s 7roXXat* to 8c 0cXct9 c/c/xa- 
0cti>, ctSijorcts. cart ci> rg Aa/ccSat/iopt %irdprrf 7rdXts 
dvSpcov oKTcuciorvikicov ftaXtora ; /cat oSrot names ctcrt 10 
ofjioioi rotcrt ivudoe /xa^ccra/xe/otcrt ' ot yc /j,ci> aXXot 
Aa/ccSat/xdzstot tovtolctl fiev ovk o/xotot, dyadol 8c. cTttc 
7rpos ravra He/ofrjs' ArjfidpjjTe, rca> rp6nr<p dnoimTOr 
rara 7w dvhpS>v tovtcjv irnKpaTTjarofiev ,• t#t i£qy€o. 
av yap c)(€t5 avr<Si> ras 8tc£dSovs t£i> /SovXev/idrav, 15 
235 ota /SacrtXcv? yci/dftci/05. 6 8' d/xctjScro * *fl /facrtXcG, 

ties are known. — 0. ctS4<rci$ : see 

ADVICE OF DEMARATUS TO ~. , « , T ^ z e A • 

Dial. § 4. 6. — 10. dvopdv oktokut- 
XERXES ; OPPOSITION OF . ^ Qf ^ 

ACHAEMENES; MALTREAT- &)> The number j s mod l^ te for 

MENT OF THE CORPSE OF households ((cX ^ ). Arfel . 

LEONIDAS (CC. 23 4-2 3 8) ^ 2 . g states that the number 

234. 4. rfj dXT)0cCt) : £y thy of hoplites was said to have been 

truthfulness 1 explained by o<ra yap once 10,000. At Plataea there 

ktL — 5. k6<toi . . . 6k6ctoi : coor- were 5000 (9. 28. 9). In 418 B.C. 

dination of direct and indirect in- over 5000 could still be levied 

terrogatives, as freq. in Hdt. — (Thuc. 5. 64, 5. 68). — 11. oi 

6. cIti koI friravTcs : sc. rouwroi &XX01 AaiccSai|i6iaoi : *>. Perioeci, 

TCLiroXifud €laiv. €?T€, or whether, etc. — 12. dirt vpos ra9ra: asyn- 

answering to okocoi. Cp. 2. 53. deton. See on 7.50.1. — 15. tx«s 

2. — 8. iroXXaC: ace. to Strabo, avr&v Tds StcfdSovs tAv povXcvpd- 

p. 362, the epithet iKaTOfiiroXis twv: thou knowest the ins and 

was applied to Laconia. The outs of their counsels, Cp. 3. 

names of over sixty communal- 156. 15. 



235. 2o] HERODOTUS VII 297 

cc uci> cm (rvupovKeveou uol 7rpoC/vuG><?, outaiov tie col 
core (ppaL^eiv to apiarov. ci ttjs vavriicqs arpanrfq 
veas Tpvr)Kocia^ d7rooT€iXcias C7rx T7ji> AaKawav xcoprjv. 
€<m Se in airy i/rjcro? imkeifievrf' rrj ovvofid cores 
Kv07jpa 9 rf/v XiKcov avr)p nap' rjfilv <TO<j>a>TaTos yevo- 
fievos KepSos fie£ov ecfcr) elvaL %TrapnrJTQ<Ti Kara rrjs 
t/aAao"cnj5 jcaraocoiuccz'cu fiakkov r) virepe^iVj cuci n 
irpocrSoKcov air avrfjs tolovto ecrecrdat. oXov roi iyco 
itjrjyeofiaL, ovri rov <rbv &t6Kov frpociStos, dXXa rtdvra 10 
6/xouu9 <f>o/3e6fi€vo<; dv8p£>p crroXov. 4k ravrrfs rfjs 
vrjerov opficofievoi (frofieovrcov rovs Aa/ccSai/ioi/iovs. 
irapoCicov 8c 7roXc//,ov or^c ccWos oIktjlov ovSev Sewol 
ecovraClroL fir) rfjskaWrjs 'EXXdSos aKicrKOfiivrf^ virb 
rov 7rc£ou fiorjuecicrt ravrr). KaraSovXcadeiirrfs 8c rijs 15 
aXXtjs 'EXXaSo? aaOeves rjSr] to KaKiaviKOv fiovvov 
Xctircrat. r)v 8c ravra fir) 71-01779, raSc tol irpocrftoKa 
ZceaOai' core rij? Tlekonovvrjcrov icrdfibs orcwds* Iv 
Tovrai t<3 X^PV iravTow JleKoTTOvvrfaitov ovvofiocrdvrcov 
iirl crol fia\a<; icrxyporipas dXXas rcov yevofievcov irpoo'- 2 ° 

*35« 3- «t • • • iiroo-nCXcias : best starting-point for harassing incur- 

taken as the answer to the question sions into Lacedaemonian terri- 

toj> Tpoirco . . . €7rucpaTrj(rofjL€v ; It tory. Cp. Thuc. 4. 52 ff. — 8. |ia\- 

might be explained as a hortatory Xov : pleonastic after fi££ov, as 7. 

wish, as 7. 5. 9. — 5. 2ori tiriicci- 50. 7. — 13. irapoCicov Sc . . . ot- 

|i!vt|: cp. 7. 190. 10. — 6. XCXwv: kt)(ov: a war of tJieir own at 

contemporary with the father of their own doors. — ovScv Scivol 

Peisistratus (1. 59), and reckoned hrovral toi: personal const, for 

among the Seven Wise Men. His impersonal. — 19. o-vvo|M>o~dvT<»v 

fear with regard to Cythera was \tt\ <roC : having sworn to a league 

realized when the Athenians, under against thee. Cp. 7. 148. 3. — 

Nicias, in 424 B.C., made it the 20. irpoo-S&co : change for variety 




HERODOTUS VII [235. 21 

Sc/cco iaeadaC t6i. itceivo 8c. iroujo'avTL d/iaxrfrl o 
236 re iadfio^ odros Kal ai 7roXiC9 npoo-x&pTfcrtivj-L. Xeyci 
ucra tovtov 'Aycuuckhs, aSeXc&eos re i<bv .Scp£ca> Kal 
rov vavriKov arparov orparrra>9, naparux^v re tq> 
Xoya> Kal Scleras /lit) avayvaxTdj) Hcpfrjs 7roic«/ ravra * 
*X1 /SdaxXcv, 6/960) ere d^Spos ivSeicofievov Xoyovs 055 
<f>dov€i tol ev irprfcraovri rj Kal irpoSihol irpyjyfiara ra 
ad. Kal ydp St) /cat rpoiroicn toiovtokti ^pedfiei/oi 
"EXXrjves xaipovai • rov re evrv)(€iv (frdoveovau Kal to 



Kpiaaov arvyiovai. cl 8 s iwl rfiaL irapeovarjai rvx'QO'h 
(€k) tcov i/C€? vevaxrqyrjkaaL TerpaKoaLai, aXXa? 4k rdvi 
OTparo7rc8ov Tpir)Kocria<; aTTOTriyutyeis irepiirkeu/ IIcXo- 
irowrjorov, aqiofiaypi tol ywovraL 01 ai/Ti7raAoi, ' a At) 9 
Se ca)!' 6 i/avrtfco? orparos hvorfieraxeipiOTo^ tc avroun 
yiveTai, Kal dpxy)V ovk dijiofiaxoC tol eaovrai, Kal 7ras 
6 j>avn/cos ral 7rc£a> dprj^ei Kal 6 7rc£os t<5 i/avrucoM 
6ftoS Tropeuofievo^' ei Sc Siacriracrcis, ovrc crv ccreat 
iKeivoicri xprjaiiio^ ovtc eKelvoi aoL ra (TCowtoS 8c 

after Trpoo-SoKa (17). — 21. i|Mt- ical. — 9. 4ir£: after, on top of. 

Xt|Tl: Attic dfmx^L. See on 7. 164. 10. — 10. <<k> t&v: 

236. 2. 'Ax<u|iIvt|s : cp. 7. 6. in consequence of which. For the 

— Tt . . . xal . . ., tc . . . icaC : ob- Mss. reading tw, Baehr suggested 
serve the correlation of the two ^k twv, which seems to be nec- 
explanatory clauses. — 4. &vaYv»- essary. — 11. airovtf|M|rfi$ : fut. in 
<r8{j : see on 77. 1. — 7. xal 7ap 8rfj : m9nitory cond., as 16 below, the 
for of a surety. Cp. Horn. II 810. pres. in the apod. . (yivovrtu) em- 
The following icat means even or phatically anticipating the fut. — 
also. Cp. kcu yap kol. 6. 108. 3. 12. &{i6)M&xoC toi -ytvovTai : cp. 7. 

— toiovtouti: looks forward. — 157. 16. — 13. Svo^uTaxcCpvorot : 
8. tov evrvxitv : gen. of cause. — hard to deal with. Cp. 8vo^a/>o»- 
<j>0o Woven . . . o-nrylowi : homoe- totoltoi 7. 9. /3 12. — 1 4. &f»x4 v : sec 
oteleuton. crrvyctv = /xto-ctv, poet- on 7. 9. (j 7. — 17. ImCvourt: /.*. 



237. i 3 ] HERODOTUS VII ^99 

TidefjLCvos ev yvciprjv e\e tol tcov avrnro\4p<ov prj iifiXe-''** 
yeadai irprjypaTa, ry Te arrja-ovrai tov noXepov rd re 
iroujcrovo'i ocrot re 7r\r}06<; ctcrt. ikolvoi yap eicelvoC ye 20 
avrot e<t)vrq>v irepi <f>povri£eiv eiorC, rj/icts 8e rjpecov 
wcravTcos. Aa/ccSat/xd^tot 8c f/v uwcri avrCa Tlepo"fl<ri 
237 €5 pd^qv^ oi8ev to irapeov Tpiopa ouceovrai. a/xct/Jerat 
Bep&ns rotcrtSc ' 'Axaluevei, cv t4 1101 So/ccts \4yeiv 
fcai iroirjO'Q) ravra. ArfpaprjTos be keyei pey ra apurra 
cX^crat cXpat e/zoi, yvatpr) p4vroi ea&ovrdi yirb ceo. 
oi yap 877 /ccti>d yc ivh4l~op.au. okcds ovk evvoei toutlS 
e/xourt irprjypao-i, toIctl Te \eyop4voicri irporepov c/c 
tovtov OTadpwpevo? #cat r<3 eovri, ore iroXirjrr]^ pev 
iro\vrJTi[i ev irpnjacrovri <f>0ovel /cat ccrri Svapevfjs ty} 
(nyjj, oih* av ovpfiovkevop4vov tov olctov ttoXltjtt)^ 
avrjp to. dpicrrd ol So/ccoi/ra elvai vtto64oitOj el ptj 10 
irpoca) aperr}? dvrjKoi ' criravioi 84 ctcrt ol tolovtol ' 
£e2vos 8c ijeivco ev irprjcro'ovTi ccrrt evpev4a , TOTov nav- 
T(ov, ovp/3ov\evop4vov Te av crvp/Sovkevo'et.e ra dpiara. 

those sent to Cythera. — 18. -yvca- o7r<os clause. Cp. 7. 16. a 1. — 

W *X« : periphrasis for ytyvaxT/cc, 8k«s: see on 7. 159. 5. — 6. Ik 

determine. — |atj iiriXfyfo-ftai : not tovtov: see on 7. 11. 14. — 7. t$ 

to consider. Cp. 7. 50. 3. Note &vn: by the fact, explained by 

intrusion of the inf. into its ob- the on clause. — 8. t{j 0-17$: by 

ject clause. — 19. o*rrfj<rovrat tAv his silence, when he should advise 

*6X«|iov : will set on foot the war. or warn. — 9. dorofl : for variety 

Cp. 7. 9. P 3. — 23. TpwjMi: cp. 7. with 77-0X117x775. — 10. cl jm| irp6<r«> 

233. 11. — dtcfovnu: = aKccrovrai. &prrf)s &Wjkoi: unless he had got 

The figure in Tpwfia is sustained, far on in virtue. Cp. 7. 9. 74. For 

<LccoVr<u is a conjecture for the irpoaw with gen., see S. 1439 a i 

Mss. AvtdVrat, which is not found • HA. 757. — 12. itycWo-TaTov : neu- 

elsewhere. ter pred., esp. freq. in gnomic utter- 

237. 5. ictfvo: explained by the ances. Cp. 7. 10. ^7, — 13. wj*- 



300 



HERODOTUS VII 



[237. 14 



ovto) S>v KakoXoyLTis rtipi rfjs C9 Ar)[idpr)TOv, iovros 
238e/xot tjeivov, €)(e&vdl riya rov \omov Kekevoj. ravra 
ct7ra5 Sep^Tj? Stcgjje 8ta rcov veicpcov Kal AeawtSeai, 
OLKrjKocos art fiaaiXevs re rjv Kal arparrfyb^ AaKeSauxo- 
pta>z', €/ccAeua"c airorafiovras ty)v Keyahrjv avaxrravpwr 
o~at. 8^Xa /x,ot 7roXXoto"t fiev Kal aXXowri TCK/u/ty/Houri, 5 
ci> 8c /cat raJSc ovk rJKicrra yeyove, on /Jao^tXcvs SepftyS 
ndvrwv $n fidXtara dvhpcov i0vfi(o0r) £aWi AeojvtSri * 
ov yap ai/ /core €5 rov vtKpov ravra Trapevofirffre, eirei 
rifidv fidkiara vofii^ova'L rcov iya) oTSa avdpcimcov 
UepcraL aVSpas dya9ov$ rd 7roXe/xta. ot /xcj/ 8^ ravra 10 



PovXcvopivov tc . . . <rv^Pov\cv<rcic 
Td apurra: and if he consulted 
would give the best counsel; juxta- 
position of contrasted voices, as 
7. 209. 3,7. 235. 11, 13.— 14. &v- 
tos 4|*ol gcCvov: the gen. abs. em- 
phasizes the causal relation to the 
following clause. — 15. fyco-Scu : = 
a7T€;(eo-0(u. See on 7. 169. 11. — 
nva: general term for specific, 
freq. in exhortations or warnings. 
See on 7. 5. 12. — tov Xoiirov : for 
the future, as 6. 12. 20. Cp. to 
Xoittov in same sense 7. 104. 24. 
The readings of the Mss. vary 
much in this last sent., but the 
general sense is clear. 

238. 4. iic&cvcrc . . . dvewrrav- 
p»<rai: so Artaxerxes had the 
head and right hand of Cyrus the 
younger cut off and set up on a 
pole (Xen. Anab. 1. 10. 1 ; Plut. 
Artox. 13). — 5. $*|Xa: neut. pi. 



where sing, is more natural, as 
freq. in Hdt. and Thuc. — 6. tv 
84: adv. Cp. 7.224. 8. — 8. -yAp: 
for else, the cond. being omitted. 
Cp. 6. 50. 9, 6. 68. 13. — 9. rvpav 
l&dXuTTa: see e.g. 7. 181. 

SECRET MESSAGE OF DEMARA- 
TUS TO SPARTA ; SAGACITY OF 
GORGO 

239. Kriiger considers this 
whole chapter an interpolation 
(" ein ungehoriges Einschiebsel ""), 
interrupting the context, not con- 
nected with anything that had gone 
before, and characterized by confu- 
sion of statement as well as by un- 
usual expressions. Abicht thinks 
it a manifest imitation of the sto- 
ries told in 1. 123 and 5. 35. In 
bracketing the chapter, Kriiger is 
followed by Kallenberg, Abicht, 
and Sitzler. But Stein, who finds 



239.i 5 ] HERODOTUS VTI 301 

19 iiroieov, rowrt iirereraKTo noielv. [avetfii 8c eKelae tov 
koyov tq fioi to wporepov cgcAt7rc. eirvuovTo Aa/ccoat- 
fioviOL ort /JaoiAcvs arcXXotTO CTrt t^i> e EXXa8a irpwrot, 
Kai ovto) &7 c? to xprjOTTJptov to C5 AcX<^ov? aireirep,- 
\ftav, €v0a 817 <r<£i ixpijcrOr) tol d\Cya> irporepov elirov * 5 
iuvdovTO 8e Tponq) Oa)[xa<TL(o. ArjfidprjTos yap 6 'Apt- 
oto>i>os <f>vya)v es M7780V9, a>s /zci> eya> 8o/cca>, [/cat to 
ot/cog c/xol a^)fiiid^(€Tai\ovK Tjv cvi/005 Aa/ccSat/jtoi/toto^, 
irdpeaTi 8c ctiea^cti' c?tc evvoiy Tavra c7rot^o"c ctTC /cat 
Karayaipoiv * inevre yap %ep£r) c8o£c orpaTrjkaTeZv iirl 10 
riji' 'EXXaSa, caw ci> 2ovo"ot<rt 6 Arjudprjros /cat trvOor 
fjuevos Tavra rjOeXrjae Aa/cc8at/otoi>toto"t i^ayyeikau 
aKKcos pjEV on) ovk ct^c (rqp/qvai eiriKivOvvov yap t rjy 
/jltj Xafi^Oeir) ' 6 8c firj^avaTat TotaSc * 8cXTtoi> 8t- 
ittv\ov Xaficov tov KTfpbv avrov igeKPTjae /cat ineiTa iv 15 

the chapter "in content and Ian- 1. [avcipi 8c ktI. : a formula of 

guage above suspicion," brackets return from a digression. Cp. 7. 

merely the introductory formula, 137. 22. — ckcIo-c: 7. 220. 10 IF. — 

aveifu . . . €^€Ai7r€, as suitable only 2. IgeXiirc : left off. — 7. rh oIk<5$ : 

for a return to the main narrative probability, as 7. 103. 15. — 8. c^ol 

after a digression, as 1. 140. 15, 7. (rvpiidxcrai : supports me. Per- 

137. 22, not to bring in an anecdote, sonification, as 1. 98. 17 ro /icv 

An explanation, needed for 7. 220. kov tl kcu to x<apiov avfipja^^i, and 

10 ff., to show how the Spartans 5. 65. 7 rolci 8c 1/ avrrj avrrj (sc. 

before the rest of the Hellenes got <twtv\ltJ) (Tvfifmxoq. — 10. Ka/ra- 

news of the intended invasion, x a 'P" v: in derision, as 1. 129. 

and which, given earlier, would 2. Cp. hnyaiptiv^ cVtxopis, cVi- 

have interrupted inappropriately X'W" 1 - — 14. Xa|t+toh| : = Ai^&uy. 

the account of the catastrophe at — 8c\t(ov SCirrvxov : a tablet 

Thermopylae, Stein says might with two leaves folding together 

well come in here ; but he thinks so as to protect the wax. 8eA- 

it a later addition of Hdt., not prop- tlov seems not to be found else- 

erly wrought into the narrative. where, and hCirrv^pv is poetical. 



3 02 HERODOTUS VII [239. 1 6 

tw £6\<t) tov ScXtiov iypaufie ttjv /SaatXeos yvdfiiqvy 
woLTJaas 8c tolvtcl oiriao) inerrj^e tov icqpbv eirl tcl 
ypdfAfiaTa, Iva <f>ep6fievov Keivbv to 8cXtioi> prfBev 
7rprjyfia wape)(OL 7rpos t£>v 68ocj>v\dKa)v. iirel 8c /cat 
am'/ccro C9 ttjv AaKeSaCfiova, ovk efyov o"i///,j8aXccr0ai 20 
oi AaKeSoLi/Jiovioi, npCv ye 877 <r<£i, a>s iy<o 7rvvddvofiai, 
KXco/otcVcos fiev 0xjydT7)p, AcawiScco 8c yvvrj Topyco 
vrieuefo imcjypacrdeLO'a avnj, tov icqpbv kvolv /ccXcuovcra, 
kcu evpTJaeiv ericas ypd[ifiaTa iv raJ £v\<o. ireiOofLtvoi 
8c evpov /cat iireketjavTO, cTrctra 8c touti aXXotcri *EX- *5 
Xtjo-i ineoreiXav. ravra /otcv 8>) ot/nw Xeyerat yeveadai.^ 

— 17. iir£rr){c r6v Ki)p6v: poured thought of it herself \ For another 
melted wax over. — 18. kciv6v: instance of Gorgo's sagacity, see 
blank. — \ii\tev irp{\7|ia irapfyoi : 5. 51, where she, then a child 
might give no trouble. Cp. 7. 147. of 8 or 9 years, advises her father 
9. — 19. 68o<j>vXdKO)v : elsewhere against a bribe from Aristagoras. 
only in late writers. — 20. dirt- — 24. cvptfj<rciv : sc. Xiyowra from 
kcto : sc. to SeXtlov. — o-vjipaXI- KcXevowa. — 25. £irc\4£avro: read; 
v6ai: to interpret, understand, with this meaning only in Ionic. 

— 21. irpCv -yc Srfj : until at last. — — 26. MvrtiXav: sent word, i.e. 
23. *m<)>pa<r6€ura avrfj : having of the proposed invasion of Greece. 



1. 10] HERODOTUS VIII 303 

HPOAQTOT 

TOY 

AAIKAPNH22E02 I2TOPION OrAOH 
EnirPA*OMENH OTPANIA 

1 Oi 8c *l!X\ijv<ov c? rov vavriKov arparov ra^ercs 
•Jjaav o?8c, 'AOrfvaioi fikv veas irapexpfievoi itcaTov /cat 
euKOcn KaX kttrd • vnb 8c dperijs re /cal 7rpo0vp.(r)<; IlXa- 
Tcucts, drrctpoi rr/s vavriKrjs cdi^rc?, (rvveir^rjpovv rowrt 
* AdrjvaCoio'L rds ^cas, KopivOioi 8c recraepaKowa veass 
irapeixovro, Meyapeis 8c ci/cocn. /cal XaX/a8cis iTrkrj- 
povv eiKoai, 'Adrfvalojv <r<f>i TrapvxpvTwv rd? yeas, 
Aiyti^rai 8c o/crco/catSc/ca, Si/cva^ioi 8c Siro/caiSe/ca* 
AaiecSai/Aoi'ioi 8c 8c/ca, 'ETriSavpioi 8c oktco, 'Eperpicis 
8c €7rra, Tpoitrfvioi 8c ircme, Urupeis 8c 8vo /cal K77101 10 

form a more natural connection 

THE CONTINGENTS OF THE GREEK w i tn the close of 7. 238 than with 

fleet ; reasons for CHOOS- that of 7. 239, though the transition 

ING A spartan as COMMAN- is abrupt at the best. — 3. virrf : by 

der-in-CHIEF (cc. 1-3) reason of. Syn. § 5. — nXarauts : 

1. 1. tAv vavnic&v orTpaTdv: warm friends of the Athenians on 

the advance of the Persian fleet account of their aid against the 

from Therma to Aphetae was de- . Thebans. See. 6108. 4 f. — 6. irap- 

scribed in 7. 179-195. This was cCxovto: a change from the partic. 

followed by the account of Ther- in 2 after the intervening clause 

mopylae. The naval engagements viro 8c . . . rots vcW — ical : here 

at Artemisium are now taken up, and in 10 kcli is used between 

and, as in the case of Thermopy- equal numbers, 8c in the other 

lae (7. 202), Salamis (8. 43-48), cases. — XaXiuScts: Athens set- 

and Plataea (9. 28-30), Herodotus tied 4000 colonists in Chalcis in 

begins with an enumeration of the Euboea about 506 B.C. See 5. jy. 

Greek forces. The opening words 11, 6. 100. 4. — 7. <t«|h: Att. 



3<>4 



HERODOTUS VIII 



tl.t! 



8uo re veas /cat TrevTrjKOprepovs 8vo. AoKpol Sc <r<f>L oi 
'OirovvTtoL inefioTJOeov TT€vTr)Kovr4povs empires hrrd. 

2rjcrav fiev 3>v oxrroi oi crrpaTevofievoi iir *A/>T€/uo"toi>, 
ctpcarat 8c fiot /cat a>9 to 7t\t}0o<; c/caarot tcov vewv 
wapeixpvTo. a pud fibs 8c t5)v <rvXXc^^ct(rccoj/ vt5>v in 
9 Aprc/jtt<rtoi/ tji>, irdpei; rS>v irevrrjKovreptov, St^/cdcrtat 
Kat i/SSofiTJKovTa /cat //,ta. rw 8c (TTpar^yov tov to 5 
fieyiCTTOv /cparos fyovTa irapei^ovro ^irapTirJTcu Evpv- 
fiidSrfv Evpv/cXctScco * ot yap oiififiaxoi ovk €<f>a<rai/ 9 
rfv fir/ 6 Aa/can> rpyefioveirQ, ' A0r)vaioicri ct|/co"0at ijyco- 
fievoLcn, dXXa Xvo"€ti> to fiekXov c<rco"0at orpdrevfjua. 

3 iyevero yap kolt ap^as \6yos, irplv rj Kat cs St/ccXtij*/ 



avrots. Syn. § 9. 5. — 11. Was : = 
Tpti/pcts as opposed to irevTrjKovre- 
poi or 7rXota transports. — <r^>i : 
rots "EAAiycri. — 12. 'Ottovvtioi: so 
named from their chief city to dis- 
tinguish them from the '0£6Axu 
(8. 32. 8) on the Corinthian Gulf. 
2. 1. 'ApT€|iC<riov : for its loca- 
tion see 7. 176. 1 f. — 2. clptarcu Sc 
ktI. : and I have mentioned them 
just in the order of the number 
of ships supplied by each. In the 



sion about the leader. See App. 
— 3. &pi0|i6s : the sum, the count 
of the ships; but to irkijOos twv 
v€<ov in 2 is the size of the number 
of the ships. — 4. vdpc£: Att. 
^cope's. — 8. 6 Adic»v : if the ques- 
tion of the leadership was settled 
at the preliminary meeting of 
Greek envoys at the Isthmus (7. 
145. 2, 7. 172. 4), as is implied in 
the next chapter, the Laconian 
does not refer to Eurybiades, for 



enumeration of the contingents at »at that time he had probably not 
Salamis (8. 43-48) a geographical been appointed ; it means rather 



division is made, though some at- 
tention is also paid to the number 
of ships furnished. At Plataea 
(9. 28-30) the order is that of 
the line of battle, beginning on 
the right. Stein suggests that the 
present arrangement is made with 
reference to the following discus- 



the Laconian commander, whoever 
he might be. Note also the gen- 
eral phrase * kOrjvaiouri . . . ijyco- 
fjLtvoun, the Athenians if they were 
the leaders. — 9. Xfoiiv: ovk be- 
fore €<jxurav affects only hptcriku. 

3. 1. wplv <| Ka(: even before. 
Att. writers omit rj. — h SuccXtip : 



3.13] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



305 



irefLireiv iifi avfifia^Crfv, a>$ to vavriKov 'A^Tji/atotcrt 

XP*° V c "7 €7TlTpdir€LV. aVTlfidvTQ)V 8c t5)V (TVflfld)^(OV 

elicov oi 'Adrfvcuoi, fiiya re iroieofAevoi irepitivai tt)v 
'EXXdSa Kal yvovres, el cTacidcovo'i irepl ttJs fjyep.0- 5 
1/117$, a>s dTroXctTat 17 'EXXa?, opda voeovrts • orcuro 
yap cjLt^vXo? 7roXe/xov 6[io(f)pov€OPTo<; tocovto) k<xkiov 

iaTL 0<T<p 7ToXc/jLO$ eipTfjvr)*;. im<TTdfL€VOL S)V OVTO 

tovto ovk dvrerewov dXX* cxkov, fiexpi oaov tcdpra 
iheovro air(ov, <ws SicSefav * a>s yap 87) oKrdfxepot top 10 
Heptrqv mpl rrjs eKeivov 19817 to*/ dyaW zttoUovto, 
7rp6<f>acrLV ttjv Tlavaat/iea) vfipiv TTpdia^ofievoi a7rct- 
Xoito t^u rjye/iovuqv tovs AaKcSaijLioi/iovs. dXXd raSra 



see 7. 157 f. — 2. irlpirfiv: impf. 
inf. " The durative tenses of irkpr 
ireiv are often used where we should 
expect the complexive (or aoristic) 
tenses " (Gildersleeve on Pind. 01. 

2. 23). Cp. C7TI Sc AtXLKOV . . . 

vca <JbrcorcAAov 8. 64. 10. — <n»ji- 
|iax^ v: <*#&*• For the concrete 
sense, cp. Kal is rrjv AaKc&u/uova 
Trpto-p&s dirccrrciAav 07r<as ivfi/jua- 
X&L tc avrofc irapayevrp-ai Thuc. 6. 
73. 2. — 5. yv6vr*s : having formed 
the opinion. — ct o-too-i&o-ovo-i. : on 
the rat. indie, see GMT. 447.— 
7. 6fju>4poWovTos : undertaken with 
united purpose. The word, which 
properly applies to those engaged 
in the war, is transferred to the 
war itself. This poetical use is 
explained by Verrall {Class. Rev. 
17 0903)>P» 98) as a probable quo- 
tation from some gnomic poet. 



He restores the hexameters as 
follows : opda. voevvrcs • \ elprjvrjs 
yap o<r<p irdAe/AO?, toottoJSc kokiov \ 
€fji<f>v\os iroKipjov oracis iarlv 
6/xo<£poveWros. — icdiuov: for the 
neut. see S. 1048; HA. 617. — 
8. aird : the emphasis this gives 
to tovto may be brought out in 
connection with the verb, being 
quite persuaded of this. — 9. h^XP 1 
&rov : as long as. — 10. avrwv : 
i.e. tG>v avfi/mxo)v. Or until 
they (the allies) needed them 
(the Athenians) ; but the change 
of subj. is strange, and Hdt. 
uses fiexpi ov until (with aor.), 
not oaov. Cp. 3. 157. 10 fiixP e 
£6775 through life. — Si&cgav : Dial. 
§ 1. ii. 2. — «s -yAp 8rfj : for, in 
fact, when. — II. irepl Tfjs: sc. 
yrj'S. — iicclvov : refers to tov Hip- 
arpr. — 12. dircCXovTO ; Dial § 2. 3, 



306 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[4. 



4 p>ev vorepov iyevero ' Tore 8c oxrrot oi kcu in 9 Apre- 
fiCaLOv < EXXt/i/g>*> dwLKOfievoi co 5 el8ov veas re TroXXds 
Kara'xOeCo'as c? rd? 'A^erds Kal (rrpoLTLrjs anavra 7rXca, 
C7T€t avrourt napd ho^av rd TrpTJyfiara t<ov fiapfidpcov 
direfiatpe fj a»? avrol KareboKeov, KaTapp(o8TJo'avT€S 5 
hpnr)<rpLOv IfiovKwovTo dirb tov ^Aprefiicriov ica* c? rf)i/ 
e EXXa8a. yvovTts 8c <r<f>ea<; oi Evfioeis ravra fiovkevo- 
lievovs iSeovro Evpu/Jia8ea> irpocrfi^ivai ypovov okiyov, 
€<tt av avroi T€Kva t€ /cat tov? 01/ceras vneKOeavrai. 
a>9 8* ov* eireiOov, iiera^dvre^ tov *A0r)vaia)v (rrparrjyov 10 
ireidovcri ©c/ottcrro/cXca C7rl fjuadcp TpiTjKOvra rakdv- 
tokti, iir <5 tc KOLTaneij/avTes npb rrj<; Ev/Jofys ttoltj- 



— 14. vo-rcpov: after the capture 
of Byzantium in 477 B.C. (Thuc. 
1. 94-95 ; Arist. Ath. Pol. 23). 

THEMISTOCLES, BRIBED BY THE 
EUBOEANS, PREVENTS THE RE- 
TREAT OF THE GREEKS (CC 
4,5) 

4. i. KaC: actually ; cp. 7. 239. 
19. Apparently there is a refer- 
ence to the retreat to Chalcis (7. 
183. 4). — 3. 'A+crds: on its po- 
sition see 7. 193. — 5. ij «s . . . 
KarcS6iccov : unnecessary after 7rapa 
8o£av, but occurring also in 1 . 79. 
9. Cp. rjKovz . . . tovs ivavTiovs\6- 
yovs rj d>s civtos KareSdicci I. 22. II. 
The Greeks had expected few Per- 
sian ships to be left after the storm 
at Sepias (7. 192. 8).— 6. Spij- 
o-pbv 4pov\c4ovro: the mid. again 
in 8. 75. 14, but Sprjafiov i/3ov\€vov 



in 8. 18. 6, 8. 97. 5, 8. 100. 5. — &r» : 
i.e. into the inner waters by way 
of the Euripus. — 7. o^cas : Att. 
avrovs. — 9. olic£ras: the house- 
hold in general. — fare k<M»vt<u : 
Dial. § I. I. 2. — 10. |KToPdvTcs: 
in fiera- lies the idea of change 
from Eurybiades to Themistocles. 
— 11. |u<r0$ : in appos. to raXav 
tol(tl\ for the order cp. 1. 160. 12, 
5. 65. 10. — 12. 4ir $ rt : with 
fut. indie, instead of inf. (GMT. 
610). — Little credence should be 
given to this story of the bribery 
of Themistocles. It was to the 
interest of the Athenians, above 
all, that the battle with the Persian 
fleet should be fought out at Arte- 
misium, while Eurybiades could 
not allow a retreat without expos- 
ing Leonidas, since the Persian 
fleet need only sail down and land 



5.i 4 ] HERODOTUS Vlil 307 

bcovrai rfjv vavfiaxCyv* o 8c ©c/juotokXojs tovs 
*E\\r)i/a$ iino~)(€iv S)8e 7roiet* Evpvf3id8r) tovtw tcov 
XpqfidT&v ftcra8i8ot irevre rd\ama a>9 Trap e<ovrov 
8fjdev 8i8ovs. cos 8c 01 ovtos dverrerreia'TO ('AScc/acii/tos 
yap 6 'Hkvtov, Y^opwQimv CTparrfyo^ t5>v Xoltt&vS 
rjairatpe fiovvos, <f>dfievos dnonXevo'ea'daC re dirb rov 
'Aprefiuriou Kal ov irapafievelv), npbs 8^ rovrov elite 6 
©c/awttokXojs c7ro/zd<ras - Ov (tv ye rf/xea^ drroXcu^ct?, 
CTrct rot eyco /zc£a> hcopa Saxrco fj /JcuriXcvs ai/ rov 6 
MtJ8q}v irepjtyeie dirokiTrovTi tovs avfifiaxovs. ravrdio 
re a/xa rjyopeve Kal ttepmei eirl tyjp vea rf/v 'Aheifidvrov 
rdXavra dpyvpCov rpia. o\rroi re 8rf irXrjycvres Scopoicn 
di/aireireianevoL ijaav Kal tolctl Evfioevcri eKe^dpicTTO, 
avros re 6 SefiiaTOKkeq^ CKcpSr/i/c* ekdvdave 8c rd 

troops in his rear in order to make the pronouns, by the alliteration 

his destruction certain. Possibly in /x.e£a> 3ajpa Swcrco, and by the 

the Euboeans were frightened into order /focriAeus . . . toi 6 MrjSw 

furnishing some needed supplies . . . aTroknrovri. — 11. tc apa . . . 

by threats of withdrawal. ica( : so promptly did he send the 

5. 3. pcraSiSof : Dial. § 4. 4. money that the two actions were 

— &9 vap cWrov Sffltv 8i8ovs: almost simultaneous: "no sooner 
giving it as out of his own pocket, said than done." See Syn. § 30. 2 c. 
of course, SrjOev is frequently — 12. irXtrycVrc * 8<&poio-i : cp. ir\rj- 
strongly ironical. — 5. -yap: see yeh virb rrjs 8co/oo8o#ctas Plut. Dem. 
Syn. §31.4. — 6. f\<riraip* : resisted. 25 . See App. — 13. roto-i Ev- 
Properly of violent physical strug- (Jocvo-i cKcxapioro : the Euboeans 
gles; so of fish just caught in 9. had been satisfied. This is an un- 
120. 4. — Ti . . . Kal oi: Hdt. usual impers. construction of xa/ot- 
often puts a statement both posi- go/uu. — 14. afrrds tc : this answers 
tively and negatively for emphasis, to ovtol re. — 84 : this introduces a 

— 8. ov <H> yc ktI. : in this answer slight contrast, while dAA* in the 
of Themistocles note the effect next line is the proper word for the 
produced by the juxtaposition of strong contrast following the neg- 



Xotira €\tsxp^ aXX' TjirtcrTearo ol /AeraXajSrWes tovto>p 15 
Twv ^pr)fjidro}p ck twp ' ' A.8i\v4mv iKdztp im r&J Xoyw 
toi/tgi [xa ^pijfLara]. 
6 Ovrw S17 KaT€fjL€ivdv re It- ttJ Eu^Joltj feat £pavp,d- 
^Tjcxap. cyei/exo oe woe eTretre otj €9 ras Atpera? 
Trept SciXijp 7rp<x)t7}v yivofxivriv airiKaro ol ftdpfiapoL, 

1TV&6fL€VGL fJL€V €TL Kal WpOT€pOV 7T€pl TO * ApT€jJLLO"lOP 

pavXo^lp peas 'EXXijptSa? oXtyas? Tore Se avrol 1$6p- 5 
W f TTp60vp,Qi ^<rav im)(eip€£v $ €t ko»s eXotex> auras. 

€tf /JLeV St) T?J? dvTir}$ TTpOCTTfXcL^ OU Kto CT^t eSoKCL 

rapSe eiWita, jiif jcojs iSoVres ot 'EXX-ipes TrpotTTrXtWras 
I5 <f>vyr)v opp,T) creta^ {frtvyavrds T€ €V<f>popr} KaraXaft- 
/3aVp " Koi e/xcXXop Sijdei' €K€J)€v£;€€r&ai 7 eSei 8e /i.i}8c 10 



ative idea in cAarflave. ^15* ipri- 
o-T«<iTo : believed. See Dial. § 4. 3. 

THE PERSIANS SEND SHIPS ROUND 

EUBOEA TO CUT OFF THE 

GREEKS (CC. 6, 7) 

6. 2, tirttif : Att. eVet. — 3. irfpl 

SiiXnv kti. : dfi$0tt£ the beginning 

of the afternoon. Cp. 8. 9. 7. — 

7Lvo[iivf]K : Dial. § 2. 5. — dirt- 

kolto 1 Dial. § 4- 3- — 4* w8i|**i«>i • 

probably from the Greek ships 

captured some days before (7. 

I79 f,), Iri KO\ TTp4T€pOV : cp. 

(without kcu) 1. 92. 20, 6. 33, l6 T 
8. 69. 9. — 5. ISovTts : on the way 
past Artemisium to Aphetae. — 
6. ft k-u« SXouv : if haply they 
might take them. A frequent con- 
struction in Homer, and not un- 



common in Hdt. (GMT. 487 f.). 
Cp. 7. 145. 15. For Kan see Dial. 
§2.1. — 7. Ik - . . t^s &vr(ip : from 
in fronts in contrast with the plan 
for taking them in the rear t which 
is presently explained. — 9. icara- 
Xa^pavfl : come upon. Usually 
tins verb implies something unex- 
pected and unpleasant. Cp. 8. 21. 
9*8. 109. 25. — to. t|uXXov S^tkv 
iic^tulea-Gai : they were quite cer- 
tain to escape. The past tense 
tfjaXXov , like ffict in the next clause, 
expresses the thought of the Per- 
sians from the point of view of the 
time of Hdt. (GS. 272). The 
direct thought of the Persians 
would be "they are, no doubt 
(St}0cf), going to escape." $i}0ev, 
consequently! is not ironical, as in 



7.12] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



3°9 



7rvp<f>6pov r<j> iKeivwp Xoyoi iK(f>vy6vra ireptyevecrdaL. 
7 irpos ravra 2>v ra8c ip/qyavSnno • rcov vecov cwracrcW 
aTTOKpivavT€<; hi7)Ko<Tia<$ irepvenefjiTroi/ ££<o0€v ^ladOov, 
Q}<; av /jltj OKfrdeCrjaav inb rS)v 7ro\€fiL(ov 7repnr\4ova'ai 
EvfioLav Kara re Ka<j>7)pea Kal irepl Tepaiarbv es rbv 
JLvpinov, Xva 8r) irtpikdfioiev oi fiev ravrrj aiTLKOfievoi 5 
Kal <f>pd£avT€$ avrcov rrjv onCao) <f>€povaav 68di/ ? creels 
8c iirunrofievoL i£ ivavrCrjs. ravra fiovXevadfAevoi 
dneTrefiirov r£>v ve<ov ras ra^cio-as, avrol ovk iv vou 
ej(OKrc$ ravrqs rrjs rjneprjs rotai v EXXtjo"i eindrjo'to'dai, 
ov8c nporepov ^ to crvvOrjfid <r<f>i ifiekXe (^amjaeaOat 10 
irapa r5>v 7repi7r\e6vra)v a>9 tjkoptcov. ravra? /oiei> 8^ 
Trepieirefiirovy rcov 8c XoiTrcan/ i>€aii> ei> rijcrt 'A^crjjcri 



8. 5. 4. Cp. ri 89 dv8pa>0€VT£s 
&}0€v 7r(K77<rovo-t what will they do 
when they are really men (6. 138. 
18). — 11. irvfxjxJpov : the priest 
who bore the sacred fire. His 
person was inviolable ; hence ovSc 
7rvp<f>6pos iXctyOr) became a pro- 
verbial expression for utter annihi- 
lation. 

7. 2. 2ictd0ov: an island east 
of Magnesia, north of Artemisium. 
The squadron passed northwards 
between Magnesia and Sciathus, 
and then sailed down the east side 
of the island. — 3. &v : on the opt. 
with 3v in a final clause, see GMT. 
329. Cp. 7. 176. -24. — 4. Kard, 
wipi : past, around. Geraestus is 
the southernmost point of Euboea. 
Hence the different prepositions, 



the latter of doubling the cape. — 
5. ol \Uv : those in the 200 ships. 
— Ta*Tfl : in that way, i.e. by the 
Euripus. — 6. <r<j>c£s : this refers 
to the subj. of irepuirefiirov, the 
main body of the Persians. See 
Syn. § 9. 1. a. — 9. iiri04)o-co4ai : 
for the fut. instead of the aor., 
see GMT. 113 ; GS. 326; Syn. § 15. 
4. c. — 10. 2|m\Xc : the imperf. of 
fxe Wu) with 'the inf. expresses a 
fut. idea in past time; in Attic 
irplv av (fxLvrj. Hdt. uses the subjv. 
with irplv rf and irporcpov y) (with- 
out av) in 7. 197. 11 and 9. 87. 5, 
etc. (GMT. 651,653). With the 
present case cp. iiceXeve . . . (jwray- 
ycAActv on irporcpov rrftti irap Iku- 
vov rj 'Aorvdyrjs avros /3ov\Tqo~€Tai 
1 . 127. 5. — 11. &s tjk6vt<*v : Syn. 



3io 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[7. 13, 8. 1 



8 iiroiiovTO apiOfiov. iv 8c rovr<p rq> XP° V< ? * v T V o^ 7 " 01 
aptOfibv inoieovTO tcov ve£>v {fjv yap iv t<o orpaToneSq) 
tovtco SkvXXmjs Xklcdvouos, Svttjs roiv Tore avOpconojv 
dpioros, 65 /ecu iv ry vavrjyiji rfj Kara Ht/JXlov yzvor 
liivrj 7roXXa fiev ecraxre tcov \prjfjLaTcov tolctl TJipcrga'^ 5 
7roXXa 8c Kal auro? 7repic/JaXcTo), ovtos 6 SkuXXmjs iv 
voco fiev ct^c dpa Kal irporepov avTOfiokrja^iv c? tovs 
EXXijj/a?, dXX* ov yap oi irapioye. a>9 Tore. orecp p.£v 
8^ rpona) to ivOevrev en airiKero c? rovs 9 IL\\r)va$ 9 ovk 
i)(0) eliretv drpc/ccco?, Ocofjid^co 8c el t<l Xcyd/xci>a carno 
dkrjOia • Xeycrat yap a>$ c£ 'Ac^ctcW 8v$ cs r^p 
da\acr<rav ov irporepov aviate irplv rj dnucero inl to 
' Aprtfilo'Lov, oraStovs jLtaXwrrd *# tovtovs c? oySco- 



§ 25. 3. — 13. dpi0|i<Sv: this was 
their first opportunity to learn the 
extent of the damage done by the 
storm (7. 193). 

SCYLLIAS, THE DIVER, INFORMS 
THE GREEKS OF THE SQUADRON 
SENT ROUND EUBOEA 

8. 2. TJvydp: see 8. 5. 5. Syn. 
§ 31. 4. — 3. Ekkovcuos: Scione 
was a town on the 'peninsula of 
Pallene. — 4. icaC: also. He dis- 
played his skill then as well as on 
the present occasion. — vavrryCfl : 
see 7. 188 f.— 5. iroWd jicv . . . 
iroXXdS*: anaphora. — 7. dpa: he 
really had it in mind to desert, 
though the contrary might have 
been inferred. Cp. 7. 35. 11, 8. 
in. II. Syn. §15.2 f. — icalirpd- 



rcpov : the beginning words cv Sk 
TovT<t> t<§ xp6v<$ have been forgot- 
ten. — 8. dXV 0$ -ydp: but, as a 
matter of fact \ it was not possible. 
For the separation of dAAa yap, 
cp. 7. 158. 11,9.27. 22. — ol: Att. 
avnp. — irap6rx c : it was possible. 
Freq. in Hdt. — &s t6tc : as on this 
occasion. — 8tc<p : Dial. § 3. ii. 4. 
— 9. rh IvOcOtcv Iti : from this 
on. Cp. ivOevrev ovkctl 8. 118. 3, 
and, with adverbs of place, 2. 5. 
5, 2. 8. 15, 2. 119. 12, 5. 9. 1.— 
13. o-raStovs ktI. : thereby passing 
through the sea something like eighty 
stades. rovrovsy in apposition to 
crraStovs, means the distance from 
Aphetae to Artemisium. Hdt. freq. 
uses ftaXtcrra ktj to make a state- 
ment less exact. Cp. 1. 76. 5, 



9.8] HERODOTUS VIII 311 

kovtol 8ia tt}s 0a\da<rq<; 8ic£cX0<&>. Xcycrcu fiev vw 
teal aXXa ^ci/Sccri cuccXa irepl tov avbpbs tovtov, rd 8c 15 
/jLeretjerepa d\y}94a • irepl \ievroi tovtov yvdfir) fiot 
diro8c8cj(0a> ir\ot<p fiiv diriKeaOai iirl to ^Aprefxicnov. 
a>$ 8c antKerOy clvtlkcl icnjfuuve toIcl arpariqyoia'i rrjv 
re vavryyuqj/ cos yivoiro /cat ras irepiirefi<l>9eL(ra<; t£>v 
9vecov irepl Evj8oiai>. toDto 8c aKovcrazrcs oi "EXXtjj/c? 
Xoyoi' <r<^wrt avrotcrt c8tSo<rai>. 7roXX5i/ 8c \e)(dei/T(ov 
ivLKa ttjv v)\i£pi)v eKeiinqv avrov p.eivavrd<z re teal 
at/Xwrflcj/ras, fiereneiTa vvkto. ne<rqv irapewas iropev- 
e&dcu Kal diravrdv rjjen ireptirXeovcrgo'L tcov vecov. 5 
fxera 8c tovto, cos ovSct? (r<£i eireirXei, Sci'Xip oxjjltjv 
ywop,evr)v rrjs y)fiepj)s <j}vkd£avre<; avrol eiravenkeov 
iirl tovs fiapfidpovs, diroirevpav avriov ironjaao'Ocu 



THE FIRST SEA FIGHT AT ARTE- 



2. 75. 2. — 16. |&CTf^TCpa : Att. cVia. 
Pausanias 10. 19. 1 tells us that 
Scyllias dived down and loosened MISIUM ( cc 9" 11 ' 
the anchors of the Persian ships 9. 2. \670v . . . iStSocav : they 
during the storm off Pelion. Hdt. discussed the matter. Cp. 1. 97. 
had probably heard the tale, but 9, 6. 138. 15, and, of individ- 
thought it less worth telling than uals, cVci ijjrjyepOr] 6 Kvpos, e8i- 
this one, which he so gravely re- &w \6yov cwutw i. 209. 11. — 
jects. — 19. »s ycvoito : how it had 3. Mica : it prevailed. The subj. 
gone^i*. the details. The main fact is 7ropeve<r0ai kqx a.ira.vTa.v. Cp. 
was already known to the Greeks intcrc cvlkcl firj foAurciv ttjv 7roA.1v 
(7.192). — r&s ircptirc ii<|>0c£0-as : he 6. 101. 8. Hdt. does not ex- 
told of the ships that had been plain why this plan was not car- 
senl round. The supplem. instead ried out. — 4. vvkto, (U<tt)v : in 
of the attrib. ptc. would seem Att. only plur. Cp. 8. 76. 5. — 
more natural with o^/uuVa) ; possi- irapcVras : letting pass. — 6. 8c £- 
bly elliptical for he reported the \r\v . . . <j>v\d|avTcs : waiting until 
sending round of the ships that the afternoon grew late. Cp. 8. 6. 
had been sent. Cp. 8. 80. 4. 3, 8. 14. 10. — 8. air&v: this is 



312 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[9. 9, 10. i 



10 /3ov\6fJL€VOL rfjs T€ /^Ct^7J5 *at TOV StCKTrXoOV. Op&VTZS 

hi <r<f>ea<; ol re aXXot orpaTicoTai oi 3ep£eco Kal 61 
OTpaTTjyol eirnrkeovras irqval oXCyrjo'L, irdyyy <r<f>i 
/lavirjp eireveiKavres dvfjyov Kal avrol ras v4as, iXm- 
<ravT€<; <r<j)ea<; cv7rcrca>5 alpTJaeiv, ot/cdra Kapra cXirt-5 
(retires, ra? \l4v ye tcov 'Jtjkkrjvcov opaWcs oXtya? veas, 
ra? he ecovrcov irXrjdei re TroXXaTrXijcrias #cat dfieivov 
7rXcovo"a5. KaTatypovrjo-avres Tama eKvKkovvro avrovs 
€5 fieaov. octol fiev vvv tcov 'Icovcov rjaav evvooi toutl 
"EXXtjo-i, ae/coi/rc? re ecTTpaTevovro crufi<f)op7Jv re €7rote io 
ovto fieydkrjv opcovres irepiexoficvovs avrovs Kat im- 
CTdfJievoL a>s ovSets avTcov dnovocmjcrei • ourco dcrdevea 
a<f>L i(j>aCv€TO elvat rd tcov 'EXkijvtov npTJy/iaTa. octolctl 
he /cat rjhofievoLCTt fjv to yivofievovy dfiiWav eiroUovro 



further defined by ftax^s and Sick- 
tt\6ov. — 9. SicKirXdov: a maneu- 
ver in which a ship darted through 
the enemy's line to get a favorable 
position for ramming, or to break 
the oars of the hostile ship in pass- 
ing. Some years later the Athe- 
nians acquired great skill in such 
tactics. 

10. 3. ird-yxv: Att.7raw. For 
its use with C7revciicavr€9 cp. iray- 
XV Sok€lv or KaraSoKetv to be thor- 
oughly convinced 1. 31. 4, 6. 16. 10, 
7. 32. 7 and trarfyy IXirC^tw to con- 
fidently expect 3. 157. 4, 8. 12. 7. 

In fJUOLVLTJV T€ TOUTL * AOrjVCLlOKTl €1TC- 

<f>tpov Kal 7rayxy oXcdptrjv 6. 1 12. 
6 it is hard to separate irdyxy from 
oXtOpirjv. — 4. &ircvcUavrc$ : Ion. 



aor. of iiri<f>€fm, but not etymolog- 
ically related to fytyKov. — IXirt- 
<ravTcs : having conceived the fwpe. 
— 5. 0-4>cas: Att. avrous; the 
Greeks are referred to. — oUtfra : 
Att. ctKora. — 6. oXC-yas : sc. iowras 
(cp. 6. 1 12. 6). Sitzler takes oA/ya?, 
7roAAa7rA7/o-tas, and irAcoucras at- 
tributively. — 8. Karo^poWjoTOTft 
ravra: conceiving this idea* #ea- 
ra<f>poveiv in Hdt. is generally a 
strengthened <f>povuv, not to de- 
spise. — 4kvkXovvto ... it iifoov : 
they were trying to surround 
them. Impf. of attempted action. 
— 10. , rop^ofrijv tc hroUorro : held 
it a misfortune. — II. bno~r6|uvot : 
believing. — 13. krovoa Si koX ^So- 
|Uvoio-i : dat. of interest S. 1487 ; 



11. Il] 



rlERODOTUS VIII 



3*3 



okoi? avros eicaoros TrpaJros via *Attlkt)v ikwv irapais 
/JacnXcos Scopa Xa/xi/zerat • 'Adrjvauov yap avToiai 
U \6yos $v 7rXcioTos di/a ra arpaToneBa. Tolai 8c *EX- 
\r)<Ti a>9 icn}fir]V€ 9 irpSrra fiev avriirpiopoi tolctl fiapfid- 
poLCTL yevofievoi es to fiiaov ras irpvfivas trvvrjyayov, 
Sevrepa 8c <rr)fLjjvavTO<; ipyov ct^oi/ro, ci> 6Xiy<j> 7rep 
aTro\afi^>dei/Te^ Kal Kara orofia. ivdavra TpvqKOvra$ 
i/cas aipiova rcov fiapfidpcov Kal rov Topyov rov 
XaXafiLvicov /3a<riXco9 dScX^coi/ Qikdova rov Xepcrxos, 
Xdyi/ioi' iovra iv t<S oTpaToiriSa) avhpa. Trpwros 8c 
c EXXt/i/oh> yea r£v 7roXc/x,iW ctXc ai^p 9 Adrjvaio^ 9 Avko- 
/iiySrjs AiaxpaCov, Kal to dpLanjiov ikaj3e oxhros. tovs 10 
8 s iv Trj vav/Ma^Ly ravrr) ercpaXKccos dyaivitpfiivov^ vv(; 



HA. 771 a ; G. 1584. — 16. Xd^+c- 
toa : Att. \rj\ptTcu. — avroto-i \670s 
Ijv irXfttrros: they talked most 
about the Athenians. Cp. t^s <n}s 
StKauxruvrp rjv Aoyos 7roAAds 6. 
86. a 16. 

XX. 2. 4o*tfj|Ai)vc : sc. 6 <raA,7riy- 
icri/?. — irpAra juv . . . Sc^rcpa 84: 
properly the two clauses should 
form the apod, to d>s €<rqp.rjvc. The 
introduction of crrjfi'qvavTos makes 
a slight anacoluthon. — 4. ire p : Att. 
Kourcp. — 5. diro\a|M^vTcs : Att. 
. airokr}<f>OcvTes. Cp.8. 10. 16. From 
the description of Hdt. we might 
infer that the whole Greek fleet 
formed in a circle, allowing the 
Persians to surround them; but 
such a position would permit the 
Persians to enter the strait be- 



tween Euboea and the mainland, 
which it was the chief object of the 
Greeks to prevent. — 7. 2aXa^i- 
vCwv: of Cyprus (7. 98. 6). — 

10. tovs 8': in demonstr. sense 
= Att. tovtovs. Syn. § 8. 2. — 

11. ircpaXiccus : cp. twv 8c 3a/uW 

01 OTpaT€v6fL€VOl, COVTCS T€ Iv TW 

<TTpaT07T€S<j> t<5 MrfiiK(j> koL cwra- 
patprjfJLtvoi ra 07rAa, a>s eTSov avriKa 
kclt dpxas ywoficvqv crc/oaAxea t^v 
ftax i 7 v > %>8w oow cSvvcaro, 7rpo<ra>- 
<f>e\eiv c^cAovtcs roari ^EAAi^rt 9. 
103. 5. The common interpreta- 
tion of irtpaXiciqs in both these 
passages is indecisive, i.e. with the 
strength (dXicq) now on one side, 
now on the other. In Homer we 
have quite a different meaning. 
Cp. rf pkv 89 yiyvwrKC jJudxqs irep- 



3H 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[11. 12 



inekOovaa SccXvcrc. oi fiev 8rj "EXXtjj/cs em to 'Apre- 
fiLcriov aTTCTrXcoi/, oi 8c fidpfiapoi cs ras 'A^eras, 7roXXoi> 
7ra/)a 8d£ai/ dycovtcrdfievoL. iv Tavrrj ry vav/jLa\iji 
'AptiSco/do? AijfLVLOS fiovvos tcov arvv fiacriXel 'EXXj/pcoi/ 15 
iovrcov avro/ioXei cs tovs "EXXiyi/as, *cal 01 'Adrjvaloi, 
81a toCto to ipyov eSocrav avr<j> xfopov iv XaKapuvi. 
L2 cos Sc €v<j>p6vri iyeyovu, rjv fiev T79 copTjs fiicrov Oepos, 
iyivero 8c vScop re a7rXeTOi> 81a irdcrr]^ rijs vvktos kcu 
cncXripcu fSpovrai diro rov HtjXlov • 01 8c vexpol kcu tol 
vavijyia itjecfropeovro c$ ras 'A^cras, kcu 7rcpt re ra? 
wpapas tcov vecov eiXiovro kcu iTapacrcrov tous rapcrovs 5 



aA/cca vbcrjv II 362, z« /r»M he 
recognized that victory was now 
with the other side (it had been 
with his own). Cp. Hdt. 9. 103. 
5, which may be translated, in 
perfect agreement with the con- 
text, the Samians — , when they 
saw right at the beginning that 
the strength in the battle was with 
the other side, did what they could 
to help the Greeks. Here we are 
told that the Greeks captured 
thirty ships, while nothing is said 
of any Persian successes. Further, 
a slight contrast with the state- 
ment here may be seen in the 
words of 8. 16. 5 iv ravrrj rrj 
vavyuoL^irj irapairXyaLOi aWrj\oi<ri 
iytvovro. Note also just below in 
this chapter 01 & pdp/3apoi . . . 
7roW6v irapa 8o£av dycovtcra/oievot. 
Consequently we should trans- 
late night separated them contend- 



ing in this battle with different 
strength. The context shows on 
which side the greater strength 
was displayed. — 16. 46vt«v : this 
position of the ptc is made pos- 
sible by (rvv f3a<n\cl 

A STORM AT NIGHT TERRIFIES 
THE PERSIANS AT APHETAE, 
AND DESTROYS THE SQUADRON 
SAILING ROUND EUBOEA ; RE- 
ENFORCEMENTS ARRIVE FOR 
THE GREEKS; IN THE AFTER- 
NOON THEY DESTROY SOME 
CILICIAN SHIPS (CC. 1 2-1 4) 

12. i. pev . . . Si: the first 
clause is in thought subord., though 
coord, in form : though it was mid- 
summer. — rfjs &pi)S plo-ov Mpof: 
= rfjs Otptvrjs toprp /utccrov. As 
the Greek said Oepeos copy season 
of summer, the gen. (Lprjs is evi- 
dently due to fico-ov. — 5. vpqppat: 



13. 7 ] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



3i5 



TtoV K(t)1T€G)l>. ol 8c OTpaTlCOTCU 61 TaVTJj aKOVOPT€$ 

ravra cs <f)6/3ov Kanorearo, ekiri^ovres irdyxy airo\el- 
adai cs ola /ca/ca ^koi> • irplv yap r/ kcu dvairvevaat 
ericas 2k re rfjs vawqyiy)* Kal tov xeifiatvos tov yevo- 
fievov Kara UrjXiov, v7re'Xa/}e vavfia\vr] KapTeprj, 4k Se 10 
rrjs vavfiaxfys op./3pos t€ \d/3pos Kal pev/iara loyypa 
13 cs Oakatrtrav opfirjfieva fipovrai re o"kXt//dcu. Kal tov- 
roicrt fikv ToiavTT) vvi; eyivero, rotcrt Sc ra^^acri avr&v 
irepiifkew EvjSotai' iy avnf ttc/) iovaa in>^ noWbv ?jv en 
dypuarepr), Toaovrco -oaco iv treKdyei <f>€pofx€voi<ri eire- 
tjxtttc, Kal rb reXo? <r<f>i iyeveTO a^api • a>s yap Srj 5 
ttXcovcti avroicri ^ci/icui/ re Kat to vScop iireyCpero iovai 
Kara rd KoiXa rfjs EifioCrjs, <f>€p6fievoL to) Tri/cv/xari 



the ships were drawn up on land 
stern foremost. — 6. ol tovtq : those 
there, in apposition to those sail- 
ing round Euboea. Cp. rovrouri 
fiiv in 8. 13. 1. — 7. KaTurWaTo: 
Att. Ka&UrravTo. — ir&Yxy: see 8. 
10. 3. — 8. If ola Kaica tJkov: = 
oVi is toulvto. ktL — 12. 6p|tT)|iiva : 
having started for the sea, i.e. on 
the way to the sea. For the pf., 
cp. 8. 35. 1 and w ^aris opfxrjrca 
7. 189. 6 at M* story goes. 

13. 1. TovToio-i pev kt2. : /^te* 
&w/ .«*£# «*£#/, but those ap- 
pointed . . . had one far fiercer 
still, although it was the same. — 
5. &xapt: unpleasant ; euphemis- 
tic for kolkiotov. — 6. to vScop : the 
art is not used with xti^v, be- 
cause the wind was not specifically 



mentioned above. — 7. to KotXa: 

the southwest coast of Euboea from 
Cape Geraestus north (Strabo 
445). From Aphetae around Sci- 
athus to the KoTAa is about 150 
miles. The estimates of the dis- 
tance a ship could travel in a day 
vary considerably (cp. 1. 203. 7, 
2. 11. 5, 2. 117. 4, 4. 86. 2, 7. 
183. 14, 8. 66. 3 ; Thuc. 2. 97. 1 ; 
Xen. Anab. 6. 4. 2). In 4. 86 
Hdt. reckons 700 stades (about 80 
miles) as an average ' long day's ' 
sail; in 7. 183 it is said that the 
Persian fleet sailed from Therma 
to C. Sepias (about 105 miles), 
iravrjfxepov (perhaps 15 hours) 7rA.c- 
ovt€5. On this basis it is safe to 
say that a fleet of 200 ships could 
not get from Aphetae to Geraes- 



316 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[13.8 



kclI ovk ctSdrcs rg i^epovro itjemirrov irpbs ras nerpas. 

iTTOieiTO T€ TtOV V7TO TOV 0€OV OKO)<$ OLV i^LCCjOeiTj T(0 

14 'EWrjviKcp to HepaiKov prjhk irokkai ir\4ov €ir). ovtol 
fiev vvv irepl tol KotXa rfjs Evfioirjs 8ie<f)0€ipovTO • oi 
8c Iv 9 A<f>eTyaL fidpfiapoi, a>s <r<f)i dapevoitri V^P 7 ! 
iireXapxpe, drpepas re cl^oi/ ras veas Kai <r<f>i aTreyprjro 
/ca/ca>s Trprjaaova-i 17019(1171/ ayeiv iv ra> irapeowi. toI<tlS 
8c ^EXXtjcti inefioTJOeov vies rpels /cat TremrfKovra 'Atti- 
Kai. aSraC re hrj a<f>ea<; iireppcoaav dmicopevcu k<u 
dpa dyyeXCrj k\dov<ra a>s rcov fiapfidpcov oi 7rc/H7rXe- 
opt€$ TTjv Ev/Joiai> 7rdvres evr^crav Sie<f>OappevoL vnb tov 
yevopevov ^(eipcovo^. (frvkdijaPTes 877 tt/v airrr)i/ copiqv \o 
ttXco^tcs ineireaop vrfvo-l KiXtcrcr^jcrt • ravra? 8c Sta- 



tus under 20 hours (probably they 
would take much longer). If, 
then, they were destroyed dur- 
ing the night, they must have 
started before the preceding after- 
noon. It is generally supposed 
that Hdt. refers to the same after- 
noon in 8. 6. 2 and 8. 9. 7, but 
his statements are not definite. 
See 8. 15. 6. — 8. tylpovTo: impf. 
indie, instead of pres. opt. or 
indie, in indir. disc. S. 2624; 
HA. 936; G. 1489. — 9. 6kws 
&v: cp. 8. 7. 3. — 10. |iT)S« iro\X$ 
irXfov: in 8. 66. 6 Hdt. says 
that the Persian force when it ar- 
rived at Athens was not less than 
when it came to Sepias, a mani- 
fest exaggeration, due to his de- 
sire to magnify the victory qf the. 



Greeks. Here his religious feel- 
ings are uppermost, and he sees 
in the storm a sign that the Greek 
cause was favored by Heaven. — 
jitjW : freq. in Hdt. after affirmative 
clauses, but generally when there 
is a strong contrast = but not. 
See Syn. § 29. 

14. 3. ao-pivouri : cp. 8. 10. 13. 
— 6. rpcts leal irevHJKOvra : this 
brings the Athenian contingent up 
to 180 ships (cp. 8. 1. 2), the 
same number as they had at Sala- 
mis (8. 44. 3). — 8. &fycXCi|: the 
fact that the fleet was destroyed 
could not have been known before 
daylight, so that it must have been 
well on in the afternoon before 
the news reached the Greeks. — 
10. Srfj : so, — 1 inirMwTif : with the 



15. io] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



317 



<f)0€LpavTC<;, a>s ev<f>povr) iyivero, airenXeov diriaa) iirl rb 
I5 y Apr epic lov. TpCrg 8c r/p^p-g Seivov tl Trovr)<rdp€i/oi oi 
arparqyol r£)v fiapfidpojv i/cas ovtoj <r<f>L o\Cyas \vpai- 
vcadou kcu to ourb Scp^cco Seifialvopres ovk avipeivav 
en tovs "'EXkrjvas ftct^Tj? ap£<u, d\\a irapaKekevad* 
pevoi Kara pitrov rjfiepr)? dvr\yov ras v£a%. avvennrre 5 
8c aJorc ras auras ravras rjpepas ras re vavpa)(la<; 
yu/€<r0ai ravras Kal ras ?rcf o/iaxias ras iv ©cp/i07rv- 
Xg<rc. Jjv 8c 7ras 6 dywiv rolai Kara daka<r<rav irepl 
rov Eupwrov, a>o"7rcp rotcri ap^i Ae<ovL$r)i/ rr)v ia-fioXr/p 
fyvkdacreiv. 61 pkv 817 TraptKtkevovro ok<os fir/ iraprj- 10 



pres. tense, cp. the impf. diren-Aeov 
below and avrjyov 8. 15. 5. 

THE THIRD NAVAL BATTLE 

(cc. 15-17) 

15. i. Scivtfv ti: Tt? strength- 
ens adjs. See Syn. §11. 2. — 3. r& 
&«& H*p£ € ** •' w>fo/ ^< would do ; 
cp. 7. 101. 13. — 6. wore: with 
(rweirarre Hdt. also uses the inf. 
without ware, Cp. also crweireirrto- 
#cei 3/h? cowa 1. 82. 3. See GMT. 
588 ; Syn. § 23. 4. b. — t*s afrrds 
ravras 4|pipas : cp. 7. 1 5 1 . 6. Syn. 
§ 2. 3. From 7. 210. 2 we learn 
that Xerxes let four days pass, 
after his arrival at Thermopylae, 
before he attacked Leonidas. The 
attack lasted three days (7. 210- 
225). According to 7. 196 the 
Persian fleet arrived at Artemi- 
sium on the third of these seven 
days, and it was early afternoon 



(8. 6. 3). The present statement 
makes the sea fights take place on 
the fifth, sixth, and seventh days. 
Consequently, if the other state- 
ments are correct, the events de- 
scribed in 8. 6-9 must have taken 
up the afternoon of the third, all 
of the fourth, and most of the fifth 
day. In that case the afternoons 
referred to in 8. 6. 3 and 8. 9. 7 
would not be the same. See 8. 
13.6. — 10. 4>v\do-o-€iv : with dywv. 
Cp. 7. 11. 18. — oi pcv S4j : the lines 
immediately preceding rather turn 
one's thoughts aside to a compari- 
son between the Greek land and 
sea forces. In the present sen- 
tence the Persian and Greek fleets 
are again in mind, irapeKcXevovro 
resuming the TrapaKeXevo-dfievoL 
above, though the Greeks instead 
of the Persians are now the sub- 
ject. — 8k«s f^ : see GMT. 355. 



318 HERODOTUS VIII [15. n 

aovai is rr)v 'EXXdSa tovs /Jap/Jdpovs, 61 8* okcos to 
'TLXkrji/iKOv CTpdrevfia 8ia<f>0eipapT€S rov iropov Kpa- 

16 TTJaovai. a>s Sc Ta£d/xci>oi. 61 Scp£ca> C7r€7rXcoj>, ol 
"EXX^j/cs drpc/xa? ct;(oi> Trpos t<5 'Aprc/ucriG). oi 8c 
/Jdp/Japoi /xtj^ociSc? irourj<ravT€<; tS>v vetov €kvk\ovvto, 
a>s irepikdfioiev avrovs. ivOevrev 61 "EXXtjj/cs C7ra- 
i/C7rXcoi/ tc fcal cruvipLicryov. iv ravrji rrj vavfia^iys 
TrapaTr\rj<rioi dXX^Xotcri iyivovTo. 6 yap Beptjeco 
orparos vtto peydOeos re. /cat ttXtj^cos auros V7r' cojvtov 
C7rt7rrc, Tapaarao/xepcDV re r&v j/e&v kcu irepnnurovo'ewv 
7T€pl dXX^Xa? • opcos pevroi di/rci^c kcu ovk cwcc • Sciz/op 
yap )(prjpa iiroiiovro vtto vea>v 6\iya)v c? <f>vyr)v rpdire- io 
aOai. 7roXXal /xci> 8^ rail/ 'EXXt^i/o)^ j/ccs 8i€<£0€ipoi>ro, 
7roXXot 8c dv$pe<; y 7roXXa> 8 s en 7rXcoi/cs j/ccs re rail/ 
fiapfidpojv kcu dpSpcs. ovtoj 8c dycovi^opevoi Sicbnj- 
crai' x<copls c/cdrcpot. 

17 *Ej/ ravrrj rrj vavfiaxty Klyvimoi pkv rS)v Scpfco) 
crrparKorcW r)pUrTev<rav, ot dXXa re peydXa cpya 

1 6. 3. |Uf)vo€i8ls : tf crescent. ttmttowcW in 8 ; the positive and 

Neut. adj. as subst. Cp. 7. 199. negative form of assertion in 9, 

2, 7. 200. 4. — 6. -yAp: to be taken with the added effect of likeness 

with the whole sentence, as far as of sound in -ci^c, cTkc ; the anaph- 

cTkc, the first clause to dAA^Aas ora iroXXai fdv . . . iroWoi Sc . . . 

being practically concessive. — 7roAA<3 8* in 11, 12; and the 

7. vn-6 : cp. 8. 1 . 3. — pcydOcos : Dial, fullness of expression in 3-4, and 

§ 1. ii. 1. /xcyadco? and 7rA.iy0€os in SUarrja-av x^P'S l 3- — XI « Set" 

are here synonymous, since there ^OeCpovro : cp. the contingents at 

is no reference to the size of the Salamis (cc. 43-48) with the num- 

vessels. They are used merely for bers in c. 1 . — 13. d a y»vit6|uvot : cp. 

rhetorical effect, which is largely the pres. ptc. in 8. 11. 11 and the 

aimed at in this chap. Cp. the syn- aor. in 8. 11. 14. The aor. would 

onymous rapaa-aofxevwv and irepi- be more usual here. Cp. 8. 62. 1. 



id. 6] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



319 



airthiizavTO kcli via? avToiai dvSpdai elkov 'EXXrjj/iSas 

TT€VT€. T(OV 8c 'EWtJvoDV KCLTO. TOVT7JV T7)V 7lfl€p7fJ/ 

rjpioTevo'av 'Adrjvaloi /ecu 9 A0r)vai(op KXcipit}? 6 'AX/a-s 
j8iaSca>, os hairdviqv oIk7)L7)v 7rap€^o/tei/09 iarpareueTo 
avhpdcri T€ SirjKoa-ioKTt, kclI oIktjlji V7)L 
18 e fts 8c Sl€OT7)aavy do-pevoi eKarepoi is opfxov rjirti- 
yovro. ol 8c "EWrjves cos 8iaK/H0cVrcs ck rrjs vav 
/iaxlr)s d7rr]Wd)(0r)O'av, tcop fi€v veKp&v kcu tS>v 
vavrjyuov ineKpaTtov, rpij^ccos 8c 7rc/H€<£0ci>T€9, *al 
ovk rJKiora 'AOrjvaloi rS>v ai ^/turcai tS>v veS>v Terpw-s 
fiorai jj<rap, hprjafibv 817 ifiovkevov ccra> is tt/v 'EXXaSa. 



17. 3. &irc&£avTo: Dial. §i.ii. 
2. — «rfroC<ri &v$p6o-i : dat. of ac- 
companiment (S. 1525 ; HA. 774 a ; 
B. 392.3 note; G. 1191). — 5. 'AOtj- 
vatoi : cp. Plut. Them, 8 UivSapos 
ov KaKtus loucc . . . im rrjs iv 'Aprc/u- 
<rto> y&yfl% fbreiv * q^ waives 'A0a- 
vcuW iflaXovTO <t>atwav | Kprprlft 
iXevOepias (see Bergk, /*?*/. Z./r. 6 
L 1. p. 414). Plutarch also cites 
from a stele in the temple of Arte- 
mis at Artemisium these verses: 
Havro&vTTwv avSpStv ycvca? 'Aairp 
otto X^P 1 ? 5 I TatSc? 'AOrjvaittiv t&c. 
mrf iv weAayci | vavpaxiy Soifw.- 
<ravT€s, iird. orparos wAero MiJScov, 
I cn/jfiara ravr 20c<7av irap6ivu> 
'Aprc/u&. Cp. the claim of Isoc- 
rates, Paneg. 90, that the Athe- 
nians with sixty ships met the 
whole fleet of the enemy at Arte- 
misium. — 'AXKipidSew : grandfa- 
ther of the celebrated Alcibiades. 



Cp. Plut. Alcib. 1. — 6. otKT|ttjv : the 
trierarch usually received from the 
state the hull and mast. It was his 
duty to fit out the ship and secure 
the crew, whose wages and rations 
were supplied from the public funds. 
— 7. 8iT)KO<rCouri : cp. 7. 184. 7. 

THE GREEKS PLAN A RETREAT; 
NEWS OF THE DEFEAT AT 
THERMOPYLAE HASTENS THEIR 
DEPARTURE ; THEMISTOCLES 
LEAVES MESSAGES FOR THE 
IONIANS (CC. l8-22) 

18. 3. t»v |*cv ktL : though they 
were masters. To be left in pos- 
session of the dead was regarded 
as a sign of victory, for only the 
defeated would neglect the sacred 
duty of burial. — 5. ot fjfiCo-cai . . . 
TCTpoaplvai : yet the full contingent 
of 180 ships is present at Salamis 
a few weeks later (8. 44. 3). 



320 HERODOTUS VIII [id. i 

19 voco Sc \aficov ©c/uorofcXc'tys a>s ci diroppayeirj dirb rov 
fiapfidpov to T€ *I(ovucbv <f>v\ov Kal to Kapacov, otot T€ 
€L7)<rai/ tSxv \oltt<ov Karuirepde yevitrd ai, ikawoprcjv 
t&v Eu/3oeW irpofiaTa inl tt\v Odkaaaav, Tavrg cruX- 
Xcifas tovs crr/oarTjyovs cXeye <r<f>i a>s So/ceot €)(eLv Tivds 
7ra\dfir]v Trj cX7ri£ot t5*v /JcuriXcos (ruynid^tov aTToenj- 
<rew tovs dpibrovs. ravra fiiv wv is Toaovro iraper 
yvfivov, im 8c Tolai KaTTjKovai irpijyfiaai rdSc 7roir)T€a 
etvaC <r<f>i ekeye, tS>v T€ irpofiaTtov t&v TLvfio'iK&v Kara- 
Ovew ocra tls iOikoi (Kpeaaov yap elvai rr/v arparirfv io 
€X €LV V T °vs TToke/ALOvs), irapaivei T€ irpoenreiv Toiai 
iojvr&v iKaoTovs irvp dvaKaUiv • ko/jllStJs 8c iripi rfjp 
2>py)v avT(!> fiefojatw a>orc daivias amK€<r0ai is rr/v 
'EXXdSa. ravra rjpeae <r<f>i iroieiv kol avnVca irvp 

20 dvaKavadfievoi iTpdirovro npbs t<x 7rp6j3aTa. ol yap 
Ev/Jocis 7rapa)(pr)adii€voL tov BcwaSos xprjafibv o)s 

19. 2. pappdpov : for the sing, was a device for delaying the re- 

cp. 8. 22. 15, 8. 29. 6. — 3. cfr)o-av : treat. — 5. Sok6h : either this or 

indirect form of oloi re cio-i. For cA.7rtf ot is unnecessary. — 8. tAJh : 

the pres. instead of the fut. see 8. explained by koltolOvciv and irpoet- 

102. 8. — 4\avv6vT«v . . . Tairrn : ireiv, but with the latter irapcuva. is 

as the ESs were in the habit of inserted after the parenthesis. — 

driving their flocks to the sea, 12. fcdorovs: the plur. with refer- 

he assembled the generals there, ence to the smaller groups in each 

The gen. abs. gives the reason for Greek division. For the accus. 

assembling the generals at the after the dat., cp. Av&dicri rt warn 

place where they would see the 7rpocwre Oveivirdvra nva avrwy 1. 

flocks. His object comes out in 50. 6, and 3. 70. 6. — wfpt: anas- 

10, though the connection between trophe. — 13. &vn : see Syn. § 23. 

the slaughter of the flocks and his 4. h. 

plan for winning over the Ionians 20. 2. irapaxpipr&iuvot : disre- 

is not made clear. Apparently it gar ding. See S. § 4. ii. B. 1. — B4- 



21. S ] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



321 



ovSev \eyovra, ovre tl i^eKOfitaavTo ovhev ovre irpo- 
eadijavTo o>s irapeaofievov a<f>i TTokepov, irepwreTea tc 
iTTOujaavTo a<f)CcrL avroiai tol Trprfynara. Ba/aSi yaps 
58c c;(€i irepi tovt(ov 6 xpqoyids • 

4>pa£co, /3ap{iap6<l>(i)vo<; orav tpyov cis a\a /}aXX# 
Bvfi\u/oVy Ev/Jofys aircrew 7ro\vfir)Kai$as alyas. 

Tovroiai ovhkv rotcrt eireai xprja-afiei/oLa-L Iv tolctl totc 
irapeowrl re kcu npoaSoKLfjLOMTL KaKotai iraprjv <r<f>iio 
21 (rupjfropfj xprjaO ai npbs rd fieyioTa. oi fiev 8r) raCra 
€irp7i<r<rov, irapfjv Sc 6 Ik Tpyxwos KardaKoiros. fjv 
fih/ yap C7T* *ApT€fii<ri<p Karda-Konos IloXvas, yevos 
'AvTUCvpevs, t<S 7rpoo"crcrafcro, #cai clj(c irkolov KaTTJpe? 
eroifiov, el irakrj<rei€ 6 vovtiko? orpards, arf /xaiveLv 5 



Kv8ot: like Orpheus and Musaeus 
(7. 6. 14) Bacis was a mythical 
seer, from whom a collection of ora- 
cles was said to have descended. 
— 3. n . . . ofltfv : nothing at all. 
Syn. § 11. 2. — Tfxxo-dfavTO : re- 
ferred by some to irpo-frdrTO} stock 
beforehand (cp. <ra£avres v&ltl ttjv 
io-fioKyv 3. 7. 3, and <raTT(o *^«# 
7. 62. 10 etc.), by others to irpo- 
e<T-dy<o. The 1 aor. mid. of ay<o 
is used by Homer, but is rare. 
— 4. in : here modal, in the preced- 
ing line causal. — ircpiircWa ktI. : 
brought misfortune upon them- 
selves. — 5. BdiciSi: dat. of inter- 
est. Cp. ota icai 'OfjLYfpto A10/X7/8775 
Acya Plato, Rep. 389 e. — 8. fv- 
pXtvov : see 7. 25, 34, 36.-9. tow- 
towv : with Ittco-i. — xP 1 l< ra l Jl * VOMrt •' 



with <7^t. There is a play on the 
double meaning of x/wiofuu, which 
with «rc<n is pay attention to, 
while avp^opfj xpirjvSaL is either /<? 
fo unfortunate (1. 42. 3), or to take 
it hard (7. 134. 8, 7. 141. 2). 

21. 1. ol |iiv : the Greeks, who 
were slaughtering the flocks. — 
2. 6 : the article, as if the scout 
had been already mentioned, with 
explanatory yap clause. — Tprrxt- 
vos : the land from which the pass 
of Thermopylae leads into Locris 
(7. 176. 6), — 4. 'Avwcvptfe : see 
7. 198. 9. — Karf)pc$ : fitted, sc. ipcr- 
fidun. — 5. iraVfjo-cic : not found 
elsewhere. Hesychius gives ora- 
\rjo-cv i(f>0dpr], a meaning which 
suits the context better than to be 
engaged in a struggle ; cp. 1. 9. — 



322 HERODOTUS VIII [21.6 

rotcru iv QepfioiTviiyio'i iovai • &s 8* avroi? fjv 'A/}/og>- 
vi>X°s ° At/crwcXcos 9 A0rjva?os Kal irapd AeoovlSfl iroifLQs 
roiai in 'A/dtc/uctig) iovai dyyeWeiv TpirjKovTcpq), rjv 
tl KaTaXa/x/}cu>j7 veatTtpov rbv nel^ov. ovros 3>v 6 'A/J- 
p<ovi\os amKo/Aevos <r<f>i iarffiaive ra yeyovora 7rcplio 
Aecov&Tfv Kal tov orpaTov avrov. ot 8c a>s iirvdovro 
ravra, ovkctl cs dvaj3o\d<; iiroiiovro rr/v airo^pyjo'iv^ 
eKOfiC^ovTo 8c &>s eKaaroi iTa^OrjaaVy KopCvOioL irpSnoi, 
22vorarot 8c 'A0r)v<iioi. 'Adrjvaioov 8c v4as ras apiara 
7rXcoucra5 imketjdfievos ©c/iioto/cXojs iiropevero ncpl 
tol TTOTLfia vSara, ivrdfxvwv iv Tola XiOoiai ypdfifiaTa, 
to. "laves C7rcX0d*>T€S Tjj vaTepaiiQ rj^py iirl to 'Aprc- 
liiaiov inekitjavTO. tol 8c ypd/ifiaTa ekeyov raSc • 5 

*Av8p€$ ¥ I(OV€^ t OV 7T0L€LT€ 8 1 /Cat a C7TI TOUS 7TaT€pa9 

{TTpaTeuo/jLevoi Kal tt/v "EXXaSa #cara8ovXovjnci/ot. dXXa 
/xaXtora /tci> 7r/)6s i^/tcW ylveade • ct <$c v/ni> cori rovro 
jztj 8waroi> TTOirjarai, v/xtls 8c en Kal iw iK tov fieaov 

6. &s 8* aureus : cp. 7. 86. 9. Freq. largest contingents the places of 

in Horn. = Att. oxravro)? 8c. — honor ; the order was different at 

'AppAvixos : two years later he Salamis (8. 85). For another 

went to Sparta with Themistocles story about the readiness of the 

and Aristides on an embassy about Corinthians to run away, see 8. 94. 
the walls of Athens (Thuc. 1. 91). 22. 2. ^iri\e£d|uvos : choose. Cp. 

— 9. vewTepov: euphemistic for 1. 5 where the same verb means 

kolkov. Cp. 7. 52. 10. — 13. KopCv- to read. — 3. 4vrd|iva>v: Dial. § 1. 

O101 irp&i-oi ktI. : if the order of ii. 1. — 5. IXcyov: plur. because the 

battle corresponded to the posi- inscription was written in differ- 

tion on shore, we might infer that ent places. Cp. 5. 112. 5. Kiih- 

at Artemisium the Corinthians ner-Gerth § 365 b. — 6. vaWpos: 

held the left wing, the Athenians the Athenians ; cp. 1. 14 and 7. 

the right, an arrangement which 51. 8, 11. — 9. vjiets 84: cp. 1. 13. 

would give the two states with the. See Syn. § 28. 3. — Ik toO |&4o*v . . , 



23.6] HERODOTUS VIII 323 

yfliiv i^€<r0€ kcu avrol /cat ra>v Kapcov Sc?0"0€ rd avrd 10 
Vfjuv 7roi€iv • ct 8c firfherepov rovrwv olov re yive<rdai, 
dXX' vrf avayKairjs p-i^ovos Kari^ev\6e ff ware dwCara- 
<T0ou, vftels Sc iv ro) epy<o, inedv cru^LO-ycopLeu^ e0e- 

Xo/Ca/CClTC, fl€flV7jfl€V0L OTt dn rffl€(OV yeyovare /cat OTt 

dpxfjdev f) ix^PV ^V 00 * rbv fidpfiapov aV ifiecov rjpuv 15 
yeyove. ©c/luoto/cXctjs 8c ravra eypa<f>e, 8o/cct!> e/xot, 
*7r* dp<f>6repa voio)Vj Iva rj \adovra rd yodfifiara 
fiacr ikea "lwvas irovrja-ri p.era/3a\eiv /cat yeveaOai npbs 
iawTcbv, fj eireire {dv) dveveiyQr) /cat $ia{i\r)0ji 7rpbs 
Bepgqv, dirioTovs Troiyjar) roi><s ¥ l<ova<s /cat rcov i/av/xa- 20 
23 xi5>v avrovs diroaxx). ©c/uoto/cXctjs /tc^ ravra ever 
ypatye • rotcrc 8c fiapfidpoio-i avrt/ca /x,cra ravra irkoio) 
fjkOe dvrjp 'iartatcvs dyyeWwv rbv 8prj(Tp.bv rbv air* 
'A/orc/xtcrtov r&v 'EWrjvcov. oi 8* vtt amortr)? rbv p*ev 
dyyeXKovra efyov iv <£vXa/cg, veas Sc ra^ca? direorei- 5 
\av TTpoKaroxjsofievas ' dirayyeikdvrtov Sc rovrcov rd 

!£c<r0c : retire from the center of 1 ; Syn. § 23. 2. — 17. *ir d|i^repa 

the contest and sit down as a spec- voiwv : making his plans with both 

tator, i.e. take no part in the things in view. Cp. 9. 97. 9. — 

fight. — 10. fyrf y: dat. of interest. 19. firel-rc 6.vtvti\9^ : on omitted 

S. 1474; HA. 770; B. 381; G. av see Syn. § 20. 2. Here the first 

1 171. — 11. tytv: the dat. depends syllable of aveveix6?j may be the 

on ra avrd. S. 1500 ; HA. 773 a ; cause. — 8iap\r]9fj : misrepresented. 
B. 392.2; G. 1175. — I2 - F^t ov °s: 

D. § I. ii. 2.-fl&rTc: S. 2264; ™ E PERSIAN FLEET C0MES TO 

HA. 954? B. 645; G. 1458.- artemisium; at the invi- 

15. Awtffcv: for the assistance TATION 0F XERXES IT VISITS 

given to the Ionians against Per- Thermopylae (cc. 23-25) 

sia, see 5. 97 f. — 16. Soicctv tpo£: 23. 3. 'Lrruurfs: Histiaeawas 

abs. infin. Cp. a>s ifjiol SokcTv 8. a town on the north coast of 

30. 5. S. 2012 ; HA. 956 ; B. 642. Euboea. — 6. tA tjv : the facts. — 



324 HERODOTUS VIII t^d. 7 

fjv, ovt(o 87) afia 17X10; crKihva^evco iraaa rj oTparvrj 
CTrcirXci dX^s iwl rb 'A/orc/turtoi/. c7ricr;(dj>T€s Sc iv 
TOVTO) r<3 x&pG) P*XP l H L ^ (rov VptPV** T ° < * ir ^ rovrov 
iirkeov is 'Ioticutjj/. airiKOfievoi Se Tr/p 7rdXij/ ea^op 10 
tw 'IoriatcW ical rijs 'EXXo^i^s fioLprjs, yfjs 8c rijs 
'iartatcwTiSos, Tas 7ra/oa0aXao"o"ias Kcopas Tracras €7re- 

24 SpafJLOv. ipdavra 8c Toi/rcDy ioprcop Ecpf^s iroLfiaad- 
fievos tol n€pl tovs peicpovs ine/Aire cs tw j>avri,icoj> 
orpaTov KijpvKa. irpoeroi^da-aTo 8c ra8c • oo-ot rot) 
orparou rov cojvtov ^crai/ peicpol ip ®cp/i07nJX^crt (^crai/ 
Sc kcu 8uo /tv/otaScs), viroXnropevos tovtojp a>s X L ^^° V ^9S 
tov5 Xowrovs rd<f>pov<; opv£dp,€Po<s c0ai/rc 3 <f>vk\d$a re 
c7rt)8aXct)i/ ical 7^71/ C7ra/i7jo"a/i€i'os, u>a tx,i] 6<f)0€ir)<rav wo 

TOU ^aUTtKOV OTpOLTOV, 0)S Sc Sl€^7) €S T7*> 'lOTiairjP 

6 Krjpvtj, avWoyop Troiy)<rdp,£vo<z ttolptos tov arparoTre- 
8ov i\cye ra8c • v Aj/8pcs av/ifiaxo^ ^SacriXcvs Scp^js 10 
t<5 )8ovXo/xcVa> v/jl€Q)v wapaSiSol iicknrovTa tt)p rd^iv 
KaX ikOovra 6eijaaa0aL okojs /xa^crat 7rpos tov? dvonrj- 
tovs raw dv0p(O7T(ov 9 of rjkiri<rap tt]v /Jao"iXcbs hvpapip 

25 u7rcp/3aXcio"0ai. raura C7rayyciXai4ci>ov, ficra ravra 
ou8ci> iyipero irkouop (riravidrepov • ovra> 7roXXo! tj^c- 
Xoi> deqaaadai. hiairepaiwdivrts Sc iOrjeovro Sicfcdp- 

7. o-KiSvapivcp : spreading its light. For 8c, connecting phrases in ap- 

— 9. t& &ir$ tovtow: #/fcr M#/. pos., see Syn. § 27 d. 
For the art., cp. to cv&vrcv 8. 8. 9, 24. 5. k<&£ : quite ; cp. 7. 41 . 14. 

to Trpwrov, etc. — 11. 'EXXoitCtjs: — 6. <j>v\Xd8a T€ ktc. : the boughs 

the northern half of Euboea. The were thrown over the heaped-up 

gen. depends on Kw/Aa?. — -y^s earth to conceal the signs of burial. 

Se Tfjs 'Io-tiow&tiSos : in appos. to — 1 1. vupoSiSot: Dial. § 4. 4. 
'EAAorrnys, defining it more closely. 25. 1. cvayyciXapcvov : sc. tow 



25. io] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



325 



res tovs vacpovs • names Sc y\Tndria.ro rov% kgi/ao/ov? 
eTvcu irdvras Aa/ceSat/xo^tov? Kal ©ccrmas, 6p£)i/T€<; ical 5 
Tov? ciXairas. ov yukv ov8* i\dv0ave rovs SiaySc^tforas 
Beptjrjs ravra 7r/DT/£a9 7repl rovs vetcpovs roits kcovrov • 
Kal yap St) kcu ycXotoi/ tJj> • t£>v /xep ^iXioi i<fxiivovTO 
veKpol KetjiepoL, 01 8c irdvres cfccaro dXcis <rvyK€KOfii<r~ 
fievoi cs rcwvro ^(apiov rccrcrc/ocs ^tXtaSes. ravrrfp fiep 10 



KrjpvKOS. — 4. tprurWaro : thought ; 
cp. 8. 5. 15. — 5. ApAvTcs kt4. : this 
would seem to imply that there 
were none among the dead except 
Lacedaemonians, Thespians, and 
Helots. — 6. 0$ |acv 0*8' : by no 
means, Syn. § 26. e. — 8. koI -ydp 
ktI 1 for it was in fact quite absurd. 
— t&v |mv *rk. : of them (the Per- 
sians) a thousand were seen lying 
dead; of the others (the Greeks) 
the whole number had been brought 
to the same spot and lay together, 
four thousand. The point of 
contrast, that would strike the Per- 
sian spectator as absurd, is not 
clear. There seem to be two 
possibilities: (1) The Persians 
lay- scattered, while the Greeks 
were heaped together to attract 
attention. But there is nothing 
in the first clause to imply this. 
(2) The difference in the size of 
the numbers. In that case Hdt. is 
attributing to the Persian the later 
Greek view. There would be noth- 
ing absurd in an immense force 
destroying 4000 men with a loss 
of but 1000. — 10. Tfo-o-cpcs \1\u6,- 



Scs : it is difficult to explain this 
number. At the end of the two 
days' fighting, during which few 
Greeks fell (7. 211. 16, 7. 212. 
5), all withdrew except the 300 
Spartans, 700 Thespians, and 400 
Thebans (7. 222. 3), and the 
Thebans surrendered (7. 233). 
There were also some Helots (cp. 
1. 6 above and 7. 229), but their 
number is not given; 7. 229. 11 
implies at least one per Spartan. 
Unless we assume seven Helots 
per Spartan as at Plataea (9. 28. 5) 
and also assume that the 700 Thes- 
pians were attended by an equal 
number of light-armed (cp. 9. 29. 
10), there is no way of making up 
4000 ; and such assumptions are im- 
probable in view of Hdt.'s silence 
in the description of Leonidas 1 
force (7. 202). There is evidently 
some connection between the num- 
ber here and that in the epitaph 
(7. 228). Some editors omit tcct- 
o-cpcs x^i&Si DUt tne sentence 
then loses the only point of con- 
trast that it contains. Either Hdt. 
used the figures carelessly with 



326 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[25. ii 



rfjv i\\kipy\v npbs deqv irpdrrovTo, r$ 8' iarepaCrf ot fikv 
atreirkeov is 'laTiaLrjv cVt ras via<z, oi Sc dfufyl t B*4p^y)v 
26 cs ohov opfieaTO. tjkov Be <r<f>L avTOfiokoi dvSpes air 
'Ap^caStTj? okiyoi tivcs, fiCov re heop,evoi Kal ivepyol 
j3ov\6fi€voi elvou. dyovTes Sc tovtovs cs ai/ity rrfv 
y8ao"t\cbs eirvvOdvovTo ol Hepaai irepl t£)v 'YLWtjwv 
tl 7roi€oi€v • €t? Sc rts 7T/oo iravroiv Tjv 6 eipwraiv avrovs 5 
ravra. ot 8c cr<^t e\eyov a>s 'OXv/fTrta dyov&i /cat Oeoy- 
peoLev dycova yvpvLKov Kal lttttlkop. 6 8c ineipeTO o 
tl to ded\ov eh) <r<f)i Keifievov irepl oreo dyiovil^ovTai • 
ot 8c enrov rf}<; cXanjs top 8i86p,evov crrefyavov. ivOavra 



the epitaph in mind, or he esti- 
mated the number in some such 
way as is suggested above. In 
favor of the latter view note the 
opening words of 7. 228, which 
expressly state that the epitaph 
was written in honor of those that 
fell, and also the fact that the fig- 
ures in 7. 202 indicate that Hdt. did 
not accept the 4000 of the epitaph 
as the number of Peloponnesians in 
Leonidas' original force. — 13. 6p- 
piaTo: Att. topfArjvTO. 

A PERSIAN COMMENT ON THE 
OLYMPIAN PRIZE FOR VICTORS 

(C. 26) 

26. 2. 'ApKaSfrp : the majority 
of the Peloponnesian force at Ther- 
mopylae was composed of Arca- 
dians (7. 202).-— 5. irpd: in the 
place of '; see Syn. §5.-6. '0\vp- 
ma: in this year the Olympic 



games closed on the 19th or 20th 
of August. The fighting at Ther- 
mopylae seems to have taken place 
later in the month, for the Athe- 
nians expected to find the Pelo- 
ponnesian main force in Boeotia 
immediately after the battle (8. 40. 
9), and yet it would take them 
several days after the close of the 
festival to march that distance. 
The present incident, then, must 
have occurred before the battle. 
Herodotus, indeed, does not defi- 
nitely indicate the time. Having 
completed the account of Ther- 
mopylae and Artemisium, he di- 
gresses a little (cp. 27-28) before 
passing on to Salamis. — 7. 8 Tt 
tA &c0\ov: what is offered them 
as the prize for which they con- 
tend. The questioner assumes that 
some prize is offered; hence the 
art. — 9. ctirov kt£ : they men- 



27.ii] HERODOTUS VIII 327 

cwra? yvcbfirjv yevvaiOTaTqv TpiTavTai^jxi)^ 6 'Aprafid- 10 
vav SeikiTfv axf>\€ irpb? /JacriXcos. Trvvdavofiei/o^ yap 
to ded\ov ibv oT€<f>avov dXX* ov xprjixaTa, ovre rfvia^ero 
(ruySiv cittc re cs Trdvras raSc • IIa7rai, Ma/oSdwc, koiovs 
iir* avSpas rjyaye? fiaxqaofievov^ 17/ica?, 6t ov izepl XPV 
27 fidrcov rbv ay&va iroieovrai dXXa irzp\ aperijs. rovrto 
fiev 8ij ravra cJ/njro • kv Sc ra) Sia fieaov xp6va>, incur* 
to ci/ SepfJLOTTvX.jjO'i TpcofAd iyeyovei, avTiKa ©ecrcraXot 
Trifiirov<ri KtjpvKa cs <&a>Kca?, arc o-<£i ivfyovres alel 
^dXoi/, a7ro 8c rov vorarov rp(Ofiarc<; kolI to Kapra.s 
icficikovres yap iravorpaTifi avroi tc oi ©ccrcraXol Kal 
oi avmia\oi avratv cs tovs 4>a>/ceas ov 7roXXo«7i freci 
irporepop ravnys r^5 ySacrcXco? oTparrjXao'ir)*; co"o-(u0t/- 
<rav vrrb tS>v &a)K€Q)v Kal 7T€pt€(f)07)aav Tprj^eco^. 4tt€lt€ 
yap KaTeCkrjdri<Tav c? top Hapvrjo-abv oi 4>a>K€is c^oi/rcs 10 
\Lavrw TeXXt^v tw 'HXcioi', ii/OavTa 6 TcXXnjs ovros 



THE ENMITY OF THE THESSALIANS 
AND PHOCIANS IN FORMER 
TIMES. THE THESSALIANS 

NOW DEMAND A MONEY PAY- 



t toned the crown that is given. 
Cp. ra? 7r€pi7re/A<£0e«ras 8. 8. 20. — 
10. ctvat: Att. eurcov. — TpiTav- 
raCx|ti|t : one of the six command- 
ers-in-chief. Cp. 7. 82. 2, 7. 

121. 14. Some of the Mss. read MENT ' THE PH0CIANS REFUSE 

Tiypanp. Tigranes in 7. 62. 4 is ' CC ' 27 3 °^ 

called *A^aifuviSvjv. His position 27. 3. Tpopa: Dial. 1. ii. 8. — 

as leader of the Medes (7. 62. 4), 4. &tc : with causal participle. Syn. 

and of the Persian army at Mycale § 25. 4. — *Ul: see 7. 176. 20. — 

(9. 96. 13) points to a close rela- 5. dir6: after. Syn. §5. — Kal rh 

tionship with the King ; but he is icdpTa : particularly so. Cp. 7. 16. 

not elsewhere called 6 'AprajSavov. /? 10. — 7. o^ppaxoi : see 7. 132. 

— II. 8ctX(i|v JtyXc : was held guilty 2. — 8. «r<n&0r|<rav : rjTTiqOrio-av. — 

of cowardice. — 12. ofrre . . . « : 11. TcXXCtjv : in 9. 37 the Telliadae 

not . • . but, Syn. § 30. 2. b. are mentioned as a well-known 



328 HERODOTUS VIII [27. 12 

<ro<f)C£,ercu avroiai roiovSe • yvt/Kocras dVSpas c£aico- 

(TIOVS t£>V &(OK€Q)V TOVS dpiOTOVS, CLVTOVS T€ TOUTOV9 KCU 

rd a7r\a avrcov, vvkto<s iTreOrjKaro rouri ©ccrcraXowri, 
7rpoci7ras avrolcrt, toj> ai> /t^ Xcvicaj>#if ozra iSajprat, 15 

TOVTOV KT€IV€IV. TOVfOVS 0>J> a? TC <f>v\dKal T(OV 0CCT" 

craXoJi/ irpSiTai iSovaai i^ofiTJOrjo-av, 86£a<rcu aXXo rt 
cu>ai rcpas, #cal /tcra ra? ^vXafca? avrr) 17 aTparvrf 
ovto) aJorc rerpaKiaxCKioiv Kparfjaat v€Kp&v Kal dairl- 
S(ov 4>a>fcca5, 7W ra? /xci> rjfiiareas cs V A/Jas aveOeaav, 20 
rds Sc cs AcX(£ovs • 17 8c SeKarrj iyevero r&p yjpy\\La.T<av 
c/c ravrr/s rrjs P>dyj\^ °* ft^yaXoi dySpidVrcs 01 7rcpl toi/ 
TpwroSa (TwcorecSTCs e/xTrpoa-Oe rov vt)ov tov iv AeX- 
28 <^oT<ri, *ai €T€pot, tolovtol iv * A/3rj(Ti avaKearai. ravra 
fitv vvv top 7rc£oi> ipydaavro r£>v QzaaakStv oi <J>a>K€ts 
trdkiopKiovras cqjvtous • iafiakovaav Sc cs ti/j> X^PV^ 
ttjp hnrov avrcov ikvpa/jvavro airr)K€OT<os. cj> yap r# 

family of seers. — 14. brcOVjicaTo : blows about it, while Leto and 

Att. iiriOero. — 15. afrroto-i : the Artemis were restraining Apollo, 

600 men. — tSanrat: Att. tSaxrt. and Athena Heracles. But since 

— 17. &XXo ti ttri. : something else irepl takes the accus. here we 

(than it really was), namely a should perhaps translate standing 

marvel. — 19. Kpai-ijo-ai: ingres- around the tripod. Yet cp. cytvero 

sive. — 20. "Apas: a town of 8c irp&rov irepl rot ycppa fidxt 

Phocis with a celebrated temple 9. 62. 8, with local irtpL in connec- 

and oracle of Apollo. — 21. tj Si: tion with pAyyi. 
///*? regular tenth. — 23. <rvvc<TT€»- 28. 3. iroXiopicfovTas : the plur. 

T€s : Hdt. frequently uses this word on account of the collective idea 

in the sense of contend (7. 142. 5, in ire£6v. Cp. oTparbs . . . dirt- 

8. 79. 1), and, according to Pau- kovto 7. 196. 1. — fovrovs: as in- 

sanias (10. 13. 7), in this group direct reflexive. — fcrftaXoflo-av rri : 

Heracles and Apollo had hold of Pausanias (10. 1. 3) puts this 

the tripod and were coming to event before that of the preceding 



29. io] HERODOTUS VIII 329 

iafioXy rj i<rri Kara c Ta/jwroXtj/ 3 iv Toury rd<f>pov fieydr 5 
Xtjv 6pv£avT€s dfufropias jccipov? is avrrjv KaT€0r)Kav 9 
Xpvv 8c iirufroprjaames /cat o/toKocrazrc? ra> aXXa> X^PV 
ihinovTO rovs ©ccrcraXovs co-ySaAXoiras. 61 8c a>s 
dvapnaaofievoi roirs <I>(UKcas <f>€p6[xevoL iaeireaov cs 
tovs afufyopeas. ivOavra 01 ittttol tol cr/ccXca Sic^aprj- 10 
29 crai/. Tovrcai/ 877 o"<£i afjL<f>oT€p(op c^oircs eyKorov oc 
QcoxraXol 7re/xi//aiT€s icjpvKa rjyopevov raSc • T fl <£>g>kci9, 
77817 tx /xaXXov yi/axrt/ta^ctrc /at) ctpai o/xotot Ty/utt^. 
irpoade re yap iv toLcti "EXXtjcti, ocro^ \povov c/ccti/a 
17/uj> iJi/Sai^c, ttXcoi/ cuci kotc v/xcW i<f)€p6fi€0a 9 vvv re$ 
napd r<3 fiapftdpco roaovro Svvd/xeda aJarc cir* tj/uj> 
cart tt}s y§5 iareprjaOai Kal irpbs rjvhpaTrohUrOai 
u/utcas • 77/utets fievroL to irdv exovres ov fivrja-LKaKeofievy 
dXX* 17/xti/ yeveado) dvr avrSiv 7T€vrqKovra rdXavra 
dpyvpiov, Kal ifuv vnoSeKOfJieOa rd iirtovra cttI tj)i>io 

chapter; note that Hdt. refers to ra.lKv.viav the affairs of the Greeks, 

the latter as to vararov Tpwfw. Cp. 2.39. 7, 2. 40. 5. — 5. — aUC 

(8. 27. 4) . — 5 . 'YdfiiroXiv : a town kotc : on every occasion whatsoever. 

in the valley of the Cephisus, be- irXfov . . . c^€o6|u0a: we got more, 

tween Elatea and Abae (8. 33. 6). were worth more, were more pow- 

— 6. Kuvo4$: Dial. § 1. i. 3. — erfuL Cp. 7. 168. 23, 7. 211. 5. 

8. IStKovro : Att. cSe^orro. Dial. — 7. €orcpfjoH)ai, tjvSpairoSCa-Oai : 

§ 2. 4. — a* &vapircur<S|Mvoi : as perfs. pass, with v/xcas as subj. 

though they were going to over- — irpos: Syn. § 6. — 8. to irav 

whelm. Cp.9. 60. 2. — 10. o-K&ca: Ixovtcs: though we are all pow- 

on the case see S. 1601 ; G. 1239. erfuL Cp. avrap KtlOi <f>t\rj(r€ai, 

29. 3. ijoti ti ktc\ : now at old k c;(a>/A€v Horn, o 281 so far 

length be somewhat more inclined as we are able. — 9. dvT air&v: 

to admit that you are not our in return for it, i.e. in payment 

equals. For yvoxrt/iaxctv cp. 3. for not enslaving you. Syn. §12. 3. 

25. 18, 7. 130. 7. — 4. ticcCva: = — 10. TdliruSvTa: sc. Ka#ca. 



330 HERODOTUS VIII t30. i 

30X<!>pr)v airoTpetytw. ravrd a^i iirayyeWovro oi ©€<r- 
traXoi. oi yap <J>cuic€i9 fiovvoi t£>v ravry dvdpomoiv 
ovk ifnjSL^oVy kolt aXXo fi€v ou8a>, a>9 iyo) (rufifiaWo- 
/xe>o9 €vpi(TKO)j Kara jSc to e^^o? to ©ccrcraXali/. ct 8c 
@€o*o*aXol tcl 'EWrjvcov r)v£ov 9 a>9 €/xol Sok€lv 9 ifirjSi^ov 5 
ai/ 01 <J>a>K€is • ot TauTa eirayyeWopevtav ®€<r<ra\£>v 
ovre Scocrew ecfyaaav xprj/JLara trapv^iv ri cr<^t ©ccrcra- 
Xottrt o/xotco? firjSC&Lv, ct aXXa>9 /JouXoiaTo • dXX* ouk 

31 ecrccr&u €koi>t€9 ctpai irpohoTai rfjs 'EXXa8o9* cwctS^ 
Sc avr)vei)(dy)<Tav ovtoi oi Xoyoi, ovtod 81) ot ©ccrcraXol 
KC^oXa)/xeVot Town ^>aiK€uo*i iyevovro r)yc/jtoi/C9 ral )8a/> 
fidpa) tt/5 6Sou. €K /xci> St) tt/9 Tprf^viTj^ €9 tt)j> 
Aco/uSa iaefiaXov tt/9 yap Aa>/?t8o9 X^P 7 !* irohecovs 
o*T€ti/o9 TavTj) KdTaTeCvei, a>9 rpvrJKovra arahuov fid- 
Xiora kt/ €upo9, KcCfievos fieratjv tt/9 t€ Mr/Xt8o9 *al 
<J>ctwaSo9 x^PySy V W€ P ^ r ° TrctXaiw ApvoirCv r) 8c 
^c5pr/ avTr/ core firyrpoTroXis Acopucop rS>v ev IlcXoiroi^ 

30. 4. 0€<ro-aX«v: objective into Phocis by several passes, lead- 
gen. — 5 . i|$£ov . . . £|WjSitov .- impfs. ing either directly from Trachis, 
of continued action in past unreal as this one, or from Locris. If 
cond. — 8. cl aWtts PovXoCaro : if the whole army went in the man- 
they at all cared to. Cp. 7. 16. y ner described by Herodotus, the 
7. — 9. 4k6vtcs ctvai: willingly at capture of Thermopylae was un- 
least. Syn. § 23. 2. necessary. — 6. jidXtorA kq: cp. 

8. 8. 13. — 8. fj ircp: referring to 
iro&ewv but agreeing with the pred. 
ApvoTrt?. Dryopis was but a part 

DIVIDE, AND THE MAIN BODY rf ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ fc 
ENTERS BOEOTIA ON ITS WAY Rdt in g ^ g ^ , ^ ffi 
TO ATHENS (CC 31-34) from that part in whkh Erineus 

31. 4. Ik . . . Tjnjx«-v(T|s : proba- and Pindus were situated. — 4} 84 
bly the army crossed the mountains x^P*! «&"! : Doris. 



THE PERSIANS PASS THROUGH 
DORIS INTO PHOCIS. THEY 



33. 7 ] HERODOTUS VIII 331 

vrj<T(p* ravm\v &v rr/v AcjpiSa yrjv ovk ialvavTo ccr/JaX- 10 
6Wc9 oi fJdpfiapoL • ifnjSil^ov re yap Kal ovk cSokci 
^SccrcraXouri. a>9 Sc ck r^9 AojpiSog €9 r^ <I>ct>KiSa 
€<T€J|8aXoj>, aurov9 /xcy tou9 <I>ct>K€a9 ov/c alpeovai. oi 
fiev yap r&v 3>a>K€ct>i> €9 ra a/cpa rov Ilap^TjcrtroS ave- 
firjo-av (ccrrt 8c Kal imTrjSeq he^aaOai ojxlXov tov Hap- 
wjcrcrov 7i Kopxxfytj^ Kara Ncau'a irokiv K€ip.ev7) iir 5 
kwrrijs ' TiOopia ovvofia avTjj • €9 ttjv St) avTqveiicavTo 
Kal avrol apeftrjaav) • oi 8c irkioves avrS)v €9 rov9 
'0£dXa9 Ao#cpov9 itjeKOfLLa'avTo, €9 ¥ Afi^tTaav irokiv 
rf/v inrkp tov Kpiaalov neSiov oiKT\p.£vy\v. oi Se )Sa/> 
fiapoi ttjv X'toP 7 ! 1 ' ^o'av iirdSpajxoi/ tyjv <$>g)kl8cl • 10 
OccrcraXoi yap ovrco fjyov tov cTparov • oKoaa 8c 
iircoyov, irdma iirtyXeyov Kal eKeipov, Kal €9 ra9 
*3irdXt9 iviimes irvp Kal €9 tol ipd. TTopev6p.evoi yap 
ravrji irapa tov Kr/^Labv worafibv iSrjovv Trdvra, Kal 
Kara filv €Kavaav Apvfibv 7to\lv, Kara 8c XapdSpav 
Kal *J&p<DXOV Kal Te0p<6vLov Kal , A/x<£wcaia*> Kal Ncct>i>a 
Kal IleSteag Kal Tpirca9 Kal 'EXarcia^ Kal 'Ta/ZTroXw Kal 5 
Uapa7roTafjLiov<; Kal *A/?a9, evOa rjv ipbv 'AttoWowos 
irkovaiovj dr/aavpo'to'L T€ Kal dvaOrjfiaai noWolo'L Karc- 

3a. 2. afoofe \Uv : the con- fugitives. Here there was in later 

trasted clause is in l.*9, where, times a fort (Plut. Sulla 15) and 

however, we have ot 8c pdpfiapoL in- town (Pausan. 10. 3. 2,32. 8). — 

stead of ttjv hk x<i>pTjv. — 4. Kalliri- 4ir cavrijs: £y itself. — 6. &vt|vc(- 

ri|8li| : quite suitable, — 5. Kopv+Vj : KavTo : obj. omitted. Cp. next line 

some distance below the peak, at and 8. 36. 11. — 13. irdXis: Dial, 

the foot of a precipitous wall of § 3. i. 4. 

rock, there was a place suitable for 33-3- KaT * V& • • • KaT * &: 

defense, and a cave near by capa- see Syn. § 7. — 6. "Apas: see 8. 

ble of concealing a large body of 27. 20. — 7. 0t|<r<n>pow% ; treasure 



332 HERODOTUS VIII [33.8 

<rK€va<r(i€vov • r\v Sc Kal Tore Kal vvv core XP 7 ? 01 " 1 ?" 
piov airrodi • Kal tovto to ipov ovkrj<ravT€S iverrprqaav. 

KCLl TLVOLS 8uOKOVT€S elXoV T(OV &0)K€(OV ITpOS TOUTL IO 

opeo'L, Kal yvvaiicds Ttvas 8i€<f)0€ipav yaayofievoi virb 
3*7r\yj0€o<;. HapanoTafiCovs Sc napapeL^ofievoi, oi fidp- 
fiapoi dirucovTo e? Havonea^. iv0€vrev 8c ^8^ Siaicpi- 
vo\l£vt\ 7) (rrparvr) avTwv co^i^erp. to fiev irkeiarov 
Kal 8vvaT(iraTov tov CTpaTov dfia avra) Hcp^y iropevo- 
fievov in 'Adijvas iad/SaXe eg Bouoroife, cs yrjv 7771/5 
'Opxo/JievCcov. JSol<ot£>v 8c 7ra*> to 7r\r}0os c/x^Si^c, 
ras 8e ttoXis aurcSi> dvhpes Ma/ccSoVcs . Siarcray/Lic^ot 
co*ot>£oi>, vnb 'AXeijdvSpov ano7r€fi<f)0€VT€s. iaco^ov 8c 
ttjSc, StJXoj/ fSovkofxevoi iroieiv Uepijj) otl tcl MtJ$<dv 
35 Bouoroi <f)poi>€oiev. ovtol fiev 8r) tcov fSapfidpayv Tavrg 
erpdirovTO) aXXoi Sc avrcov T/yc/xcWs €\ovr€S opfieaTo 
iirl to Ipov to iv AcX^oiari, iv 8c£iy} tov HapvrjO'O'bv 
dndpyovTes. oaa Se Kal ovtol irriaxov rfjs <I>a>*a8o9, 
irdvTa iaiva/Jicopeov • Kal yap t£>v Havo7T€(ov ttjv ttoXlv 5 



chambers. Many Greek states 
had separate chambers in these 
temples. Cp. 1. 14. 8. — 11. vird: 
by reason of. Cp. 8. 1 . 3. 

34. 2. Iv0€vt€v ktI. : from that 
point their army was divided and 



THE OTHER DIVISION OF THE 
ARMY MARCHES AGAINST DEL- 
PHI, BUT THE TEMPLE IS 
SAVED BY DIVINE AID (CC. 
35-39) 



separated. — 6. 'Opxo^vfov : the 35- 2. Appfaro: were bound for ; 

part of Boeotia nearest Panopeus. plupf. — 4. Airlpyorrcs : leaving on 

— irav rb irX^0os : except the Pla- the right, airipytw to shut off is 

taeans and Thespians. Cp. 8. 50, properly used of rivers and moun- 

9. 28-30. — 8. 'AXcgdvSpov : cp. 7. tains which form boundaries. 

173, 175. — 9. Sf)\ov PovXdpcvoi ktI. : Hence of men whose line of march 

we should expect merely &}Aov forms the boundary. Cp. 7. 43. 

ttouoitcs in explanation of Trjfc. 11, 7. no. 2, 7. H2. 5. — 5. fcrtva- 



36.12] HERODOTUS VIII 333 

iveirpyja'av /ecu Aav\ia>v koll AtoXtScW. inopevovTo 
8c ravrg aTrotrxta-^cVrc? ttjs C1XX779 crrpan^g towSc 
cu/cjca, oko>9 (ruX^aai^TC? to ipov to iv Ae\<f)olcri fiaair 
Xct Hcp£g aTToSc^atci/ ra )(P y 1f JLaTa ' irdvTa S* ^fftWaro 
ra cp t<£ i/Jo> oa*a Xoyov iji> dfia Scjpfjj?, a>9 cya> irvvdd- 10 

VOfJLOil, <LfJL€LVOV fj T<X €*> TOtCTl OtKtOlO't £\lTT€, 7Tok\S>V CUCl 

XeyovrcDVy teal /xdXiarra ra Kpoiaov tov 'AXvarrcco a^a- 
36 dijfxaTa. 61 8c Ae\(j)ol irvvOavofievoL raSra €9 7rao*aj> 
dpp(oSCrjv anLKdTo, iv Sci/4,ari 8c fitydXqt icaT€OT€Ct>T€9 
ip,avT€vovTO wept twv lpa>v )(pr)fLdTQ)v, circ cr<f)€a Kara 
yfjs KOLTopvtjaxTL citc eKKOfiicrcoo'i C9 aXXrj^ y&py\v. 6 8c 
0co9 (T<^ca9 ow ca KiveLv, <£a9 avrog l/capo? cl^ai tcSj/5 
cgii/toO 7rpoKaTf}<r0ou. Ae\<j)ol 8c ravra d#covo*a^TC9 
cr<f>€(i)v avTwv Ttipi IfypovTitpv. T€Kva fi4v vw koX yvvai- 
#ca9 ireprjv c<? tt)j/ *A)^aur)v SicVc/xi^ai/, avrS)v he 61 fikv 
wXcujtoc dv€/3r)<rav €9 tov napi/^trcrou ra9 Kopv<j)d<; ical 
C9 to K(opvKLov dvrpov dvr)V€LKavTo, oi 8c cs "AfufrLcraav 10 
r^u AoKpiSa vTretzrjXdov. irdvres Sc aii> 01 AeXc^ol c£c- 
Xi7roi' ti)i> 7rdXti/, TrXrp itjyjKOVTa dv8pa>v Kal tov npo^TJ- 

plpcov: wantonly destroyed. — HA. 866. 3; B. 577; G. 1358. — 

6. AtoXiSfov: not otherwise known. 5. la: Att. eta. — 6. irpoxaTfjo-Oai : 

— 9. airoSl£aicv : Dial. 1. ii. 2. — sit down before as an outpost (cp. 
12. rd Kpohrov: among other 7. 172. 14), protect. — 7. ir^pi: 
things Croesus dedicated a lion of anastrophe. — 10. avrpov : the first 
pure gold weighing ten talents (1. chamber of the cave is 100 feet 
50,51,92). high, 100 wide, and 200 deep. — 

36. 1. OTv0av6|Mvoi : for the 11. irdvrcs 8f uv ktI. : at any rate 

pres. cp. 8. 35. 11, 8. 42. 2, etc. all left the city, wv implies that 

— 2. airbcaro : plupf. — Karco-rcA- the main fact is that the Delphi- 
ws: cp. 7. 138. 7. — 3. (r^a: Syn. ans were all gone, it matters not 
§ 9. 4. — 4. Koropvgwi : S. 1805; whither. Syn. § 32. 1. f. 



334 HERODOTUS VIII &1t 

37TCOJ. €7T€t §€ dy^OV T€ foav OL (3dp(3ap0L eVtOITCS KO.I 

dndpajv to Ipov, iv tovtw 6 7rpo<j)yJTr)S, r<p ovvopa fjv 
'A/ofparos, 6pa irpb tov vtjov 6V Xa TrpoKeCfieva £<ra)0ev 
4k tov fieydpov itjevrfveLypiva lpd\ t<ov ovk o&iov rjv 
aiTTecrOai dvOpuncov ovbevi. 6 pev 8^ $€ AeXcfycov toutl 5 
7rap€ovcri crrjfiavecov to rcpas • ol Sc fidpftapOL €7rci8^ 
iylvovTO irreLyofievoi Kara to Ipov rrjs Hpovrjlrjs *A0r)- 
vaCrjs, i-myiveTaC cr<j>L ripea ert /li^ova tov irpXv yevo- 
pevov Tepeos. dcopa piv yap /cat tovto /capra cart, 
6VXa apt] ua avrd/iara <f)avr}vai i£(o npoKeipeva tov 10 
vtjov ' to. 8c Sr) iirl tovto) Scurcpa imya/opLtva /cat 
Sta irdvT(x)v ^aapdrcov a£ia Ocopdaai /zaXtcrra. inel 
yap 8y) rjcrav eVtoVrcs ol fidpfiapoL Kara to ipov rf}s 
Hpovrjirjs *A0r)valr)S) iv tovtco c/c piv tov ovpavov 
K€pavvol avrourt ivimnTOv, dnb 8c tov Tlapvrjo'O'ov 15 
dTroppayeio'ai Svo Kopv<j>al i<j)€povro iroWqi iraTayq* 
eg avTovs /cat KaTe\a/3ov crvxyovs cr<f>ea)v, c/c Si tov 
Ipov rfjs Hpovr)L7)s fiorj re /cat dXa\ay/Lto9 cytfcro. 

37. 2. &ir£pa>v : w*/v /« sight placed before cVciSi? with the same 

of, though still some distance purpose. — 7. Hooves: this epi- 

away (cp. 1. 14). Att. d<£ed>pan/. — thet is applied to Athena because 

4. ck tov pcydpov : explaining her temple is reached before that 
iawOev. — tod: moved from its nat- of Apollo by one approaching 
ural position with on-Aa in order from Daulis, the common direo 
to introduce the rel. clause. It is tion. — 8. Woca : Dial. § 3. i. 6. — 
because the arms are sacred that 9. KdpTa: decidedly, — 10. ferXa 
it is not holy to touch them. — ...^avfjvcu: explanatory of tovto. 

5. 6 |icv 84} : the subj. is expressed — irpoiccCpcva kt4. : explains Ifw. 
merely to give a contrast to ol 8c — 12. Sid: beyond* Syn. §5. — 
PdpPapoL, though there is no real 6»|idom : on the act. inf. see GMT. 
contrast between the actions of the 763. — 16. diroppaycfcnu : 2 aor. 
two parties, ol 8c /Jap/?apoi is pass. part, of awopp^yvvfiu 



4*5] HERODOTUS VIII 335 

38 (rvfifiiyevrtov 8c tovtcdi/ Ttdyruv <f)6/3os toicti fiapfid- 
poLcn iveTreirrcoKei. fiadovres Sc ol AeX<j)ol favyovrds 
<r<f>€as 9 eiriKaTafSdwes direKTeivav irXfjOos tl ovtcov. ol 
8c ircpicdj'T€9 lOv Bolojtoju efavyov. iXeyov 8c ol dno- 
vo<rri}<ravTes o5roi iw fiapfidpcovy a>9 iy<o TTvvddvop.ai, 5 
a>9 wpo9 tovtokti /cat aXXa copcov 0cta • Svo yap 07r\i- 
ra9 ftc£oi>a9 ^ /cara dvOp<im<ov <f>v(ru> [cxo*>Ta9] CTrccrtfat 

39<r<f>i KTtivovras Kal Stdj/coiras. tovtoi>9 8c tous 8vo 
AeX<f>ol Xeyova elvai iirix<opCovs rjp<oas> QvXaKov t€ 
Kal Avtovoov, t£)v rd Ttp&vzd ccrrt 7rcpt to Ipov, 4>vXa- 
icov /xci' Trap* avrr/v rr/v oSbv Karvnepde rov Ipov rfjs 
Hpovrflris, Avtovoov 8c 7rc'Xa9 Trjs KaoraXn^ vwb Tjj 5 
'Ta/xTTCt^ Kopv^jj. ol Sc 7rcawrc9 airo tou Hapvrjaaov 
XC0ol eri zeal €9 fjfieas fjcav (root, kv tg> refievei rfjs 
UpomjCrj^ 9 A0r)vair)s /cet/Lic^oi, cs to ivcaKyjiftav Sta tow 
/3ap/3dp<op <f>ep6fi€POL. tovtwv p.£v vvv tS>v avhpS>v 
avTTj dirb rov Ipov diraXXayrj ytVcrat. 10 

40 'O 8c 'JSiXXrjvw vavTiKOs orpaT09 dnb tov 'ApTC- 
fMLcriov 9 A0r)vat<ov SerjffcvTcov c? SaXafiiva /caTt'tr^ct Tct9 
v€a§. tSpSc 8c cti/e/ca Trpocr^SeyjOrjaav avrcov <r\(uv 
irpbs 2aXa/zu>a 9 A0r)vaioi 9 Iva avrol 7ratSa9 tc /cat 
ywat/cas VTrttjaydyavTcu c/c t^9 'Atti/ctJs, 7rpo9 8c /cat 5 

38. 2. IvcircirT^Kci : the plupf. ex- and the Muses rises in an angle 
presses the continuance of the fear, formed by two precipitous walls 
— 3. <rXf|66s ti : quite a large num- of rock, Hyampeia and Nauplia. — 
ber. — 7. (Algovas kt4. : see App. — 7. k f|yias : down to my tune. — 
hno+ai : impf. Cp. a>pa>v I. 6. <rdoi : preserved. Att. crcooi. — 

39. 3 tA lp6v: of Apollo. — 10. am\ ktc. : see Syn. § 8. 6 
5. iriXat: Att. iyyvs* — Kacrra- for the omission of the article. — 
XCip : the fountain sacred to Apollo airaWay^ : departure. 



336 HERODOTUS VIII [40.6 

fSovkev&toVTai to TTOtrjTeov avTolct carat, inl yap roiat 
KarrJKovcn Trpifjyfxao'L /3ov\fjv cfieWov TrovrjcecrO ai cos 
ci/icuoyxeVot yvcofir)*;. So/ccWrcs yap evprjaeiv Tlekoirov- 
vrjo-Covs TravSrffiel iv Tjj Bolcotlt) viroKaTrffxii/ovs rbu 
fidpfiapov, t£)v fxev tSpov ouScV iov, ol Sc iirvvOdvovro io 
rbv ^adfibv avrovs rci^co^rag, rrfv U^koTrovvrqaou irepX 
7rXctoTou T€ 7rotco/xeVov5 irepietvai /cat Tavrqv c^oira? 
iv <j)v\aKr}, ra dXXa Se d-mevat. raura 7rw#ai>o/i,c- 
vol ovtq) 8r) Trpo<T&erjQy)0'dv a-(f)€(ov <r\eiv irpbs rf)v 
41 2aXa/xu/a. ol fiev St) dXXot Karea^ov cs tt)j/ SaXa- 
fjuva, 'A0r)vouoi 8e cs tt)i/ icovrcov. fierd 8c tt)i> 
aVi£u> KijpvyfjLa inoLTJa'aPTo, *A0r)vai(ov rfj Tts Swarai 
o"a>£cti/ rcfo/a re /cat tovs ot/ccras. ivdavra ol p,kv 
Tr\e?o-TOL is Tpoifcrjva d-rreo'Teikav, ol Sc eg A?yii>ai>,5 
ot Se is SaXa/xt^a. eairevaav 8c ravra vTT€K0€O'0ai 
t<3 xpr)0"rqpCq> re j3ov\6fizvoi vnrjpeTelv /cat 8?) /cat 
tovSc eu>c/ca ov/c 77/ctOTa • Xeyaua-t 'Adrjvaloi o<j>lv fieyav 
(f)v\aKa rijs aKponokios cVStatracrflat cV rc3 tpal. Xc- 



THE GREEK FLEET, AFTER LEAV- 
ING ARTEMISION, STOPPED 
AT SALAMIS. THE ATHENI- 
ANS MOVE FROM THE CITY 



irowrjaov, although it is placed so 
prominently before the T€ . . . koi 
clauses. — 13. dirUvcu: this is par- 
allel to TetxeovTas (for a variation 
between part, and inf. after irwOdv- 

TO PLACES OF SAFETY (CC. ^cp. 5. ,5. 6 ). -w^la*,^: 

4°~4U C p # 8. 36. 1 and note the impf. in 

40. 6. t6: Syn. § 13. 1. — 8. yv&- 1. 10. 

(up : S. 1392 ; HA. 748 ; B. 362 ; G. 41. 3. *A8t|vaU»v : part. gen. w. 

1 1 17. — 9. viroKarrti&lvovs : c. ace. ; tis. — 4. ourfras : see 8. 4. 9. — 

generally absol. — 10. t«v jmv kt4. : 7. xptjo-rqpty : see 7. 140. — iced 

of them they found not a trace, — 8t| kcU : and in particular. The 

ol 84 : Syn. § 9. 1 . c. — 12. TavTrjv : expression is further strengthened 

emphatic repetition of Tt\v IIcAo- by ovk jjkiotcl. — 9. lp$: the tem- 



43.2] HERODOTUS VIII 337 

yovci tc Tavra koll 877 Kal o>9 iovri htip^via cmTcXcoucn 10 
irporiOdvres • t<x 8* imfiijvia /xcXtroccrora cori. avnj 8* 
^ fieXiToeaaa iv t<5 irpoade aid XP° V< ? ^vaurLfiovfieprf 
totc iji> difravoro?. <T7)fL7)vd<Tr)s Se raura 7779 tpcnjg 
jLidXXoV tc 01 *A0rjvaioL Kal npoOvfiorepov i^4\iirov rrfv 
irokiv a>9 icai T179 0cou a7roXcXot7rvtT79 tt)^ aKponokiv. 15 
a>9 8c o*<£i Ttdvra vttc^c'/ccito, en-Xco^ €9 to oTparoTrehov. 

42 cVct 8c ol oV * ApT€fii<Tiov €9 SaXa/xim Karitjypv t<x9 
i>ca9 ? avvippti Kal 6 Xoi7ro9 ttvv0(xv6il€vo<; 6 rmv 'EXXif- 
ycoj' *>aim/co9 crrparo9 c/c T/>oi£t}*>o9 • €9 yap Harycova 
top Tpoitflvitov \ip.4va 7rpoeCpr)To avWeytadou. crwc- 
\ey6f\<Taa> tc 8^ 7toXXg> 7rXeoj/€9 ^cc9 fj in 'Aprc/xicrta) 5 
ivavfid^eov Kal airb ttoXlcov nXeovcov. vavap\os fiev 
vw iirijv a>vro9 09 nep in *ApT€fiLa-Uo 9 Evpu/SidS^ 
EvpvicXct8ea> avr/p %napTi7]Tr)<; 9 ov [livroi yiveos ye 
tov fSaaduqiov icov. i/ca-9 Sc noWco 7rXcioTa9 re /cat 

43 d/HOTa 7rXcovcra9 napeiyomo 'Adrjvaloi. icrTparevovTo 
8c otSc* ck /xcy UeXonovvrjcrov AafccSai/idVioi CKfcai- 



THE NUMBERS AND COMPOSITION 



pie of Athena Polias. — 10. 4m- 
irivia rrl. : M^y w#fo monthly 

~ . *i- ,z, ^ ^/ /r OF THE GREEK FLEET (CC. 

offerings, setting them forth (for v 

the snake). — 12. 6ivai(ri^ov\Uvr\: 4 ~4 J 

pres. expressing repeated action in 42. 2. 6 r&v 'EXMjv«v : for the 

past time. — 14. juLXXdv ti . . . repetition of the art. with the sec- 

ical irpoOuptfTf pov : all the more ond attribute, cp. 7. 196. 1, 8. 108. 

eagerly. Cp. 1.96. 12 and /utaAAov 6, 23. — 4. Xiplva: the island of 

ti kcu Ociorepov 1. 174. 17, /xaAAov Calauria, which lies off the coast 

ti kou Ta^vrcpov 9. ioi. 1 5. — 1 5. «s of Troezen, makes a large and 

. . . &iroXcXoiirv£'qs : in the belief well-protected harbor. — 7. «wt6s : 

that the goddess had deserted. — Ion. crasis of 6 avros. — 9. pcuri- 

16. fare{6cciro : = plupf. pass, of Xt|Cov: the Spartan commander 

{nr€Kr($rffu, with <r<f>t of the agent, was generally a king. 



338 HERODOTUS VIII [43. 3 

Se/ca v€a<z Trape^o/xo/oL, KoplviOoi 8c t&vto irk^poyfia 
7rap€x6[JL€voi [to] /ecu in 'Apre/xtauj) • ^Zikvcoviol Se 
7T€i>T€fccuS€/ca napeC^ovTo v€as, 'EmSavpioi 8c Se/ca, 5 

TpOL&jvLOL 8e 7T€VT€, 'EpfUOVel? 8c T/JC15, €0|/T€5 O^rOl 

7rX^ 'TLpjJuovecov Aa>pt/cdi/ re /ecu Ma/eeSi'6*' iffvos, i£ 
'Eptveov re /ecu Ilt^Sou /cat rijs Apvo7rC$o<; varara opfirj- 
Sevres, oi 8e 'E^/juo^ets etcrt ApuoTres, v7ro 'Hpa/eXeos 
re /ecu M^XieW e/e rqs vvv Aa>/>iSo9 /eaXco/ACJWjs yjcopiqs 10 
44 e£ai/acrraVres. ovroi /xev i^v^ IleXoTrow^jcrtcoi/ icrpa- 
T€vovto 9 oi he e'/e Trjs e£(o ryneipov, 'AOtjvcuol p.ev Trpbs 
Travras tov<s aXXoug nape^ofxevoi vea<; oyhcoKOVTOL /ecu 
ifcaTOV, fjLOvvoi ' ev XaXafuvi yap ov <rovevavp t o.yy)a'av 
nXaraiei<? 'A0r)vaioi<Ti Sid rotd^Se tl 7rprjyfia • curaX-s 
Xacrao/jiG/cov t&v 'EXX^odj/ a7ro rov 'Apre/xia-tbu, a>s 

43. 3. irXVjpwfia : = irA?/0os vctov. AioA.l8c? ttoAxcs ... at 8c ra? V77- 
— 7. MaicfSvdv: doubtless con- aov<s e\ovaat irevrt fiev 7rdAt€s ttjv 
nected with Mukc&ov. According Aca/Jov vifxovrai 1. 151. 1. For 
to 1. 56 the Dorians lived in an exact parallel we should have 
Phthiotis and Histiaeotis before here irapeixovro instead of 7rapc- 
they came to Doris. — 8. 'Epivcov : xo/xevoi. Cp. the apod, in 45. 1 . — 
Tyrtaeus Fr. 2 refers to Erineus irp&s irAvTas tovs aXXovs : in com- 
as the home of the Heraclidae parison with all the rest. The 
before they came to Peloponnesus, construction is unusual in that we 
Pindar, Pyth. 1. 65, says the same have a definite figure given instead 
of Pindus. — ApvoirCSos : cp. 8. 31 . of < many ' or ' most ' ; as if we 
8. — 9. Apvorres: cp. 1. 146. 7, should say " London has a popula- 
8.46.18,8.73.9. — 'HpcucXlos: cp. tion of 6,000,000 in comparison 
7. 176, 198. — 11. IJavoo-rAvTfs : with all the cities in the world/ 1 
pass, of €K)3aAAa>. Cp. 7. 75* 8, 8. For a similar use cp. <f>6pov dwu- 
127. 4. yiveov irpbs irdvras tows aXXovs 

44. 2. 'A0T|vatoi \Uv: in part. i&qKOvra teal TpirjKwria rdXavra 
appos. to oi 8c €K rfjs e$u) rjirupov. t/^y/uaros 3. 94. 9. — 4. pofivot : 
Cp. aurcu ficv vw at rjtr€ipwTLo\% explained by the foil, clause. See 



46. 4 ] HERODOTUS VIII 339 

iyivovro Kara XaXfaSa, ol nXaraicfe anofidivTes cs 
rr/v ircpairjv rfjs Bouori?}? X^PV* ^pos iKKOfn8r)v irpdr 
1TOVTO T(OV oIk€T€(0V. OVTOl fl€V vvv tovtovs crco£oi>r€9 
iketydyiaav. 'AOtjvcuoi, 8c iirl fiev Hekaaycov ixovrcov 10 
ttjv vvv "EXXaSa tcaktofievrjv fj<Tav IlcXacryoi, ovofia- 
£6[xevoi Kpavaoi, iirl 8c Kc'/cpoTros /JatriXcos c/cXrj^trai/ 
KcJcpomSat, iK$e£aficvov 8c 'Epe^^co? r>)i> a.pxv v 9 A0rf 
vaiOL /xcraw/o/xacr^tra^, ^Igj^os Sc rov Uovdov orpa- 
Tap\€(a yevofievov *A0r)vaCoL<TL c/cX^flijcraj/ a7ro rourov 15 

45*Ia>i>€9. Mcyapcis 8c rcovro TrXrjpcjfia irapeixovTO /cat 
€ir' 'Aprc/jiwriG), *AfnrpaKi(OTai 8c C7rra i>cas c^oircs 
C7rc)8oTj^crai/, Acv/caSioi 8c rpcis, c#j>09 cdircs ovrot 

4SA(opiKov dirb Kopivdov. vrjaKorecov Sc Atyw^rat T/H17- 
kovtcl irapeixovTo. rj<rav /xcV o*<£i zeal aXXat 7re7r\ripajr 
pAvax v€€$ 9 dXXa 7770*1 /xc^ t^j/ icovrcov i^vXaaaovj 
TpujicovTa 8c r^crt aptora 7rXcovcrycrt cx> 2aXa/u*>i ci>av- 

8. 1.4. — 8. ity ircpa(T)v: sc. /xoi- daughter of Erechtheus. When 

pav. — 12. KpavooC: Pindar, Ol. the Eleusinians attacked Athens, 

7. 82 etc., and Ar. Ach. 75, use Ion, then king of the Aegiales, 

Kpavaos as an epithet of Athens, came to the assistance of his grand- 

The latter also uses at Kpavam father, and was appointed arpar- 

for 'AOrjvai (Aves 123) and t^v dpx*js of the army. The four Attic 

Kpavadv of the Acropolis (Lys. tribes were named after his sons. 

480). The name was evidently Cp. 5. 66. 10, 7. 94. 6. 
derived from the rocky citadel, 45. 4. diri Kop£v6ov: Ambra- 

but a mythical king was ere- cia and Leucas were said to have 

ated to account for it. Cp. TrcuSes been colonized by sons of Cypselus, 

Kpavaov Aesch. Eutn, ion. — tyrant of Corinth. 
13. 'A0t|vatoi : because Erechtheus 46. 1 . vijo-iwt&ov : freq. with- 

was the foster-son of Athena out the art. when referring to the 

(Horn. B 547). — 14. Iwvos : Ion islands of the Aegaean. Cp. vrjcroi 

was the son of Xuthus and Creusa, 8. 108. 9 — 2. &W<u : see note on 8. 



340 HERODOTUS VIII [46. 5 

fidxr)(Tav. AlyLvrJTaL Sc elcri Acd/hci? airb 'EnLSavpov • 5 
rj} Sc vrjcrca irporepov ovvofia tjv Olvcovt). fiera 8c 
AlyivTJTas XaX/aScis rds in 'ApTC/uaruw ci/cocri 7ra/oc^o- 
fievoi teal 'Epcrptctg ras kirra • ovtol Sc v Ict>j>es eicru 
fiera Sc Ktjlol tcis auras irapexpfievoL, edvo<z ibv 'Iawi- 
kov dirb * A6t\vitov . Na^ioi 8c irap^i)(ovro rcacrcpag, 10 

d7r07r€/X<^^€KT€S JU,CJ> C5 TOV9 MrjSoVS U7T0 TOW Tro\L7jT€(OVy 

Kara irep oi dXXoi i^crtairat, aXoyrjcrai/Tcs 8c t<ov ivror 
\e<ov aTTLKaro cs rovs EXXrj^as Ayj/xoKpLTov crirevaavros, 
di>Spos raii> daT<Si> SoKLfiov kcu tot€ Tpiy)pap)(4ovTos • 
Nd^toi 8c' cttrt v Iq>i/c5 a7ro 'Adrfvecov yeyovores. Srvpels 15 
Sc rds auras Ttapsxypvro via.% rds irep in 'Aprcfucrioj, . 
Kvffvioi Sc fiicw /cat nevrrjKoirrepov, iovres (ruvafjL^oTe- 

pOL OVTOL A/>V07TC5. KCU ^€pL(f)LOL T€ KCU %L<j)VLOL KOL 
MtJXlOI icTTpCLTtVOVTO * OVTOL ydp OVK iSoaCtV fJLOVVOL 

47 vrjcrL(oT€o}i/ tco fiapftdpa) yfjv T€ kol vhcop. ovtol fiev 
dnavres ciros oiKrfficvoL QecrnpcoTcov kol % A\4povro^ 
TTOTafiov icTTpaTevovTo • SecrnpcoTol ydp eicrL ofiovpeov- 
T€$ 'AfiTrpaKLcoTjicrL koll AevKa&ioLCTL, oi iij IcryaTiav 

48. 7. — 9. Uv : assim. to the pred. known from inscriptions, is Ionic, 

!0vos. — 13. dirtKaro : Dial. § 4. 3. though with a few peculiarities. — 

There is a slight anacoluthon in 18. Scptyioi. ktI. : with the ex- 

the sentence; we should expect ception of Naxos all the islands 

airiyfjievoi Sc to balance dnofTrefi- mentioned in this chapter are the 

<f>Oevres fiev. — At)|iokp£tov : ac- farthest westward of the group, 

cording to Simonides (Fr. 136), he and so most removed from the fear 

was the third to begin the fight at of Persian aggression. 
Salamis (cp. 8. 84. 10), and took 47. 2. oliaipivoi: dwelling. 

five ships, besides saving one. — Hdt. uses the pf. pass, in the 

15. STvpcts : Thuc. 7. 57 says they sense of the pres. act. in Att. Cp. 

were Ionians. Their dialect, as 8. 115. 22. — 3. clo-i tpovplorrtt : 



49.1] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



34* 



XQ>p€(ov larparevovTo. rcov 8c c/cto9 tovtwv olKrjfievcjv 5 
KpoTtovifjTai fiovvoi ^aav ot i/3oTJdr)crav ry 'EXXaSt 
KcvSwevovcrg /u# vr)C 9 t^5 VPX € ^ v VP t P L(S 'rrvdioviKri^ 
48 3>aiJXXo9 • Kporawf/rat Sc yivos cto-t 'A^atot. ot /xa> 
i/vi> aXXot Tpnjptas napexofievoi iarpaTevovTO, Mr/Xtot 
oc #cat 'Ztyviou Kal %€pC<j)ioi TTCKrtj/coi/rCjpovg. Mr/Xtot 
/xci/, ycvos coVt€9 affo Aa/ccSat/xopo?, Svo trapziyovTO) 
%l<f>vioi 8c ical %€pt(f)LOL 9 v Igh>€9 kovrts an 'AdrjvewVyS 
fiiav c/carcpot. dpid/4,09 8c iya/ero 6 7ra9 7w pcai/, 
irdpe£ t5>v irtvTr}KovT4p<ov, r ptrfKoa tat /cat kfShoiLrJKovra 



/cat 6kt(o. 



49 e fl9 8c C9 rr)i/ %a\afjuva <jvvr\\6ov ot orparr/yot 



= ofjiovpoi cicrt 1. 57. 4 or ofiovpi- 
owri 2. 33. 13. — 6. KpoTamfJTai : 
in southern Italy. — 7. irv0iov£ici|s : 
the Pythian games were held 
every four years at Delphi. Pau- 
sanias 10. 9. 2 tells us that Phayl- 
lus won the pentathlon twice and 
the foot race once. He adds that 
he furnished his own ship and 
manned it with Crotoniats dwell- 
ing in Greece. There was a 
statue of him at Delphi,' from 
which Hdt. probably drew his in- 
formation. Ar. Ach, 215, Wasps 
1206, mentions a Phayllus as a 
typical runner. 

48. 2. &W01 : the Ceans pro- 
vided two penteconters and two 
triremes (8. 1. 11, 8. 46. 9) ; the 
Cythnians one each (8. 46. 17). — 
7. TpctiKdo-iOi kt4. : the sum total of 
the numbers given by Hdt. is 366, 



not 378. It is commonly assumed 
that the twelve missing ships are 
those with which the Aeginetans 
were guarding their own land (8. 
46. 2). This conclusion is based 
on the statement of Pausanias (2. 
29. 5) that the Aeginetans fur- 
nished the next largest number af- 
ter the Athenians. As there were 
forty Corinthian ships (8. 1. 5, 8. 
43- 3)> tne statement of Pausanias 
would be correct if twelve ships 
were added to the thirty Aegine- 
tan. However, it is more probable 
that the error is due to Hdt. For 
another miscalculation, see 7. 187. 
n, and note the inaccuracy in 
1. 2. Aeschylus, Persae 338, says 
there were 310 Greek ships. For 
other statements, cp. Thuc. 1. 74; 
Demosth. De Cor, § 238 ; Isoc. 
Paneg. § 98. 



342 HERODOTUS VIII [49.2 

airb t£)v elprjfievcov 7foXC(ov 9 i/3ov\evovro 9 irpodevros 
EvpyfiidSea) yvcop^v ano<f)atveo'0cu top fioyXofievov, 
okov Sok€ol imvrfieoTaTov tlvau vavyLayirfv iroieicdai 
t!ov avTol ^o)p4(ov iyKpaT€i<; elai • 17 yap 'Attikt) aneiTo 5 
rj$r), t<x>v Sc \onri<i)v iripi TrpoeriOet,. ai yvcofiai Sc tS>v 
XeyovTcjv at TrXctcrrat <rvveiJ€TrnTTov npbs top 'I&dfibv 
TrkdxravTas vavfiax^tv irpb rfjs UeXo7rovwjo'ov 9 C7rtXe- 
yovrts rbv Xoyov rovSe, cog el vucrjOeaKri rfj vavfta)^Cy 9 
iv 2aXa/zu>i fiev iovres TroXiopKyjaovraL iv vijo-a), Ivaic 
a(f)i TifKopir] ovhefiia cm^ai^crerai, 7rpos 8c rai 'icrfl/xtS 

50 6? tovs icovrcov e^oiarovrai. Tavra tcov airb HtXoirov- 
vrjcrov vrparriytov cVtXcyo/Aa/co^ iXr)Xv0ei avyp *A0r)- 
vaios ayyeXXwv rjiceiv rbv fidpfiapov C9 tt/p ^Attlkt/v 
kou Tracav avTYjv irvpTroXelo'0 at. 6 yap Sid Bolcdtcdv 
TpaTTOfievos orparos d/za Hep£]], ifiirpyjaas ©ccrmea)!/ 5 
rfjv iroXiv olvtcov iKXeXonrorcov e? UeX<m6vv7)<Tov zeal rffv 
nXaraieW OKravrajs, ^/cc re eg rag 'AOrjvas /cat iravra 
€K€iva cS^ov. iv€7rpr)<re 8c %4a"ireidv re ical nXdraiaj/ 

51 iruffofjievos ®r){5ai<ov cm ou/c iiirjhitpv. anb hk rfjs 



WHILE THE GREEKS AT SALAMIS 
ARE DISCUSSING THE BEST 



ktI. : in which of the places which 
they control. — 5. Airctro: Att. 
a<t>e2To; plupf. pass, of a<f>i7]iu. — 

PLACE FOR A NAVAL BATTLE, <rvv< ^ lwTOV . werein agreemenL 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE PERSIANS Q g , g _ g | ^ 

IN ATHENS IS ANNOUNCED XI^WTW : as if »A^FT« lyfyw^FW 

(cc. 49-50) had preceded. — 9. ct : Syn. §18.1. 

49. 2. irpo04vTo$ : of the pre- — 10. iro\u>pictfj<rovT<u : in pass, 

siding officer who proposes to a sense. — 12. ifofcrovrcu : cp.8.76. 15. 

meeting the subject for discussion. 50. 2. in-iXryopivctv : consider- 

Usually w. ace. Xoyov (8. 59. 2), ing. Note the diff. voice in 8. 49. 

yv<jifX7)v. — 4. #kov . . . t»v \<api»v 9. — 8. liccCva = to. €K€i. — 9. tp^- 



52. 4 ] HERODOTUS VIII 343 

Sta/ScunrO? tov "EXX^cnroirov, ivdev iropevto'dai fjp^avro 
ol fidpfiapoi,, £va avrov hiarptyavres p,f}va 9 iv rco 
hUflxivov eg Ti)V J&vpaTrrjv, iv rptal hipoiai iirjal iye- 
vovto iv tq 'Attik^, KaXXiaScco dp\ovro% *A0r)vaioi(ri. 5 
Kal alpiovcri eprjfiov to dorv kcli tlvols oXiyovs cvpi- 
(TKovo'i tS>v 'Affrjvauov iv t<$ ip<p iovras, ra/nas T€ tov 
ipov Kal irevrjTas.avdpconovs, 61 <f>pa£dp.evoi ttjv aicpor 
ttoKlv dvpycri re Kal ^vkoicri rfpLvvovro tovs iiriovras, 
dfia fX€v vn acrdtveiy)*; fjtov ovk iK^ojpT] cr avre^ c? SaXa-10 
/lira, irpbs 8c avrol So/ccoj/tcs itjevprjKevai to fiavrrjiov 
to 17 Ilv0ir] cr<f>i £)(pr)<T€, to £v\u>ov tci^os dvdkayrov 
ecrecrd ai • auro 87) tovto etvai rb Kpr)<r<f)vyeTOv Kara to 
52 jiavrrjiov Kal ov t<zs veas. ol Se Uepaau l^opevot, iirl 
rbv KaTavriov rfjs aKponokios o^Oov, tov 'Adrfvaloi 
Kakiovcri 'Apyjiov ndyov, ivoXiopKeov Tpoirov Toiovhe • 
o/ca>9 cnvmr&ov irepl tous o'iotov? irepidevres d\\teiav, 

8i(ov : impf. ind. for a pres. indie, of the method of dating which 
in the direct statement. later became regular. — 7. lp<j> : 



THE PERSIANS AFTER A STUB- 
BORN RESISTANCE TAKE THE 
ACROPOLIS AND PLUNDER THE 



the old Erechtheum, the temple 

of Athena Polias. — rapCas : there 

were ten stewards in charge of the 

funds and treasures of the temple. 
TEMPLE OF ATHENE (CC. 51- _ „. Mmlns p £ov . p<yverty , 

53' According to Aristotle, Ath. Pol, 
51. 4. kv Tpurl ktI. : the arrival 23, the senate of the Areopagus 
in Athens probably took place distributed eight drachmas to each 
about the ninth or tenth of Sept., man at this time. — r 1 . navHjiov : 
allowing nine or ten days for the for the oracle and the diff. inter- 
march from Thermopylae. See 8. pretations, see 7. 141-2. 
26. — 5. KoXXidSftt : Calliades was 52. 4. Sk«s: whenever. Hdt. 
archon eponymous in 480 B.C. is fond of thus subordinating the 
This is the only instance in Hdt. first of two successive actions. — 



344 HERODOTUS VIII [52. 5 

irotjevov cs to <j>pdyfia. ivdavra *A0r)vauov oi 7ro\iop~s 
Keofxevoi oficos r/fivvoi/ro, Kainep eg to coT^aro*/ kolkov 
airiyiievoi /cat tov <^/>ay/xaro9 npoSeSa) kotos. ovSe 
\6yovs to)v Il€to"tOTpaTt8eW Trpotr^epovTwv irepl 6/lio- 
Xoyirjs eve&eKovro, dfxvvofxevoi Se a\Xa T€ dvT€firj^a- 
vS)vto /cat 8^ /cat irpoaiovTOiv tcov /3ap/3dpa)v irpbs ra? 10 
irvXas okoiTpoxovs a7rtccra^, wore Sep^rjv im yjpovov 
vvyyov diropvQdi «>e^€cr0at oi Svvd/Aevov <x<£ea9 iXelv. 
53XP° V V ^ * K T ^ v dnopcop i<f)dvr) Syj rtg e£o8os rotcrt 
/SapfidpoKTi • cSet yap /cara to deonpoinov irda'av tyji/ 
'Attlktjv ttjv Iv Tjj rjTreipa* yeviaOai vwb Ilcpcr^crt. 
€fnrpo(T0€ fi)v npb rfjs d/cpo7roXto9, oVtcr^c 8c t<ov irv\4<av 
/cat rfjs dv68ov 9 Trj S77 ovt€ tls e<£uXao*cr€ ovt av tj\7TL(T€ 5 
pLrj kot€ rt? /caret raura dvafiair) dv0p<o7T(ov, TavTjj dve- 
firjadv, rii/£5 /cara to tpoi> ttjs KtKponos dvyaTpbs 

7. irpoScSaxcdros : it is implied that irp6 : cp. 1. 1 1 and oi avw vrrcp 

the wooden defense was destroyed Mao-ouAoys oixcovtcs 5. 9. 16. 

by fire. — 8. IIfuri<rTpaTi.S&ov : cp. Though the entrance was on the 

7. 6. Thuc. 6. 59. 4 says that west, the side referred to here as 

Hippias came to Marathon with the front is the north side, where 

the Persians, "being now an old the temple of Aglaurus is to be 

man." Presumably the sons of placed (Eurip. Ion. 8 f., 493 f.). 

Hippias are here meant. He had Pausanias (1. 18. 2) says that 

five children, while Hipparchus Aglaurus cast herself down from 

and Thessalus seem to have had the Acropolis IvOa. rjv fidXiara 

none (Thuc. 6. 55). — n. Iwl airoroyuov . . .Kara tovto iirava- 

Xp6vov <n>xy6v: probably about fjavrts Mfjboi ktc. This agrees 

two weeks (Busolt, Gr. Gesch. 2. with the description of Herodotus 

695). — 12. ov : the negat. belongs in 1. 9; yet some suppose that the 

closely with Swa/xcvov. GMT. Persians entered by a cleft in the 

598-9. rock. — 6. |it) . . . Avaflab) : as after 

53. 1. Wj : this strengthens the a verb expressing fear. Cp. 1. 77. 

indef. idea inns- — 4. cjiirpoo-Oc . . . 20. — icard Tafrra: repeating the 



55. 3 ] HERODOTUS VIII 345 

*Ay\avpov, Kal \joi] nep dnoKprjfivov iovros tov 
-^copov. a»s Sc €i8ov avrovs avafiefirjKoras ol 'AdrfvaloL 
[cm t^v dfc/>6VoXu>], ol fiev ipp'vnrtov icovrovs /card 10 
tov rei)(€Q<s koltco /cat SiecfrdeipovTO, ol Sc eg to fieyapov 
KaT€<]>€vyov. tcov Sc Tlepcrecov ol dvafiefir) /cores irpcoTOv 
fikv irpdirovro irpbs ras 7rvXas, ravras 8c dvol£avre? 
tovs i/ceras i<f>6vevov • €7rcl 8c cr<£i irai/rcs KarecrTpcovTO, 
to Ipbv avXyjaavTes iveirprjcrav iraaav ttjv d/cpoVoXii/. 15 
54o"xa>i> 8c 77aKrcXcco5 Tas 'A0ijva<s Hc/of^s aTrcVc/nJ/c c<? 
SoCcra dyycXoz> wnrc'a * ApTafSdvtp dyyekeovra ttjv irape- 
ova-dv <r<f>t, €imp'q£ir)v. dirb 8c ttJs Trtfixfjios tov KrjpvKos 
8evT€p-g 'fipepy (rvyfcaXccras 'Adrjvalcov tovs <f>vydhas, 
€(ovtq> 8c c7to/x,cj/ovs, c/ceXeuc Tpowco tco a^erepo) Ovaai 5 
ra ipd dvajSdvras is ttjv dicpoTroXw, etre 8r/ fbv o\fttv 
Tivd ihcov Ivvrrviov iveTeXkeTO Tavra, ewe kclI ivdvfiiov 
ol iyevero ifiirpTjaayTt, to Ipov. ol Sc <£vyd8cs tcov 
'A0r)vaL(t)v i-rroCrjaav tcl ivTeraX/ieva. tov 8c elv€K€v 

55TOLTCOV €1T€IAVT]0'$Y)V, (frpdo'CO. CCTTt €V TTj dtcpOTTokl 

Tavrrj 'Epc^^co? tov yqyeveos keyo/ievov elvai vrjos, iv 
tco ikairj T€ Kal ddXacrcra ci>t, ra \6yos irapa *A0r)vaCcov 

idea in rfj. — 10. IppCirrcov : note 19. 9, 9. 5. 6. — Iv6v|u6v ot fylvcTO : 
the descriptive impfs. in these it rested heavy on his mind. Im- 
lines. , pers. const., with partic. express- 

ing the reason for repentance, as 

THE ATHENIAN EXILES, SACRIFIC- ^ ^ 

ING ON THE ACROPOLIS, BE- ^ 2 ^ . pred ^ 

HOLD A MARVEL (CC 54-55) cW C p . >Epe X 0rjoj /xeyoA^ropos, 

54. 2. 'Afrrapdvcp: cp. 7. 53. ov nor 'AOyvrj \ Opiif/e Acos Ovya- 

1. — 5. 4«vt<p 8^: cp. 8. 23. 11. — rrjp, tckc §€ £€i$<opos apovpa Horn. 

7. cIti teal . . . tylvcTo: for a simi- B 547. — 3. 0£\eur<ra: i.e. a salt 

lar change to a finite verb cp. I. spring (Pausan. 1.26. 5).— irapA: 



346 HERODOTUS VIII [55. 4 

IlocrctScWa re /cat ' K0iqvair)v epLcravras irepl Trjs X^PV^ 
fiaprvpia 0e<r0cu. tolvtyjv S>v ttjv IKaiifv dfia r<p aXXa> 5 
ipcp KareXafie lpMpy\(xQr\vai inb tcov fiapfidpcov • Sev 
T€prj 8e rjpcpT) airb tt/s ifiTrpija'LO^ 9 A0r)yai<ov ol Ovtiv 
vtto ySacriXebs Kekevofievot a>s avefirjaav eg to ipov, copcov 
fSkaGTOv 4k tov <TT€\e)(€o<; ocov re 7rr))(ycuov avaSeSpa- 
fxrjKOTa. ovToi p.iv wv ravra €<f>pa.(rav. 10 

56 Ot 8e iv SaXafuVL "EXXtji'Cs, a>s a<f)L i£ayye\0r) 
a>s ccr^c ra irepl ttjp 'Adrjveav aKporrokiv, c? to&ovtov 
06pv/3ov olttlkovto axrre cVtot tS>v ot paT7jya>v ovSe 
Kvp<o0r}vai epevov to irpoKeifLevov irpfjyua, aXX* es re 
ra<? z/cag e&emTTTov kcu iaria atipovro a>9 a7ro0€vo-6-$ 
fievoL - Toicri re vTro\tnrop,4voio'i avrcov eKvpcodr) irpb 
tov 9 lcr0p.ov vavpLOxeiv. vvi; T€ iyu/€TO /cat 6t Sia- 
\v0€VT€<z if< tov avvehpiov icefiaivov c? ra? i/ea?. 

57 £v0avT<x 8^ ©c/uorojcXea amKopevov inl rf/v via etpero 

expressing the source. Cp. 7. 103. 7. 38. 11, 7. 155. 2. In vowrov tJ /uy 

II and 6 7rapa LTepo-ecoi/ Aoyos /caWAa/Jc vocnyaai ra at$ota 3. 149. 

AcycTat 6. 54. 2. — 5. papTvpia 4 we have a definite subj., further 

0&r0<u : adduced as proofs, i.e. of defined by an inf. 

their earlier possession of the 

land. According' to Apollodorus THE GREEKS ' AFTER DECIDING 



TO SAIL TO THE ISTHMUS, 
ARE PERSUADED BY THEMIS- 
TOCLES TO REMAIN AT SALA- 



(3. 14. 1) Poseidon was the first to 

come to Athens, and he produced 

the salt spring on the Acropolis 

as a mark of his possession; C • 5 3) 

but, when Athena came, she took 56. 4. epevov : c, ace. and inf. ; 

the precaution of making Cecrops more commonly followed by an 

a witness of the creation of the until clause. Note the pictur- 

olive. Accordingly, at the trial he esque impfs. — 7. ot: demonstra- 

testified that she was the first. — tive. Syn. §8. 2. The chronology 

6. tcaT&aPc : /*/ happened. Cp. of Hdt. is rather mixed here. We 



58.1] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



347 



Mvrj<rC<f>i\os avffp *A0r)vaio<; o tl <r<f>i ctrj /Jc/JovXev- 
fievov. 7rv66[ievo^ 8c irpbs avrov a>s en; SeSoyfiivov 
avdyew ra? i>cas wpos top ^laOfiov /cat irpb ttJs IleXo- 
ttovvtJo'ov vav/LaxeWy ctirc* Ou rot dpa, fjv airaeipojcri $ 
rds i>eas oVo SaXa/upo?, 7TC/H ovSc/ur/s en 7raT/>tSos 
vavp.ayrio'eis • /cara yap 7roXts cicacrroi T/oeuVoirat, /cat 
ovYe ericas Ev/ov/StaSr/? Kare^v Sv^crerat ovrc rts 
dvdpdmcov aXkos axrre /at) ov StaoTceSacr^rJz/at rrjv 
arpoLTLijv • aVoXctrat re 17 'EXXa? a/3ov\lrj<TL. aXX* 10 
ct tis cort fir))(cunj 9 Wi /cat neupco Sta^eat ra fiefiov- 
Xevfieva, rjv kcos SvVij avayvSxrai Ev/ov^StaSrp fiera- 
58)8ovXcv(rao"^at (Sore avrov /LtcVctz>. /capra re t<5 



naturally infer from his statement 
that "some of the generals did not 
wait for the matter to be decided," 
that the meeting described in 
chs. 49-50 is still going on; but 
the meeting in ch. 50 was being 
held at the time of the arrival of 
the Persians in Athens, while the 
present one is fixed by the fall 
of the Acropolis, a " considerable 
time" (8. 52. 12) having elapsed. 
57. 2. Mvti<tC4>i\os : following 
Plutarch, de Malig. 37, many mod- 
ern scholars have doubted the 
truth of this anecdote, on the 
ground that it robs Themistocles 
of much of the credit for the Greek 
success at Salamis. Toward the 
end of the fifth century B.C. it was 
a much-discussed question whether 
Themistocles had rendered his 
great services to the state through 



his own natural abilities, or by 
following wise counselors. Thu- 
cydides states his opinion very 
emphatically : ot/ceia yap fw€<m 
kqjL ovtc. -rrpofJuiOiov eis avrijv ovSev 
ovt €7Ti/Aa0(i)]/, twv T€ irapa)(prj fjua 
hC eAa^wrTTTS fiovkfjs /cpdVwTos 
yvcu/xajv Kal tcov /acAAovtcov eirl 
TrAeioTov rov yevrj(rofA€vov apioros 
ctKaoriys I. 138. — 5. otf toi &pa 
ktI. : certainly then, if they with- 
draw their ships from Salamis* 
you will not again fight a naval 
battle for a common fatherland. — 
9. ©ore |M] o*: the double neg. 
follows a verb of prevention in 
a neg. clause. S. 2745 ; B. 435 ; 
G. 1550. On wore see GMT. 588. 
— 12. dva-yvwo-cu : persuade. The 
1 aor. is not found in Att. — 
jKTaPov\cv<ra(r0cH : with inf. in 7. 
12. 8. 



348 HERODOTUS VIII [58.2 

©c/uoto/cXci Tjp€<re rj vttoOtJkt) kou ovScj/ irpbs tglvtcl 
afi€L\jjdfievo$ rje im rr/v via rf/v Evpvfjidhea). olttlko- 
fievos Sc i(f>r) idikeiv ol kolvov tl nprj-yfia trvft/xtfai. 
6 8* avrbv c? rr/v via c/ccXevc iafiavTa Xcyciv, ci tl$ 
0c'Xei. ivdavra 6 ©c/uotokXctjs Trapi^ofievos ol Kara- 
Xcyci iiceLvd re irdvra ra r/Kovo-e Mvr)<ri<f>i\ov, loxvrov 
iroieofievos, /cal aXXa iroXXd irpoo'Tidtis, c? 6 dviyvcocre 
Xprj£(0v €K tc ttJ? z>cos €KJ3r}vai <rv\\i£ai re rovs ot/nit- 

59r]yovs cs to crvvihpiov. a>s 8c apa avveki^drjcavj 
irplv rj tov Evpvj3idSrjv irpoOeivai tov \6yov tcov elveKa 
(Tvvrjyayz tovs (TTparr)yov<s, 7roXXos 77 j> 6 ©e/uoTo/eXoy? 
ci/ ro tTt Xdyoi<ri ota Kapra Scd/xci>09. Xcyoi'Tos 8c 
auroS 6 Kopivdicov crrpaTT/yos 'ASci/xaiTOs 6 'ft/cvroi/S 
€1776 • *X2 ©c/uoto/cXcis, ci/ towti dycoai ol TrpoetjavLarrd- 
/jl€vol paitltpvTai. 6 8c dnoXvofievos e<\>7) • Ol 8c ye 

60 cy/caraXct7rd/iC^oi ou oT€<f>avovvrai,. Tore fiev tjiticos 

58. 7. «uvTov iroic6|icvo$ : on rjv ktc. : was talking a great deal. 
the attitude of Hdt. toward Cp. 1. 98. 2, 7. 158. 2, 9. 91. 2; 
Themistocles see 8. 4, 5. — 8. ical Thuc. 4. 22. 2; Dem. De Cor. 
a\X.a iroXXd: strictly speaking, 199. — 4. ota: with causal partic. 
this should be closely connected S. 2085 ; HA. 977 ; B. 656. 1 ; 
with €#c€?va re as obj. of icaTaAeyci, G. 1575. — 5. *A8cC|mivtos : Plu- 
and we should expect rot avros tarch, Them. 11, makes Eurybiades 
7rpo<TeTi0ei instead of irpoarideis, the speaker, and adds that when 
but the insertion of ecovrov trouo- Themistocles replied, Eurybiades 
/aci/os leads naturally to the partic. was about to strike him with his 

— 9. XPTlt fl,v : fy his urgency. staff. Themistocles simply said 

59. I. &pa: then: the result iraraiov /xcv aKOvaov 8c. — 6. oi 
of the arguments of Themistocles. irpoc£avurTd|icvoi : of runners who 

— 2. Twvctvctca: for the plur. cp. start before the signal is given. 
irvOofievoi . . . tov Aoyov, iir olcn Cp. 9. 62. I. 

3.48.9, and 8. 68. a 5. — 3. iro\X6$ 60. 1. t6t€ \Uv: in contrast 



60. p 6] HERODOTUS VIII 349 

[V/do?] top Kopivdiov d/jLeCx/jaTOy irpbs 8e top EvpvfiidSrjv 
ikeye tKeivwv fiev en ovhev tcop irporepov Xe)(0ei/Tcoi/y o>? 
iiredv aTraeipaxrt, dnb SaXafil^os hiahprjaovTai • 7rape- 
ovroiv yap t£)v avfi/id^cov ovk €<f>epe oi Koafiov ovheva 5 
a Karqyopelv • 6 8c aXXov \6yov efyeTO, Xeytav raSc • 5 Ei/ 
crol vvv iarl (raxrai ttjv 'EXXaSa, f)v i/xol needy vav- 
/ xa X"7 |/ a v T °v y&wv 7roi€Lcrdai /atjSc Treido/JLtvos tovtcdv 
toutl Xdyotcri dva^ev^rj^ Trpos top 'lcrOfibv ra? z/cac. 
dvridez yap eKarepov aKOvaas. irpbs p,kv ra> 'lad/iais 
cru/A)8aXXa>^ cV irekdyei dz/a7r€7rra/x,cVa> i^av/ia^o-ecs, 
[cV] ro rJKurra v)\uv av/j.<f)op6v coti *>ca9 i)(Ovcn fiapv 
repas Kal dpidfibv i\da<T0pas • tovto 8c a7roXct5 SaXa- 
/ui/a re /cat Meyapa Kal Alyivav, rjv irep Kal ra aXXa 
evrv^Tja'difiev. a/ia yap r<3 vovtikco avrcov etyerai Kal 10 

6 7Tc£oS CTpaTOS, KOI OVTQ) (T^Ca? aV709 a^Ctg C7TI T7)V 

P IIcXoTrowTjcro^, /cu/Swcvcrcis re atrdcrri rfj 'EXXaSi. fjv Sc 
ra iya) Xcya> Trotrjo"]]?? rocraSc cV avrowri )(pr)OTd evprj- 
crct9 ' irpcora fikv iv otciz/o> (rv[i/3d\\ovT€<z vrfva-l okiyrjcri 
77700s 'iroXXas, r\v ra oijcdra cac roG noXe/xov e/c/Jau>7?, 
7roXXoj> KpaTTJaofiey • to yap cV areivw vavyia^uv 777009 5 
rjfjLecov coti, iv evpv)(copCji 8c 777009 iKtivwv. aSrt? Sc 

with 61. 6. — 3. us ktI. : explana- 184) they must have been larger 

tory of Twv irp&rcpov XcxOevrtav. — • than the Greek ships. Plutarch, 

6. 6 & : cp. 8. 40. 10. Them. 14, is authority for the state- 

a 3. tovtwv: emphatically ment that the Greek ships were 

placed in contrast to e/xoi instead lower in the water. Possibly 

of ToLai tovtcov Xoyouru — 4. dva- (3apvrepa<; means clumsier. Stein 

tevftp : properly applied to the yok- suggests /JpaSvrepas. — 8. tovto 

ing up when a land force moves. 84: on the other hand; without 

— 7. papvWpas: since the Persian preceding tovto /xcV. — 12. 'EA- 

ships carried a larger crew (7. XA8t: see Syn. § 4. i. B. 2. 



350 HERODOTUS VIII [60. p 7 

SaXa/u? Treptyu/eTai, cs r^j/ 7]pXv V7T€/c/cctrat riKva re 
Kal ywcu/ccs. #cal /icu /cal ro8c Iv avrouri escort, rov 
Kal 7T€/H€}(€<r#€ /laXiara • 6fiOL(os avrov re fjiivaiv irpor 
vavfiaxrjo'eis Hekoirovvyjo'ov Kal irpbs ra) 'lo-Ofiip, ouScio 
cn^cas, €? m/> ev <f>povei<i, a^eis cm tjji/ ncXo-n-dVi/rjcroj/. 
Y ^1/ 8c yc feat ra cycw cX7ri£a> yevrjrai Kal vucrjo-afiev rga 
vrjva, otJrc vp.lv c? tw 'I<r0p*bv irapeaovTcu oi /3dp/3a- 
poi ovre TTpoj3rja-opraL eKaa-repco 7779 'AttiktJs, aniad re 
ov8evl KocrfJLO), Meydpoicri re Ktphaveopev irepceova Kal 
Alyivr] Kal SaXaplvi, iv rfj rjpiv Kal Xoyiov cart tS>v 5 
i)(0pa>v Karvnepde yev€<rdai. oiKorra p.4v wv /3ovXevo- 
pivoia avdp&TTQKTi o»5 to iiriirav ICiXti yivecdai • /x>) 
8e 01/coVa fiovXevopevoia ovk ideXei ovSc 6 0cos Trpocr- 
61 x^ptw irpb> ra? av9pcoiry)ia^ yixo/xas. ravra Xeyoiros 
@c/it(TTOK\cog a&Yis 6 YLopivOios 'ASct/icuro? iire<f>epeTo 9 
ay ay re KeXevcov r<5 /xtj cort warpl? Kal Evpv/JiaSiji/ 
ovk caiz/ imifrq^i^Lv anoXi avhpi- ttoXiv yap rbv 0c/xt- 
oro/cXca irap€)(6iJL€vov ovtco c/ccXcvc yvcofias cru/A^SaXXc- 5 

)3 7. vrr^KKciTai : ^azs* £ii*g <r#r- reasonable neither will God come 

ried out. — 8. Kal ucv icaC: and over to their views. The subject 

further. Syn. § 26. c. — iv a$- of the first iOeXei lies in ot#edra 

Toto-i : therein, i.e. in doing what ftovXevo/jLtvoicn. ovSe is a/w not, 

I say. /.*. if man will not do his part, 

y 4. Mcydpoio-i : for the dat. God also will not do his. Cp. 7. 

C P- 7- 39- '5* 8. 60. a 12. — 50. 12. 

5. \6yiov: the oracle is ambigu- 61. 2. Iirc^pcro: attacked. — 
ous as usual. See 7. 141. 23. — 3. |irfj : on the neg. see Syn. § 19. 

6. yivio-Qai: on the tense see Syn. 3. — 4. £irit|rr|^(j;civ : to give the 
§ 15. 4. c. — oIk6t<& jicv ktI. : «<?«/, floor to, not /<? ,£*W a vote to. 
as a general rule reasonable plans Cp. yvwftas <rvnl3dWe<r0cu be- 
#r* sew// to succeed for men, low. Eurybiades did not take a 
but if they do not plan what is vote, but decided the matter him- 



63.i] HERODOTUS V11I 351 

crdat. ravra §€ oi wpoecfrepe, on rfKcaKeadv re /cat /caret- 
\ovro 'A0r}vai. rore Sr/ 6 ©e/noTO/cXcqs kzivqv re /cat 

TOVS KopivdlOVS TTOk\d T€ /Cat /Ca/cd £\ey€, €G)VT0?O'l T€ 

eS^Xov X6y<o a>s €L7j /cat 7rdXts /cat y>J jxe^cop rj nep e/cei- 
voiGi) €<tt av StTj/cdcrtat j>ee? <r<£t ea>crt 7r€Tr\r)pQ)[i€vcu • 10 
ouSa/xous yd/> 'EXXt/i/oji/ avrovs e/rtdz/ras a7ro/c/oovcrc- 

62cr#at. <rr)p,aiv<*)v 8e ravra r<5 Xdya> SteySatfe is Eu/ov- 
j3id8r]p, Xeycov /jloKXoi/ inecTp nfi/ieva • Sv et /i€i>et9 
avrou /cat fiivcov ecreat di/Tj/o dya#d; # et 8c /jwj, dvarpe- 
\fi€LS ttjp 'EXXaSa • ro 7rdi> yap Tj/xt^ rov 7roXe/xou 
<f>€pov(rL at ree?. dXX* e/xot ireideo. et 8e raura /A775 
iroLTJtrgs, 17/xa? /if^ a>? e^o/xe*' avaXafiovres tovs ot/ceras 
Ko/iLeofieda e<? Stptz/ rr)i/ eV 'iraXtTj, ^ 7rep rj/jL€T€prj re 
eort e/c 7raXatov ert, /cat rd Xdyta Xeyet utt* ^/xeW avrijv 
heiv KTKrOrjvai • v/xets Se cn;/jL/id^a>i/ rota>i>8e ixovvcodiv- 

63 res fie/ivyjo'ea'de t<*>v ifxcov Xoycov. raGra 2c ©eiucrro- 

self ; see 8. 63. 6. — 7. t6tc 8^j : see quently omitted. Cp. Horn. A. 135. 

8. 60. 1. — 8. {avTouri : thepron. be- — 6. iroi/fj<rn$ : see Syn. § 18. 1, 2. 

longs with ctTy koX 7rdAis, but is put — 7. ttjv 4v 'It. : as opposed to 

forward for emphasis. — 10. Sit\k6- that in Paeonia (8. 115. 17). — 

<ruu: the 20 Chalcidian ships r\\uripr\: Siris was said to have 

(8. 1. 6) are included. been colonized by the Ionians 

62. 1. <ri)|&a(v<ov : pres. of an of Colophon, or the Rhodians 

action prior to that of the main (Strabo, 264). The Athenian 

verb. — t$ Xrfycp Silpcuvc : he claim may be based upon their 

crossed in speech from A. to E., relationship to the Ionians (8. 

i.e. he turned to. Cp. Kare/fcuvc 22. 6). — 8. 4k iraXaiov Sin: even 

Xeycov 1. 118. 6 he closed with the in olden times. Cp. cdi/res avS/oes 

statement. — 2. 4irc<rrpa|&|^va : ear- SoVt/xot aviicaOev In 5. 62. 16. — 

nestly. Pf. part, as adv. — cl avHjv : the pers. pron. instead 

licvcfe : the apod, of the first of two of repeating the rel. in a differ- 

contrasted condits. is not infre- ent case. — 9. KT«r6f)vcu : Thurii, 



352 HERODOTUS VIII [63.2 

/cXc'os Xeyovros dj/cStSdcr/ccTO Ev/ov/JtdS^s • 8ok€lv Sc 
/Ltot, dppco&rjo-a*; /LtdXtora tovs 'Adrjvaiovs d^cStSdcr/ceTo, 
firj ericas a7roXt7raxrt ? r\v npbs rov 'l&dfibv dvdyg rag 
veas • aTrdknrovTOiv yap 9 A$r)vaia)v ov/ccrt lylvovro d£io- 5 
jxa\oi oi XolttoL ra\m)v Sc alpelrat rrjv yvcofirfPy avrov 

64 [levovras "8tai/au/ia^€i^. ovtcd fiev 61 irepl 2aXa/xiW 
eirccrt d/cpo^SoXtcrd/Ltci/ot, iirevre Evpv^StdSy c8o£c, aurou 
7rapeo'K€vdE > ovTo a>9 vaviMaxtfcovTes. y^pr) t€ eyivero 
/cat dfta ra> ^Xta> dz/twn crctcryx,os iyei/ero ev re rjj 
yrj /cat rrj 6aXdcra"g. cSo£c 8c cr<£t €v£a<r0ai rowris 
deolau /cat €7rt/caXccrao"#at rovs Ata/aSa? (rvfifid^ov^;. 
d)<$ Sc cr<£t c8o£c, /cat iiroieov ravra • ev^d/ievot yap ndai 
Toim deolai avrodev ph* c/c 2a\a/wos Alavrd re /cat 
TeXa/Mcova €7rc/caXcoi/ro ? em 8c Alaicbi/ /cat tovs dXXous 
Ata/ctSas ^cd d'TrccrrcXXoi' c? Aiyivav. ™ 

65 v E^tj Sc At/cato? 6 ®cokv8co9 d^p * A0y)vaio*;, <f>vyds 
re /cat irapa Mr/So to"t Xdyt/xog yei/6fi€vo^ tovtov rbv 
yjpovoV) iireire c/cctpcro 17 'Am/a; X^PV V7r ° tov 7rc£oi) 
crrparov tov Hcjp^ca;, coCcra eprjfjios 9 A0r)j/al(ov, rv^elv 
rorc caw/ d/ia ArjfjLapTJTcp t<3 Aa/ccSat/AOj/ta) ci/ ra> 6>/3ia-5 
crtw ttcSiw, tSc«> Sc Kovioprbv ^a>/oco^Ta air* 'EXct/crii/os 

which was colonized by Athens in Phocus, and their descendants. 
444 b c, is some 40 miles south The gods were believed to come 
of Siris. Hdt. himself joined the in person; it is not implied that 
colony. their statues were brought. 

65. 2. toOtov tAv \p6vov: de- 

THE SIGNS AND WONDERS THAT £^j v » / f / , .« „„ i 

fined by €7retTc cKtipero ktc. and 

PRECEDE THE BATTLE (CO 64- ,. j • a _£ 

jrivii^x^ inai)AllljE ' v 1 - 1 - w ^ repeated in totc. — 5. ATuiofrijr? : 

5' the exiled King of Sparta. Cp. 7. 

64. 3. T)H^f*l t€ . . . KaC: cp. 8. 3, 101 f., 234 f. — Spicurup: the 

56. 7. — 9. tovs aXXovs: Peleus, plain about Eleusis, stretching 



65. i 9 ] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



353 



o»s dvSpcov fidktoTai k-q t pier p,v plan/, anodco/ta^tiv re 
ericas tov Kovioprov orecov /core enj dvdpdmcov, /cat 
irpoKare (fxovrjs dicoveiv, /cat ol (jxtiveaOcu tt/v (fxovr/v 
elvai tov ilvotikov laK^ov. elvcu 8* dSaijfiopa tcov io 
Ipwu tSxv iv 'EXcvcrti't ywofia/cov tov Atj iidpiqTov, elpe- 
<rdai Te avrov o tl to <f>0€yy6fi€vov eli) tovto. auros 
Se tiireiv •■ ArjfidprjTe, ovk ccrrt o/ccog ov fiiya tl vivos 
iorcu TJ) )3a<rt\eos o-TpaTtrj. rotSc yap dpt'S^Xa, epT?- 
ftov iovcrqs Trjs VArTt/crJs, art 0€toi> to (frdeyyo/ievov, dir 15 
'EXcvcrti/os toj/ es TifMopirjv 'AOrjvaioicrL T€ /cat rotcrt 
cru/Lt/Lta^otcrt. /cat ^1/ /x,eV ye KaTaaKfjifrg is Ty)v IleXo- 
Trovvqaov^ klvBvvos aura) re /SacrtXct /cat ttj (TTpoLTiy Tjj 
iv T|7 rjireipq) carat, 771/ 8c cm ra? i>c'as Tpdirr)Tcu ras ci> 



to the east and north. — 7. Tpwr- 
|ivpU»v: this is the number as- 
signed to the citizens of Athens 
in 5. 97. 15, and it is natural to 
suppose that Hdt. had in mind the 
fact that the procession to Eleu- 
sis was followed by a large por- 
tion of the population (Ar. Plut. 
1 01 3). Others think the 30,000 
to be the number of the initi- 
ated. The ignorance of Demara- 
tus proves that at this time there 
could not have been many of the 
Greeks outside of Attica among 
the initiates. — 9. irprficaTc: irpoKa 
is probably a neut. plur. of an 
adj. irpo-Ko? derived from irpo 
(cp. Lat reci-procus) . For the 
-Te cp. Ion. Iirci-re : cire£ — &icoi>- 
%\y\ impf. inf. Cp. a.7roO(ofia^eLv 



and cfxiLvecrOai. — 10. teuexov: Iac- 
chus (who is quite distinct from 
Dionysus) was a god of the lower 
world, son of Zeus Chthonios and 
Demeter. His connection with 
the Eleusinian mysteries probably 
arose in Attica. Foucart thinks 
he may have been a personifica- 
tion of the cry *laK\e. His tem- 
ple was in Athens, and a figure 
of the god was carried in the 
great procession from Athens to 
Eleusis amid shouts of *IaKx' & 
"laKx* ( Ar. Frogs, 3 1 6 f.) . Strabo, 
10. 468, calls him 6 apxrjycTrjs 
tw fivoTrjpiw. As predicate to 
<l>o)vqv the meaning of ujlkxov 
must be the Iacchus- shout. — 
t»v lp«v: the sacred rites. 
— 17. KaT«wid|*ft| : the subject is 



354 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[65. 20 



SaXa/upt, tov vavriKov arparbv Kivhwevaei fiacriXeix; 20 
airofiakeiv. rr t v 8c oprrjv Tavrqv dyovcrt 'Adr/vaiOL 
dvd irdvra erea Tjj Mrjrpl /cat rrj Kovprj, /cat avrcov re 
6 /3ov\6[i€vo<; Kal roiv d\\o)v 'EWtjvcdv fivelrai • /cat 
ty)V cf)(ovr)v 7779 d/covei9 iv ravrr) rfj opTjj iaK^dt^ovai. 
777009 ratira ctVctz/ Ar)/j.dpr)TOv • Stya T€ /cat [nqSevl 25 
dXXa> tqv \6yov tovtov efarrjs. ^z/ yap rot c? /SacrtXea 
dvev€i)(dr) ra cVca ravra, aTroySaXctg tt)i> K€<f>a\ijv 9 /cat 
cjc ovre eya) St^cro/iat pvaaadai ovt 01XX09 dvOpomoiv 
ov8c €t9. dXX* e^' ^crv^o?, Trept 8c OTpaTirjs TrjcSe 
Oeolai /LteX^crct. roi/ /x,€i> 877 raSra irapaivtiv, e/c Sc rov 30 
Kovioprov /cat 7779 <j)Q>vr)<; yevecrdcu i>cc/>09 /cat fierapcriay- 



the divine manifestation repre- 
sented by Kovioprov 1. 6. — 
21. 6p-rtjv: the great Eleusinian 
festival occurred every year in 
the month Boedromion and lasted 
several days. On the 19th of the 
month the great procession took 
place, followed at night in Eleu- 
sis by the celebration of the 
mysteries, in part consisting of 
dramatic scenes and tableaux, 
representing the story of Demeter 
and Persephone, the mother and 
daughter. It is often assumed 
that the marvel described by Di- 
caeus occurred on the day before 
the battle, which would fix the 
date of Salamis on the 20th of Boe- 
dromion, i.e. about the 22d Sep- 
tember. As a matter of fact Hdt. 
does not indicate when the vision 
was seen. It was when the Attic 



land was being ravaged by the 
army of Xerxes (1. 3), and before 
the battle (1. 20). Probably Hdt. 
inserts the story here because in 
ch. 64 he has told of another 
marvel, the earthquake, and of 
the assistance hoped for from 
the Aeacidae, which suggests that 
given by the Eleusinian deities. 
The very abruptness with which 
the story begins and the lack of 
chronological connection indicates 
that the reason for its insertion 
here is the one indicated ( Busolt, 
Gr. Gesch. 2. 704). Cp. note on 8. 
26. 6. — 29. 8x* no"vx°s : cp. Kapr 
av &\ov rjo-vxa)? Eur. Suppl. 305. 
— <rrpaTifjs rf)<rSc : on the omis- 
sion of the article, see Syn. § 8. 
6. — 30. Ik : after. — 31. |tcrap- 
<riu0{v : raised aloft. Aor. pass, 
part. 



66. 7 ] 



HERODOTUS V11I 



355 



9ev <f>€p€<r0cu cVi Sakafilvos iirl to (TTpaTorrehov to t<ov 
'EWtJvwv. ovtco Srj avr:v<; fiaOelv otl tj vqlvtikov to 
Hepfeo) aTTokeurdai /ic'XXot. ravra p.ev At/catos 6 ®eo- 
/aJScos eXeye, Arf/JLaprjrou re /cal dWo)p jxaprvpayv Kara7T-35 
TOfievos. 
66 Ot 8c C5 roz> Beptjeoo volvtlkov arpaTov ra^^cVrc?, 
C7rct8^ c/c Tpr)xjivo<; 0eq<rd[i€i/oi to Tpco/ia to Aclkco- 
vikov hiifiiqcrav c? rfjp 'IoTta^r/z/, iirij-^ovrts rj/iepa^ 
r/octs en\tov hi Evpiirov, /cat ci> erepr/a-L Tpial 17/xe 
pycrt iyevovro Iv Q>a\yjpa>. a>9 /A€i^ c/iot 8o/C€ij/, ovk$ 
cXacrcroi/c? co^res dpidpLOv ecre/JaXoi/ es ra? *&0rjvas 
Kara re rjireipov /cat T^crt piji/cti dm/co/xei'ot, ^ C7rt 



THE PERSIAN FLEET ARRIVES AT 
PHALERUM. AFTER A CONSUL- 
TATION WITH THE GENERALS 
XERXES DECIDES UPON A 
NAVAL BATTLE, IN SPITE OF 
THE OPPOSITION OF ARTEMI- 
SIA (cc. 66-69) 

66. I. The movements of the 
Persian fleet are taken up from 
ch. 25. — 3. T)|&lpas Tpcts: on the 
day after the fall of Leonidas the 
Persian fleet sailed to Histiaea 
(8. 23). The next day was de- 
voted to sight-seeing at Ther- 
mopylae (8. 25). If the day of 
their return to Histiaea (8. 25. 12) 
is not included in the three days' 
stop here mentioned, the arrival of 
the fleet at Athens took place at 
the end of the ninth day after the 
taking of Thermopylae. Accord- 



ing to Busolfs reckoning this was 
about Sept. 9. — 5. $a\4jpcp: the 
Peiraeus was not at this time the 
chief harbor of A th ens. Cp. 3>aAif- 
pov, tovto yap fjv iirwtiov Tore rtav 
1 AOrjvaiwv 6. 1 16. 7. — \i4v : see Syn. 
§ 26. a. — 6. £\d<r<rovc$ : accord- - 
ing to previous statements the 
Persians had lost 400 ships in the 
storm at Sepias (7. 190), 200 in 
the storm off Euboea (8. 7, 14), 
and 45 on the first day at Arte- 
misium (7. 194, 8. 11). This 
makes a total loss of 645 exclusive 
of the large number disabled on 
the second and third days at 
Artemisium (8. 14, 16). It is of 
course utterly absurd to suppose 
that these losses could have been 
niade up by the Islands. Their 
contingents would be small (cp. 
8. 46), and seventeen ships from 



35<> 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[66.8 



re XrjmdBa amiKomo /cat es ©c/o/iorrvXa?. avridrjaoi 
yap rolcrC re {rrrb tov ^eifLcovo^ avrwv dnoXo/ia/ouTL 
/cat rotert iv ®€p/i07Tv\'[ia'L /cat tjJctl in ' A pre fiicr C<p vav- 10 
/ ia X^?°* t T °v<r?>€ rovs rare ot//ca> inofievovs /JacrtXet, 
MijXteas /cat Awptea? /cat Ao/cpoug /cat Bottorou? 7rai>- 
(TTpaTLjj ino/iei/ovs 7rX^i/ 0co"7Ttca>i/ re /cat nXaratecoz', 
/cat /LtaXa KapvoTiovs re /cat \Ai>8/>tovs /cat Ti^toi/s re 
/cat roi/s Xomtovs vqaiavras nomas, nXr/v rSxv 7T€vt€i$ 



the Islands have already been 
included in the formal numbering 
of the forces (7. 95. 1). It is to 
be observed that Hdt. does not 
say that the losses in ships were 
made up by the Islands. He 
seems rather to imply that the 
losses in men by land and sea to- 
gether were compensated for by 
the gains. The 20,000 Persians 
killed at Thermopylae (8. 24. 5) 
could be replaced, perhaps, by the 
states mentioned, but hardly more 
than these. The exaggeration is 
so great that it is difficult to offer 
any excuse. — 8. SrjiridSa: where 
the first losses occurred (7. 188). 
Note the chiastic arrangement 
rprtipov . . . vrfvai . . . ^rpruiSa . . . 
®epfioirv\as. — 9. x <t l 4 ** vos : the 
second storm in which 200 ships 
were destroyed off Euboea (8. 7, 
14) is not mentioned. — 12. Mt|- 
\Ua$ : it is strange that these are 
mentioned, since they lived north 
of the pass and must have fallen 
under the King's power before the 



battle. Diod. Sic. u t 4. 7 says 
that 1000 Melians joined Leonidas, 
though Hdt. omits them from his 
list (7. 202. 3). — Aoicpovs: see 7. 
203. I, 8. 1. 11. — 14. pd\a: 
further. This use is not Att. The 
naval forces are thus separated 
from the land. — KopvtrrCovs : a 
town in southern Euboea. — 
15. ir^vTi: six islands are men- 
tioned in 8. 46, Keos, Naxos, 
Kythnos, Seriphos, Siphnos, and 
Melos. Stein and Abicht assume 
that Hdt. forgot Keos, but give 
no reason. Keos stands out from 
the others only because it alone 
was represented at Artemision (8. 
1 . 10) . We might suppose Naxos 
to be the one omitted, since it at 
first submitted to the King (8. 46. 
10), and the other five form a geo- 
graphical group as the farthest 
west. But, since the bronze ser- 
pent of Delphi (8. 82. 5) contains 
but five names, omitting Seriphus, 
it is more likely that Hdt. had 
that fact in mind. 



68. a 3] HERODOTUS VIII 357 

irokittiv t5>v i-rre/iyija'drfv irporepov tol ovvofiara. ocra 
yap hrf irpoefZaive iaayrepa) rf)s 'EXXaSos 6 Ilcpcrqs, 

57 roaovrq) TrXciu idved ol elirero. cVci Zv dirUaro eg 
ras 'kdrjvas ttoVtcs ovtol irXr/v Uapicov (Hdpioi 8e 
v7roXct<^^cVr€5 iv Kvdvcp €Kapa$oK€ov tov rroXe/iov ktj 
a7To/3TJ<rer(iL), ol 8c Xolttol a>s diriKovro c? to &d\rjpov 9 
ivOavra KarifHy) avros Bcp^s iirl ras veas, ideXcov a<f)is 
(rv/ifu^aC re /cat 7rvdd<rdai twv iirnrXeovTwv rds yi/ai/xag. 
€7Tct Sc diruconevos 7rpoi£cro, Traprjaav [Lerditepmroi ol 
tcov iQv&wv t5>v <r<f>erepa)v rvpavvot koX ra^iap^oi diro 
t<ov vecov, Kal XlpvTo cws <r<f)L ySacrtXcv? c/caora> rip^v 
cScSwkci, TTpwros fiev 6 SiSamos [)3a<nXcvs], fierd 8c 610 
Tvpios, im 8c SXXot. a>9 8c /cooyxa> iiretjfjs Itpvro, 
ire/MJjas Sc'pftys MapSoi'toj' eipatra d7ro7rci/9G>/x,ci>os c/ca- 

68OTOV ci vavfiaxtyv ttoieoito. cVci 8c irepuwv elpdra 6 
Ma/)8oi/to5 dptjdfievos diro tov SiSwvlov, ol fiev aXXot 
Kara tcuvto yvcofirjv i£e<f)€povTo, kcXciWtcs vavfiaxyqv 
a iroieio'dai, 'A/dtc/uo-itj 8c ra8c C$17 • Et^cii/ /tot 717009 
/?acrxXea, MapSoVic, a>? cya> ra8c Xeya>, otUrc KaKiarrj 
yevoiievT) iv ryo-L vavfiaxir/o-L T^cri 177009 Eu/Joi'77 oi/rc 

67. I. dirCtcaTo: 3 pi. plupf. — 9. «s: #j, /.*. in what order. 

Dial. § 4. 3. — 3. WoX€i+0^vt€s : Cp. 8. 2. 3,8. 21. 13. — 10. EiScS- 

remaining behind. Cp. 8.44. 10. vios: the Sidonians furnished the 

— 4. oi 84 : resumptive. Cp. 7. 95. best ships (7. 96. 3) . — 11. «\\oi : 

9,7.141.11. — 6. twv 4iriirXc6vTa»v : ol aAAot. — 13. iroifoiTO : indirect 

only the chief captains are meant, form of a delib. subjunct. 

Cp. 7. 98. 1 and 1. 8 below. — 7. ot 68. 3. »caTd iwr6 : to the same 

. . . rtipawoi: those who were effect. — 4. 'Af»Tc|u<r(T| : see 7.99. 

despots of their nations. — 8. to{C- a i. ctirctv: imperat. use. S. 

apxoi: commanders of squadrons ; 2013; HA. 957; B. 644; G. 1536. 

of naval officers also in 7. 99. 1. — ji.cn: I pray thee. Ethical dat. 



358 HERODOTUS VIII [68. a 4 

eXa^tora dwohe^a[ieur). 8eo"rroTa 9 rrjv he iovtrav yvar 
yjt\v fie Slkollov i&Tiv ditoheiKvvo'QaL^ ra Tvy^dvo} <f>po-s 
veovaa dpurra es Trpyj-yiiara tol era. /cat tol rdhe 
Xeycoy <f>etheo tmv vewv firjhe vavfiaxyqv rroiio • 01 yap 
dvhpes rail/ crcov dvhpSxv Kpeaaoves tocovto elvL /card 
ddXaacrav o<rov dvhpes yvvauewv. ri he ndvT(o<z hel (re 
vavfia-^CyaL dvaKivhvveveiv ; ovk €X cts fiev ra? *A0rj~ ic 
*>as ? raiz/ 7T€/> eu>€/ca 6p[iij0r)s CTpareveo-OaL, cx €t? ^* ^^ 
dXXr^ 'EXXdSa ; ifiirohcoi/ he tol lorarai ovSeig • ot 8c 
p tol dvTeoTY]<rav, aTnjXXa£av ovrco a>s Keivovs eTrpene. tq 
he eyco hoKeco dirofiijo'eo'OaL to. t£)v avrLiroXefKov irprjy- 
fiaTa, tovto (f)pdcr(o • I71/ /icy /it) eirei-ftd-fts vavp.ayir)v 
TTOLeo\Levo%) dXXd ret? peas avrou eyj)% irpo% yfi fievan/ rj 
kcll irpofSawoyv cs ty]v UeXoTrovvrjcrov, €v7T€T€<ws tol, 5 
hecnroTa, \(opTJ(reL tol voecov eXrjXvdas. ov yap ofoi tc 
7roXXoi^ ^povov eiai tol dvTe\eLV oi *EXX>ji/€9, dXXd 
ericas SiaovceSas, /card ttoXis 8e c/caoroi <f>ev£oisraL. 
ovre yap (Tiros 7rdpa <r<£c cj> tt} vrjaa) ravrr;, a>s eya> 
irvvOdvofiaL, ovre aurous owcos, ?p crv C7rl tt)i> TleXoirov- 10 
vr\(Tov eXavp-gs top iretpv CTpaTov, aTp-fiLelu tovs ckci- 

— 4. &iroSc£a|ilvT) : Dial. § 1 . ii. 2. vcfaiv : run a risk. There is no idea 

— &: cp. 7. 141. 23, and cu $e2v* of repetition in dva-. Cp. 8. 100. 
'Aerate, 17 8' fjfi€T€pri kt€. I. 32. 2. 8. — 13. diHj\Xa£av kt4. : £*?/ their 

— lovo-av : Artemisia implies that deserts. With airrj\Xa£av came off 
the rest had not given their real cp. a7raXXayq 8. 39. 10. 

opinion ; the contrast is suggested £ 3. fy [Uv: the contrasted 

by 8e. Cp. 8. 137. 22, 8. 142. idea is in y 1 ; there €7T€ix0#s is fol- 

3. — 5. tcL Tvy\av<o ktI. : explana- lowed by the more common infin. 

tory of yvwfirjv. — 6. icaC toi : with- — 4. irpds yfi : with fu'va)v. — 

out the Att. adversative force. — 6. x tt P^< rii : «*V7 #w**, happen, — 

9. irdvTws : at all, — 10. dvcuciv$v- 10. otteds : Att. cckos. — II. 



69. 10] HERODOTUS VIII 359 

0a/ airSiv rJKovras, ou8c <r<£i /LtcXrjcrct irpo t£)v 'A0y)v€(ov 
^vavixaytiv. r/v 8c avrUa eVct^^g? vavp t a\r\a , a^ 8ct- 
fiaiPO) fxrj 6 vavriKOs orparos /ca/ca>dct? top 7rc£oi> 
irpo(T^7}\rj(rr)Tai. wpog Sc, 5 /JacrtXci}, /cat rdSc cs 
dv/Jiov /?aXco, a>s rotcrt /acj/ xpr)OTOL<ri tcov avdpdmcov 

KOLKOl SoCXot <f>l\€OV(7L ytVcCT0at, TOtCTt Sc /Ca/COtCTt XPV" 5 

orot. (rot Sc coirt apCdTco avhpcov irdvrtxiv /ca/cot SoSXot 
ctcrt, ot cp ovpiid)(ant Xoy^> Xcyoirat cti/at, coircs Atyv7r- 
not re /cat Kvirptoi /cat KtXi/ccs /cat Hdp,<f)v\oi, tcov 
69o<^cXd? cart ov8ci>. raCra Xcyovcnjs ir/oos MapSoVtoi/, 
ocrot /lic^ rjcrav evvoot ttj 'Apr€p.i<rir) 9 ovp,<f)opr)v inoieovro 
tov5 \6yov$ a>s /ca/cdp tl Treio'Ofia/'qs irpos /Jao-tXcos, 
art ovk ca vavp*ay(yr)v iroula'd at • ot 8c dyaiopevoi re 
/cat <f>0ov€oiT€<; oLvrf}, aire Iv Trpwrroivi rcrt/xTj/iCi/T/? Stas 
irdvTOJV t£)v ovupdxcov, Iripirovro Tjj ai/a/cptcrt a>s a7ro- 
Xco/Ltci/T/s avT^s. C7rct 8c dviqvei)(07)a'av at yj>£/Ltat c? 
Beptjrjv, /ca/ora re rj(r0r) t# y^cofir/ rjj 'Aprc/ucrtTys, 
/cat vopil^v crt irpcrrepov (nrov&ai'qv eivai Tore 7roXXai 
paWov ati/ct. d/ia)? 8c roTcrt irXcocrt 7T€t#ccr#at c/ccXcvc, io 

liectOcv ktI. : limits avrous above. 69. 3. «s: cp. 11. 6, 12 and arc 

On the position of avrwv see Syn. 1. 5. See S. 2086; HA. 977-8 ; B. 

8. 12. 656; G. 1574-5. — irp6$: at the 

y 5. Tofcri Sc KaKouri \pft\a-Tol: hands of . kolkov tt6j<jx<e.w has pass, 

inserted for the rhetorical effect of force. — 4. 4$: more freq. opt. or 

the antithesis. For other rhetori- impf. ind. GMT. 714, 715. — 5. tcti- 

cal devices in this speech cp. the |&t||ic*vt)s : gen. abs. instead of agree- 

questions and anaphora in a 9 f. ing with avrrj. — 81A: cp. 8. 37. 13. 

Gnomic thoughts, like this, are — 6. AvaicpUri: opposition. Cp. 

much affected in early oratory. — rovs 8c cVei avaKpivofitvov? 7rpos 

7. 46vrcs Atytfirrioi: / mean the cwvrovs {answering each other 

Egyptians. back) 9. 56. 2. — 9. cti : cp. 8. 



358 HERODOTUS VIII [68. a 4 

cXa^tora anoSe^afieuri. SccrflroTa, ttjp 8e iovcrav yvdr 
firjv /i€ BiKatov iaTLv dnoSeiKPvcr 6 ai 9 tol Tvyyapca <f>po-$ 
viovaa apurra es TrprjyfLaTa ra ad. Kai tol raSc 
Xeya>, <f>ei8eo tcop pewp ft/rjSe pavfia^Crjp noieo • oi yap 
dp8pe$ tcop ctcop diSpaxp Kpecraoves toctovto citc Kara 
ddkacrcrap ocrop avSpes yvpauccop. ri 8c irdprcos Set crc 
vavyiayirjcri dpaiciphvpeveip ; ovk e^cis fikv ras 'A^-io 
*>as, 7w 7T€p €ii>e/ca op/jajdrf^ or/oareuccr&u, e^eis 8e r^u 
aXXrji/ 'EXXaSa ; €/jL7ro8cop 8c rot tcrrarat ouSeis • 01 8c 
p toi dvreoTYjcraVy dinjWa^av ovrco a>s Ketvovs Unpene. ry 
8c eya> So/ccisD diro/3r]cr€CT0ai tol rwi/ dpTLTroXe/jLcop Trpijy- 
IxoltoL) tovto cf>pdaco - Tfv pkv /JLT) iiret)(djjs paviia^yqp 
7roted/i€i/o5, aXXa ra? yeas avrov c^flS Trpos y# fiepcop rj 
Kal irpofiaipcop c? t/ji> TlcXonovvrjcrov, eviT€T€cos toi, 5 
SecnroTa, ycoprjcrei tol poicop i\7]\v0as. ov yap oloi T€ 
noWov yjpovov elcri tol dvre)(eiv oi "EXXtji/cs, aXXa 
crqjeas SiaovccSas, Kara 77*0X15 8e c/caoroc cf>€v£opraL. 
ovre yap crtro? rrapa o"<£i ci> t# inject) Tavrr), cos iyco 
TrvvddvoiLai) ovrc avrovs ot/cd<?, ^i> crv €7rl tt/p Tlekoirop- 10 
mrfcrop iXavvrjs top irttpp crrpaTOP, aTpzfiieiv tovs c/cct- 

— 4. diroSc £a|ilvT) : Dial. § i.ii. 2. vevciv : run a risk. There is no idea 

— Si: cp. 7. 141. 23, and w (eiw of repetition in dva-. Cp. 8. 100. 
'AOrjvau, if 8' fjfA€T€pr) ktL 1 . 32. 2. 8. — 13. diHj\Xa{av ktI. : got their 

— 4ov<rav: Artemisia implies that deserts. With airqKKaiav came off 
the rest had not given their real cp. a7raAXayi7 8. 39. 10. 

opinion ; the contrast is suggested p 3. tjv |jiv: the contrasted 

by Se. Cp. 8. 137. 22, 8. 142. idea is in 7 1 ; there crrctx^s is fol- 

3. — 5. Td Tv*yxdv« ■«*. : explana- lowed by the more common infin. 

tory ofyvco/XT/i/. — 6. k<lC toi : with- —4. irpos yj : with /xcvo>k. — 

out the Att. adversative force. — 6. x^P^I ** 1 : ««V/ ^w^, happen. — 

9. irdvTcos : at all. — 10. dvoKivSv- 10. oIk6$: Att. efco?. — II. rait 



69. io] HERODOTUS VIII 359 

0a/ avra>v rJKovraS) ov8e cr<£t fiehfjcei irpo T(ov 'Adrjvdav 
"ivavfia^eiv. rfv 8c avrUa iirei)(0jjs vavfia)(fj(TaL 9 8ct- 
fiaCvo) fir/ 6 vavTLKos orpaTos KaKwdels top iretjbv 
irpo<r$ri\TJ<rr)Tai. irpos Sc, <5 ^SacrtXcv, /cat toSc cs 
dvfibv /JaXco, a>s rotcrt fikv ^pT/oToicrt r<w avdpcojrcov 
KOLKol SouXot fyikiovai yiveaOaij rotcrt Se /ca/cotcrt XPV'S 
crroL aroi he iovri dpCarcp dvhpwv navrcju kclkoI SoGXot 
ctcrt, ot iv avpiid^cov Xaya) Xeyovrat elvou, iovres Alyvn- 
not re /cat KvnpLOL /cat KiXi/ccs /cat IIa/i<^i?Xot, tS>v 
69o^cXd? cart ov8ev. ravra Xeyovarjs irpos MapS6vtov 9 
oaot fiev yaav evvooi rrj s KpTefiia-irj^ avfi^>op7jv iiroieovro 

TOV? \6yOVS a>5 KdKQV TL 7r€L(TOfl€l/7l^ 7T/0OS /JaCTlXcOS, 

art ov/c ca vavfia)(yt)v 7roi€ia0ai • ot Se dyaiofxevoi T€ 
/cat <f>dov4oiTes CLVTrjy are iv irpwroMTi Tenp.rin€vr)s Stas 
irdvrtov t£>v (TVUfJidxcop, Iripirovro Tjj dvaKpiTi &>s aVo- 
Xeofievrjs avrfjs- incl 8e dvr)veiyQy)(Tav at yi/cj/iat is 
BiptjrjVy /copra re rjadr) Trj yvcofirj rjj 'Apre/ucrt'qs, 
/cat vofxtCcov crt 7rp6r€pou cnrov8air)v eivai Tore ttoXXoI 
/jlolXXov aiP€L. o/xa)9 8e roicrt 7rX€ocrt Trtfflecrdai c/ccXcuc, 10 

iicctOcv ktI. : limits avrous above. 69. 3. «s: cp. 11. 6, 12 and art 

On the position of avr^v see Syn. 1. 5. See S. 2086 ; HA. 977-8 ; B. 

8. 12. 656; G. 1574-5. — irpds: at the 

7 5. Toftri 8c Kaxouri xpv|<rrol: hands of , kclkov iraxryiiv has pass, 

inserted for the rhetorical effect of force. — 4. 4£: more freq. opt. or 

the antithesis. For other rhetori- impf. ind. GMT. 714, 71 5. — 5. tcti- 

cal devices in this speech cp. the |xt||ic*vt|s : gen. abs. instead of agree- 

questions and anaphora in a 9 f. ingwith avr£. — 81A: cp. 8. 37. 13. 

Gnomic thoughts, like this, are — 6. dvaicplo-t: opposition, Cp. 

much affected in early oratory. — rovs Se cVet avaKpivofitvovs 7rpos 

7. ttvrcs Al7^irrioi: / mean the ccdvtous (answering each other 

Egyptians. back) 9. 56. 2. — 9. cri: cp. 8. 



360 HERODOTUS VIII [69. 11 

ra8e /caraSd£as, 7rpo<; fiev Ev/Jotg o-^e'a? idekoKaicelv 
a>s ou 7rap€ovTOs avrov. Tore Se avros irapeaKevaaro 
deqaaaOai pavfia^eopTa^. 

70 s E7ret Se 7rapyjyy€\\ov ava-rrktiv, dpyjyop ras peas 
C7rt r^ £a\a/xu>a, /cat -irapeKpidrjcrav Starax^eWes 
/car' 7)<ru)(ir)v. Tore fxep vvv ovk i£e)(pr)<T€ <r<f>L tj rjfiepr) 
pavfia^yqv TroLTjor add ai • w£ yap eVeyeifero • ot 8c 
irapeo-KevatflVTO es vr)v vaTepatrjp. tovs 8e ^EXA-ipa? 5 
et^e Seos re *cal dppcoSir), ovk rJKiora 8c rou? airb 
Tltkoirovvrjarov • dppa>8eov 8c, art aurol /x,e^ eu £a\a- 
/xu>i KOLTTJ/JLevoi vrrep yfjs ttjs 'Adrjvalcop vavp.a)(eiv 
/jl€\\ol€v 9 viKTjOivres re ev pyjerco d7roXa/i<£0eVre9 irokiop- 
KTjcrovTai, dnepres rfjp icovriop d<f*v\aKT0P • t5>v Se ic 
fiapfidpcop 6 7re£os v7ro t^ irapeovcrap pvktcl iiropevero 

71 €7r! rtyi> IIe\o7rdV;>i7croi> • icatrot ra Swara ndpra ifiefirf- 
xdprjTO okcjs kolt rjireipop fxy) eo"/Jd\ot€i> ot fidpfiapoi. 
a>s yap iuvdopro rdyicrTa UeKoTropprjarioi rovs d(i<f)l 
Ae(opi8r)p Iv SepfioirvKflcri TereXevrqKepai, avpSpa/ji6'/" 
res e/c rap ttoXlmp es top 'ladfiop Itppro, icat o-<f>i$ 

62. 8. — 12. t6tc 84: not parallel feared because the barbarian had 
in construction to the /ncV-clause. started on his march, while they 

(as they reflected) were going to 

THE PERSIA** FLEET PUTS OUT be shut ,<P, <tiC — lO. Inkm* I th\s 

for salamis. the dismay expresses the result of diroXcyi- 

OF the peloponnesians (cc. ^Qevr^ 7roXtopKij<Tovra h while the 

7°~7 l ) being shut up is the result of the 

70. 4. oi hi: cp. 8. 40. 10. — condit. vucrflbrrts. — II. vwA t4|v 

9. p&Xoifv : for the opt. in a causal irapcoforav vtficrtt: see Syn. § 5. 

clause, see S. 2242; HA. 925 ; B. For the imperf. ciropcuero with such 

598; G. 1506. The parallel Se- a temporal phrase, see GS. 206. 

clause is left independent: they 71. 1. icalToi: and yet. It is 



v*.bj HERODOTUS VIII 361 

iirfjv (TTparqybs KXeofifipoTos 6 'Ara^ai/SptScG), Accw 
pi'Scai Sc dScX<^co?. l£6fi€voi 8c iv ra> 'laOfiqi /cat 
ovyxcoorairres rr)v XKtpcoviSa 6Soi>, fiera rovro <5s a<f>L 
cSo£c ^SovXci/o/ie/otcrt, ot/coSd/icop 8ta toS 'ladfiov ret- 
^09. arc 8c iov<T€(ov jxvpidhcov 7rok\€(ov /cat iravTosio 
av8pos ipya^ofievov rjveTo to tpyov • /cat yap \idoi 
/cat irkivOoi /cat £v\a /cat (f>op/iol xfidfi/jiov irXyjpeis 
icre<f>op€ovrOy /cat ekiwov ovheva ypovov oi f5of)di)- 
72crai*TC5 ipya£6n€vot,, ovre vvktos ovre 17/xCjp^?. pt 8c 
$or)drjaramt<z cs tw ^ladfibv Trai/817/ict otSc ^craj/ 'EXX^- 
m»i>, Aa/ceSat/xoVtoi re /cat 'Ap/caScs 7raV res /cat 'HXetot 
/cat KopCvdioi /cat Xlkvcdvlol /cat 'EmSavptot /cat 4>Xta- 
crtot /cat Tpoitrfvioi /cat 'Epjuoi/cts. ovrot /xci; ^cra^ ots 
fZ<yqdi)(TavT£<; /cat v7repappco$€ovTe<; 777 e EXXct8t /ct^Su- 
vevovcry rolci 8c aXXotcrt IIcXo7roi/i/i70"tot(Tt c/xcXc 
<w8ci>. 'OXtfyiTrta 8c /cat Kdpveia irapoi)(d)K€i ^817. 



THE PELOPONNESIAN STATES THAT 
TOOK PART IN THE WORK. 
THE ORIGIN OF THESE RACES 



implied that the fear was ground- 
less. — 6. AcwvtScu SI: see 8. 23. 
11. — 8. SicipMvtSa: for a consid- 
erable distance the road passed 

along a narrow ledge with a moun- ^ " ' ' *' 

tain wall on one side, and a de- 72. 3. 'ApicdScs itAvtis : Tegea 

scent of 600 or 700 feet on the and Orchomenus were the only 

other; it was therefore very easy Arcadian states present at Plataea 

to block it up. — 9. Tftxos: ac- (9. 28. 7, 13); at Thermopylae 

cording to Diod. Sic. 11. 16 the there were also some Mantineans 

wall ran " for forty stades from and others (7. 202) . — 6. 'EXXdSi : 

Lechaeum as far as Cenchreae." for the dat. instead of the gen. cp. 

The remains are still to be seen. Trepu'Scio-a c. dat., and Trcpl e<ovra> 

— 11. 45v€to: was coming to a Sei/xaiVovTa 3. 35. 16, 8. 74. 5.— 

completion, — 12. {vXa : for pali- 8. 'OX0|iiria ktI. : these feasts had 

sades. delayed the march of the full force 



.354 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[65. 20 



XaXafJUVL, tov vovtikov arparbv Kiv8vv€vo'€i fiacnkevs 20 
airofiakeiv. Tr t v 8c oprr/v Tavrrjv ayovcri *A07)vcuol 
dvd iravra erea rfj Myrpl kcll Tjj Kovpr/, Kal avrSiv re 
6 fiovko/Aevos zeal tcov aWcov 'EWyjvotv fiveiTai • Kal 
tyjv <f)(ovriv tt}s aKoveis iv tolvtt) rrj oprjj ta^a^ovo-t. 
7r/>05 raura elireiv ArfiidprjTOv • Xiya re Kal /xrjSevl 25 
dXXa> tov Xoyov tovtov €17777$. r\v yap rot cs /JacriXca 
aveveixdrj toL cVca ravra, d7ro^8aXet$ rqi; K€<f)a\TJv 9 /cat 
ere ourc cya> hwiqaofiai pvaaaOai ovt dXXos av0pamo>v 
ou8c cf?. dXX' e^ ^(Ti^os, 7rc/Di 8c (TTpaTirj^; Trjarhe 
OeotcTL fieXyjaet. tov fikv St) ravra irapaiveiv, 4k 8c tov 30 
Kovioprov Kal Trjs (fxovrjs yevio'dai ve<f)0<s Kal fierapo'Ltor 



the divine manifestation repre- 
sented by KoviopTov 1. 6. — 
21. 6pr/jv: the great Eleusinian 
festival occurred every year in 
the month Boedromion and lasted 
several days. On the 19th of the 
month the great procession took 
place, followed at night in Eleu- 
sis by the celebration of the 
mysteries, in part consisting of 
dramatic scenes and tableaux, 
representing the story of Demeter 
and Persephone, the mother and 
daughter. It is often assumed 
that the marvel described by Di- 
caeus occurred on the day before 
the battle, which would fix the 
date of Salamis on the 20th of Boe- 
dromion, i.e. about the 22d Sep- 
tember. As a matter of fact Hdt. 
does not indicate when the vision 
was seen. It was when the Attic 



land was being ravaged by t/ie 
army of Xerxes (1. 3), and before 
the battle (1. 20). Probably Hdt. 
inserts the story here because in 
ch. 64 he has told of another 
marvel, the earthquake, and of 
the assistance hoped for from 
the Aeacidae, which suggests that 
given by the Eleusinian deities. 
The very abruptness with which 
the story begins and the lack of 
chronological connection indicates 
that the reason for its insertion 
here is the one indicated ( Busolt, 
Gr. Gesch. 2. 704). Cp. note on 8. 
26. 6. — 29. ?x fa^xos : cp. Kapr 
av elxov ^(rvxws Eur. Suppl. 305. 
— <rrpaTif)s Tf\<r8c : on the omis- 
sion of the article, see Syn. § 8. 
6. — 30. Ik : after. — 31 . |urop- 
a-itaQh : raised aloft. Aor. pass, 
part. 



66. 7 ] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



355 



dev (frepecrdcu iirl XaXa/ilvos €7r! to crrpaTOirehov to tw 
'YLWrjvcav. ovro) 8r) olvt;v<; fiadelv otl tj vavriKov to 
3ep£ea> diroketadai /icXXot. Tavra fitv At/cato? 6 ®eo- 
/cvScos eXeye, Arj/xaprJTOv re kcu dWcov /laprupcov fcara7r- 35 
TOfievos- 
66 Ot 8c C5 TW aeptjea) volvtikov crrpaTov Ta\0evre^ 9 
cttciSt) ck TprjXL^os Oerjcrd/jLevoi to r/)£/ia r6 Aa/ca>- 
i/i/cou hiifHrjo-av e? r^i/ "Ioricuiyi/, CTTtcr^oi^Te? ij/icpa? 
rpei? enXeov 8l Evpiirov, kcu iv eriprj^i Tptal ij/ie 
/otjcti iyevovro iv Qakrjpcp. a>s /i€i/ c/xol So/ccii>, 0V/C5 
eXacrcroi/cs coVrcs dpidpsov iaefiaXov es ra? 'Affyjvas 
kclto. T€ fjffetpov kcu tt/ctl vyjvctI drnKopitvoi, fj inC 



THE PERSIAN FLEET ARRIVES AT 
PHALERUM. AFTER A CONSUL- 
TATION WITH THE GENERALS 
XERXES DECIDES UPON A 
NAVAL BATTLE, IN SPITE OF 
THE OPPOSITION OF ARTEMI- 
SIA (cc. 66-69) 

66. I. The movements of the 
Persian fleet are taken up from 
ch. 25. — 3. T))iipas Tpcts: on the 
day after the fall of Leonidas the 
Persian fleet sailed to Histiaea 
(8. 23). The next day was de- 
voted to sight-seeing at Ther- 
mopylae (8. 25). If the day of 
their return to Histiaea (8. 25. 12) 
is not included in the three days' 
stop here mentioned, the arrival of 
the fleet at Athens took place at 
the end of the ninth day after the 
taking of Thermopylae. Accord- 



ing to Busolt's reckoning this was 
about Sept. 9. — 5. 4»aX^pw: the 
Peiraeus was not at this time the 
chief harbor of Athens. Cp. &a\rj- 
pov, tovto yap rjv iwivtiov tot€ twv 
'ABrjvaicw 6. 1 16. 7. — \Uv : see Syn. 
§ 26. a. — 6. 4\d<r<rovfs : accord- - 
ing to previous statements the 
Persians had lost 400 ships in the 
storm at Sepias (7. 190), 200 in 
the storm off Euboea (8. 7, 14), 
and 45 on the first day at Arte- 
misium (7. 194, 8. 11). This 
makes a total loss of 645 exclusive 
of the large number disabled on 
the second and third days at 
Artemisium (8. 14, 16). It is of 
course utterly absurd to suppose 
that these losses could have been 
rriade up by the Islands. Their 
contingents would be small (cp. 
8. 46), and seventeen ships from 



364 HERODOTUS VIII [7S. 

75 ra? afivve<r0ai. ivdavra ©c/uoto/cXctjs (09 karavurt 
rjj yvcb/JLT) viro Tttiv HekoTTovv7)(il<i)V) Xadcov i^ep^erat e* 
tov crwehpiov, ifjeXdwv Se Trifiirei cs to crrparoir^hov to 
Mrjhcov dvSpa irXoicp, cWciXa/iei/os ra Xiyeuv XP e ° p > T 4* 
ovvofia fiev fjv XCklvvos, oi/cenjs 8e kcu 7rai8ayft>yo$ fjv j 
t<3i/ ©c/uoro/cXeos 7raiSa>i> • toi> 877 varepov tovtw tuv 
irprjyuaTcov ®€/ii0To/cXei7s Seannea tc iff6lr)<r€, a>s eVe- 
Sckovto ol ©cermets TroXnfras, ica! XPW acrt oXfiiov. os 
totc 7rXotG> a7rwcd/i€^05 eXeye irpbs Toil? orpar^yov? iw 
jSapftdpeov ra8e • "Eire/ufie /xe <TTparr)ybs 6 'Adrjvauov 10 
Xddprj t£)v dXXcov 'TLXXyjinov (rvyydvti yap <j>pov€<ov to. 
/JcwrcAcos /cat /3ovX6fjL€i>os (jlclXXov rd vfiirepa Kaviirepde 
yiveaOai rj ra tw 'EXX-iyi/aw irpTJyfjLaTa) <f>pd<rovra on 
ol "EXXyves Spyjcrfib^ fiovXevovrai Karappcohr) /cores, km 
w!v Trape^Ei KaXXiarrov vfieas ipyov dirdvrcov i£epyQ> ml $ 
craardaU) fjv fir) 7repU8r)T€ Sia8/>ai>ras avrovs. ovrc 
ya/> aXX^Xoicri 6fxo(f>pov€ovai ovt en avTiarTrjcrovrax 
v/jllv, 7rpbs icovTovs re cr^eas otyearde vavfia^iovr^ 

because their homes would be at had him made. — tircS&ovro : the 

the mercy of the enemy if the fleet Thespians lost 700 hoplites at 

withdrew to the Isthmus. Cp. Thermopylae (7. 202, 222). Only 

Atytv^Tat 8c koL Mcyapcis to 8e- i 800 citizens were left at the time 

£iov Kcpa? av€7rXrjpow • ovtol yap of the battle of Plataea (9. 3°) 

ib\)KOvv ctvcu vavTtKttiTaTOf. fUTa. — 9. t6tc : in contrast to vorcpov 

tovs 'AOypnuovs kol pAkxara <f>t\o- 1. 7. — 15. irapexci : it is possible ;C 

TipyvtvOaL 8ta to puovovs tcov 'EX- dat. 8. 8. 8, 8. 30. 7. — 16. irtpiffiip* 

Xyvw fxrj^€fxiav €\<av KaTa<f>vyr)v, 8io8pAvTos: permit their escaft- 

ci rt avfif3air) irTalo-pxL Kara, rrjv The aor. partic. denotes the simple 

crvfjLfjuLXLa.v Diod. Sic. 11. 18. 2. occurrence of the act. GMT. I4°* 

75. 1 . &r<rovro Tfj Yvw|iti : cp. Cp. 7. 168. 6 for pres. partic, 7- & 

yvdifirjo'LVLKavS' 82. 13. — 2. Xa0«v a 6 for pres. infin. with iripiofa' 

e{^pX€Toi ; GMT. 893.— 7. €iroln<r€ : GMT. 903. 6, — 18. JwvTpv? : = M' 



7d. 2 ] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



367 



hetvov fjLaLfi(oopra 9 8ok€vvt dvd irdvra TndeaOai. 
XaXico? yap ^aX/c^I o-v/i/u^crat, atftart 8* "Apr)? 
irovrov <f>oiv[£€i. tot ikevOepov 'EXXaSos rjiiap i 
eupvona Kpovi8y)<; indyei /cat 7rorz/ta NtVq. 

e? rotavra jxci> feat ovrcw ivapyecos \dyovri Ba/aSt ai/rt- 

Xoytas XP T ) (T I JI '*> P K^P 1 °^ TC a vros Xeyetz/ ToXfici ovt€ 

nap 9 d\\(ov ivSe/co/iai. 

fa Tali; Se €i> XaXafiivi OTpaTrjyojv iyCvero cy^icr/105 

Xoyaii; 7roXXo5. jjbeaav 8c ou/ca> art a<j>eas irepieKv- 

kKovvto Trjai vt)V(tI oi fidpfiapoi) dXX* cbanrep rfjs rj/ie- 

prj$ copcov avrovs rcray/xcVov?, iSoKeov /cara yQ}pT)v 

79eu/at. avvea'TrfKOTCJV 8e rail/ err parrjyaV i£ Aiyivrfs 

hi€/3rj 'A/hotci'S^s 6 AvorifjLdxov, dvrjp 'Adrjvalos /xcV, 



Theognis 153. — 8. iri06r0ai: the 
reading is corrupt. — 1 2. fe roiaOra 
kt4. : the passage is difficult. Does 
rotavra refer to the verses or to 
events ( ? irp^ypjara or prjpxiTa in 
1. 3) ? Does cs TOULVTOL belong with 
Acyav (cp. 9. 43- 3, 4,«" ; 7- 130- 
13) or should we insert co^SAe'i^as 
from 1. 3 (cp. Stein)? Is Ba#a& 
a dat. of interest (cp. iroirfvavTi 
&pvvix<p Spa/xa cs Saicpva €7rc(T€ 
to $er/rpov6. 21. 10) or does it de- 
pend upon dvrtXoytas ? Should 
we retain avriAoyiiys, and, if so, 
does it depend upon irepi, or upon 
ov&!v (Stein) to be supplied as the 
object of Xcyctv ? avriXoytas would 
give a common object for Aeyeiv 
and ivScKopm ; ' the latter, indeed, 
might take an infin. Aeyctv, but Trap' 



aAActfv suggests that a substantive 
should be the object, possibly to 
Xcyctv irtpi ( Abicht) . Translate, 
when Bacis speaks with reference 
to such matters and so clearly I do 
not myself dare to utter arguments 
against oracles (cp. xPV <r f JL °i <rL **"" 
r cAeyeiv, 1 . i ) , nor do 1 permit them 
to others {accept them from others) . 
This whole chapter is bracketed 
by Kriiger, Gomperz, and Kallen- 
berg. 

78. 2. ire pic kvkXovvto : for pres. 
of the direct form. 

79. I. <rvv€OTT|KdT«v : being at 
strife. Cp. 8. 27. 23. — 2. 'Apicrrcl- 
8tis : Aristides had been banished 
in 482 B.C., but on account of the 
Persian invasion a general par- 
don of those in exile had been 



366 HERODOTUS VIII [76. 9 

KaTet)(6v re p*^XP l Mowvxwjs irdvTa rov iropOphv ttjctl 
vt)v<tL rcopSe elveica dvrjyov t<xs veas, 2W St) tolcl ^ 
"EXXtjcti /xtjSe <f>vy€iv i£fj, dXX' d7roXa/i<£0€i>r€S ei; tt) 
SaXa/iti/i Sotei/ tictii/ tw €7T S 'Apre/xtcrta) ay(ovuTfxdT<ov. 
C5 Sc tt)i> vq&lhcL tt)v ^tvrrdXeiav KaKeofi4vr}v airefiij3a- 
tpv rSiv IlepcreW rawSc elveKa, a>s iireav ylvrjT at vavfia- 
Xty, ivQavra /xdXiora i^oLao/ievcov r£)v re dv8p£)i> Kalis 
rSiv vavrjyicov (iv yap 8f) ir6pa> [rfjs] pay^ay^r)* r>Js 
/xeXXovcr^s €<T€(r0ai e/ceiro ?} ^cro?), i^a rou? /x€*> 7rcpt- 
7roi€G)crt, rous 8e hiafyd eipcoari. iiroUov Se o"iy# ravra, 
o)S fir] TTvvdavoiaro ol ivavrioi. ol fiev St) ravra rrjs 
j/ufcro? ovSei> d7roKOi/i770e>T€9 Trapapriovro. 20 

77 Xpijcr/xotcrt 8c ouk e^a> di/rtXeyet^ a>s owe etcrl dXri- 
#€19, ou /}ovXd/xci>os evapyicos Xeyovras ireipaardai Kara- 
fidWeii/, cs rotaSe prjfiara ccr/JXetyas. 

'AXX* 6Vai> 'Ayorc/xtSo? ^pvaaopov lepbv aKTrjv 
vyvoi ye<f>vp<oo , <oo m i koX eivaXirjv Kwocrovpav, 5 

cX7rtSi fiaLvo/xevr) Xinapas irepcrames 'KOrjvas, 
8ta A1K77 crySccrcret Kparepbv Kopov, v T)8pi09 uioV, 

o-ovpav : supposed to be the long which the battle was to rage back- 
point of Salamis stretching east- ward and forward, or the strait 
ward toward Psyttaleia. There (picturesquely viewed) between 
was a Cynosura at Marathon, the two lines of ships. 
Keos is not known. — 15. IgourojU- 77. 3. ^jpaTa: Mss. Trpiyy- 
vcdv: cp. 8. 49. 12. — 16. irdpa) : if yja.ro.. — 4. 'ApWjuBos . . . dicr/jv: 
the Greeks attempted to escape as the peninsula of Munychia. — 
reported, the island would be in 5. ya^vpoxraa-i. : usually with accus. 
the center of the fight. iropos is of place bridged, here of the points 
either a way of passing, as the connected. — 7. vl6v: cp. vf3piv 
ford of a river, or a strait. Here Kopov parepa Pindar, OL 13.10; 
it may be either the place over but tlktc nopos vfipiv Solon, Fr. 8 ; 



W.2] 



HERODOTUS VIII 



367 



heivbv iLaifjL<i)ovTa, Sokzvvt* ava iravra iriOeadcu. 
XaXico? yap ^aX/caJ o-u/i/it^erat, ai/xart 8* *Aprj<; 
ttovtov <f>OLvi£;€L. tot iXevdtpov 'EXXdSos rj/iap 1 
evpvona KpoviBrjs indyei /cat iroTvia NtVr/. 

cs rotavra ftci> /cat ovra> ivapyews Xiyovri Ba/ctSt dirt- 
Xoytas xpy)arp*5)v iripi ovt€ avros Xeyeti> roX/x<2 otfre 
rap* dXXcov ivheKOfiat. 
78 T<3i/ 8c €i> XaXa/ilvi crTpaT7jya)v iyCvero ci#tayxo9 
Xoyaii/ 7roXXo5. ^Sccra^ Se ovf«o ort <r<f*€as irepieicv- 
kXovuto Tjjcn vTjval ol fidpfiapoL, dXX* axrirep rfjs 17/ie 
/017s aipai' avrous rcray/xcVou?, eSo/ceoy Kara X^PV^ 
ovj*ot7)k6t(dv 8e r<Si> aTpaTrjycjv i£ Alylvrjs 
hUfir) 'ApurreiSrjs 6 Aucrt/xd^ov, di/^p *A0r/palo<; \l£v. 



79 elVat 



Theognis 153. — 8. iri06r6<u: the 
reading is corrupt. — 12. & rotavTa 
icrt : the passage is difficult. Does 
Toeavra refer to the verses or to 
events ( ? 7rpi/yp,aTa or prjpxiTa in 
1. 3) ? Does es toulvtol belong with 
Acyctv (cp. 9. 43. 3, 4, J I ; 7. 130. 
13) or should we insert io-/3\t\l/as 
from 1. 3 (cp. Stein)? Is BaiaSi 
a dat. of interest (cp. iroirjo-avri 
&pvvix<p hpapa. cs Satcpva hrcvt 
to 0irJTpov6. 21. 10) or does it de- 
pend upon avTtXoyias ? Should 
we retain avriXoyl-q^ and, if so, 
does it depend upon irepi, or upon 
ou8:v (Stein) to be supplied as the 
object of Xiyuv ? di/TiAoytas would 
give a common object for Aeyeiv 
and ivSeKOfixu ; * the latter, indeed, 
might take an infin. Aeyciv, but trap' 



akktav suggests that a substantive 
should be the object, possibly to 
\iytw 7rcpt (Abicht) . Translate, 
when Bacis speaks with reference 
to such matters and so clearly I do 
not myself dare to utter arguments 
against oracles (cp. xPV <r t l0 ^ <rL <*"" 
TtXiyeiVo 1 . 1 ) , nor do I permit them 
to others {accept them from others) . 
This whole chapter is bracketed 
by Kriiger, Gomperz, and Kallen- 
berg. 

78. 2. ire pic kvkXovvto : for pres. 
of the direct form. 

79. I. <tvvc<ttt|k6tcdv : being at- 
strife. Cp. 8. 27. 23. — 2. 'ApwrrcC- 
8tjs : Aris tides had been banished 
in 482 B.C., but on account of the 
Persian invasion a general par- 
don of those in exile had been 



368 HERODOTUS VIII [W. 3 

i£(0<TTpaKi<riA€po<; 8c V7r6 tov 877/iov, tov iya) vevofitKa, 
TrvvdavofJievos avrov tov Tpoirov, apiorov avhpa yeve- 
crOai iv 'A0jjvj)o m i kcu St/catdraToi/. ovros wvrjp orasS 
cVt to avvdhpiov i^eKaXeuTO ©c/uoTOfcXca, iovra fiev 
€(ovt(o ov (pikov, €)(upov oc To. paAtora • viro be fieya- 

0€OS TOiV TTOLpeOVTCOV KOLKWV XtJ07)V €K€W(DV TTOL€OfJL€VO<; 

i^eKokeiTo, deXcov avrai crv/A/it£at. irpoaKrjKoet, Sc otl * 
o"7rcvSot€i> ot cx7r6 HeXoiTowTjaov avdyeLv Tas peas 7rpos 1 
tov *\cr6p6v. a>s Se i£r}X0€ 61 ©cfuoroicXctys, cXcyc * 
'AptcrTetSqs raSc • 'H/xca? OTao"ta£ea> XP € ^ U ^ aTl * v T€ 
to) aXXa* Kcupcp /cat 8fj kcu cV t<SSc 7rcpt tov 6/corcpos 
rjfiecjv ttX4(d ayada rf/v ira/rpCSa cpyao"€Tac. Xeyai 8c - 
rot otl laov cori 7roXXa re /cat oXCya Xeyciv 7rcpi 15 
d7T07rXdov rov ivdevTev YleXoirowqo'loiari. cya> yap ' 
avroTTTT)^ tol Xeyco yev6fievo<; otl vvv ovS* ^1/ dcXaxrt I 
Kopiv0LOL T€ /cat avTos Evpv^StaS^s ofoi tc cVoirat 
iKirXwo-ai • 7T€pt€xdp,€0a yap v7ro top irokefiiwp jcv/cXoj. 

voted (Plut. Them. 11). Plutarch, land forces of the Athenians. — 
/2r/tf. 8, says that the vote was 3. vfvd|uica: I have come to the 
passed while Xerxes was march- conclusion. Cp. 7. 153. 20. — 
ing through Thessaly and Boeotia ; 5. <rrds lirt: cp. Karaxrravrc^ «ri 
and, unless the Athenians were tov? apxavras 3. 46. 2. See Syn. 
continuing their civil government § 5. — 8. IkcCvuv: the evils implied 
at Salamis, it is clear that it must in lydpov. — 9. on>|i|&C(at : iritrans, 
have been at least three weeks Cp. 8. 58. 4. — 13. toO: this be- 
before the battle (cp. 8. 52). longs to the whole clause that 
♦Hdt. does not expressly state that follows. — 19. ircptcxtfpeOa : we are 
Aristides is just returning from not told by what way A. came 
exile, though irpoaKrjKoet in 1. 9 (though cp. 8. 81. 2). He might 
would imply that he was igno- have passed in south of Psyttaleia 
rant of conditions at Salamis. In without seeing that there was a 
chap. 95 he takes charge of the blockade on the west also. 



82.2] HERODOTUS VIII 369 

80 dXX* iaekdmv <r<f)L ravra (Trjfirjvov. 6 8* d/x,ei)8eTo rot- 
cxiSc • Kdpra re xprjcrTa Sta/ccXcvcat /cat eS rjyyetXas • 
ra yap cya> cScdp/iji; y&ecrOai, avros auroVrtys yei/o- 
fia/os ^iccts. tcr0t yap c£ c/xe'o ra Troieofieva vtto 
TArjh&v. cSct yap, arc ovk £kovt€<; rjdeXov cs p.a^^i/5 
KaTLoraadai oi "EXXrpcs, dc/coiras TrapaaTrjaaardai. 
ai) Sc €7rct Trcp 17/CC15 xp7?ora airayyiXXoiVj avrds crc/>t 
dyyetXo*>. ^i> yap eya> aura Xeya), 8d£co 7rXdcras Xcy€ti> 
icat ov 7T€L(ro) cos ov TrotcoVrcoi/ tcoi> fiapfidpeov ravra. 
aXXa <r<^t crrjfirjvov avros irapeXdwv cos c^et. irreav 8c 10 
crq/i>ji^5, ^ /xci> ir€L0(ovTcu,, [ravra 8^ rd /cdXXtcrra,] 
^i> Se avrotox fir/ TTicrTa yevrjTaiy opoiov rffilv carat • 
ov yap crt StaSpifcroi/rat, ct 7rep 7reptcxd/xc0a Travraxo- 

81 0a/, cos <rv X^ycts. ravra cXeyc 7rapeX0coz> 6 'Aptcrrct- 
8tjs, cfxt/jLevos i£ Alyivrjs t€ rjKeiv /cat p,oyts c/crrXcocrat 
Xadcov tov$ iiropiiiovTas • Trepii^crOai yap irav to 
<rrpardVc8oi> to 'JLXXtjvlkov vtto t&p vecov t£>v Septjea) • 
Trapapreurdai T€ crwc/JovXcvc cos aXetj-rjo-ofxevovs. /cats 
6 pip ravra ct-Tras ftcrccrrif/cct, rcoi> 8c avrts cyti/ero 
Xdycoi> d/i(^tcrj8acrt7j • oi yap ttXcoi/c? rcoi/ OTpaTrjy&v 

82 ov/c iireidovTO ra ccrayycXflcWa. dmcrre6Vr(oi> Sc rov- 
rcoi> ^icc Tpnjpris av8p£)v Ttjvlwp avro/ioXcovcra, rqs 

80. 2. XP 1 ! ^ 1 referring to /<? compel their presence. — 9. us 

79. 12. — 3. yAp: explaining cv. 0$ ktI. : because in their opinion 

The antecedent of the relative the Barbarians are not doing this. 

clause depends upon avroTrrrj^. — — 11. Towa . . . KdXXurra: cp. 8. 

4. Ig ipio: sc. ovra or iroieofxeva. 62. 3. — 13. 0$ -y&p 2ti : for they 

Cp. 8.8. 19. — 5. Ikovtcs t)0cXov: will not go on with their retreat. 
they would not of their own free 81. 2. licirX&o-ai Xa0<&v : for the 

wilf. — $. Mwrras irapcurHjo-a^ai ; more common 2Aa0e e/c7rXwcras. 



31° 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[82. 3 



fjpX* oivr/p TlavaiTios 6 Sfticrt/icVcos, rj irep Si) ecfrepe 
Trjv akrjdeCrjv iraarav. 8ta Se tovto to epyov iveypd^rj- 
<rav Ttjvlol iv Aek<f>o2<n e? rov rpi-rrohoi iv roiari tovs 
fidpfiapov KaTeXovcrL. crvv 8e Ziv ravrg tq vtjl tj} 
avrofio\7)<rd<rg is XaXajxlva kcu rfj irpoTepov in 'A/otc- 
/autlov rfj ArjfjLvlri i£err\ripovTo to vavriKov rolai *E\- 
\t)<ti €? ra? dyScoKovTOL /cat r/H^/cocrias via? • hvo yap 
hr) vecov totc Karehei cs rov dpiBpjov. K 



82. 3. dWjp : this is unusual in 
prose without additional denning 
words. Cp. 8. 46. 1 4. — 5 . Tptoro8a : 
according to 9. 81 one tenth of the 
spoils taken in the battle of Pla- 
taea was dedicated at Delphi in 
the form of a golden tripod stand- 
ing upon three bronze serpents, 
so intertwined that Hdt. in 9. 81. 4 
speaks of the rpiKaprjvos o<f>is. 
This monument was taken to Con- 
stantinople by Constantine, and is 
still preserved. Upon the column 
Pausanias, the Greek general at' 
Plataea, had the arrogance to 
inscribe the following distich : 
EAAi;va>v apffiyos iir€L ot/xxtov 
wAco-c M1/0W, I Ilavo-avtas $oi/fy 
fxvrjfi aviOrjKe to&€. "This dis- 
tich the Lacedaemonians at once 
removed from the tripod, and in- 
scribed the names of all the states 
which had united in overthrowing 
the barbarian, and made the dedi- 
cation" (Thuc. 1. 132. 2). The 
inscription contains all the names 
of the states mentioned bv Hdt. 



as present at the battles of Ther- 
mopylae, Artemisium,Salamis, and 
Plataea, except the Locrians 
(7. 203. 2, 8. 1. 11), Seriphians 
(8. 46. 18), Crotoniats (8. 47. 5), 
Lemnians (8. 82. 8), Paleans 
(9. 28. 23), Ph'ocians (7. 203. 
2), and Mantineans (7. 202. 3). 
From another tenth of the Plataean 
spoils there was dedicated at Olym- 
pia a bronze Zeus (9. 81. 6) upon 
the base of which the Greek states 
were also inscribed (Paus. 5. 23). 
The names are the same as on the 
Delphian column except for the 
omission of the Thespians, Eretri- 
ans, Leucadians, and Siphnians. 
— 8. AT||ivlfl: see 8. 11. 14. — 
9. t£$ : the 380 suggested by the 
378 of 8. 48. 6. — 10. t6tc: this 
refers to the time when the 378 
ships were counted on gathering 
at Salamis (8. 42-48). As a mat- 
ter of fact the Lemnian ship was 
then present, having deserted at 
Artemisium. — icarffici : subject to 
vovtucov* 



34. 4 ] HERODOTUS VIII 371 

83 Totcrt 8e "EXXTjcrt cos 7rtcrra Stj t<x \.ey6p,€va rfv rS>v 
Ttjvuov prjfiaraj irapeaKevd^omo a>s pavfiax^o-ovTes* 

7JO)S T€ 8^ &L€(f)aLV€ KCU ot (TvWoyOV T(t)V €TTl^ar4(t)V 

7roi^o"a/ici/ot, 7rpor)y6pev€ cu c^oira [i€v c/c irdvTaw 
Ocjuoto/cXojs. rd Se €7rea fjv irdvra (ra) Kpeaa-co toi<ti 5 
rjaaoaL dwiTidtiLtva, ocra S77 t?i> dvdpdnov <f>v<ri /cat 
/caraoTacrt iyyiverai • irapawecras Se tovtcov tol Kptarao) 
aipziardai /cat /caTa7rXe'£a9 ttjv prj<riv 9 icrfiaivtLV e/ccXeue 
es ra? yea:*, /cat ovrot /xei/ 07) eaepaLvov, /cat 7)/ce 77 
a7r' Atyt^T/s TpiTJprjs, rj /caret rous Ata/aSas oVcS^/T^cre. 10 

84 ivOavra dvr\yov ras peas a7racras ot "EXX^i/es. dvayo- 
fievoiari 8e crc^t avrt/ca C7re/ccaro ot fidpfiapoi. oi p&v 
hrf aXXot ^EXXypcs [c7rt] irpvixv-qv dveKpovomo /cat 
cS/ceXXoi' ras i>cas, *An€Lp£rjs 8c IlaXXT/i/cv? cu^p 'Adrj- 

— c5 cxovra : with e#c iravnav = 
THE GREEKS PREPARE TO FIGHT. ^ ^ tf// _ ; KaTa<rrd<ri . con . 

the battle, of salamis (cc. diHm The " contrasts " in man's 
83-95), with details about condition would mclude freedom 

ARTEMISIA (CC. 87-88), THE and ^ j n hig nature> QQurzge 

PHOENICIANS AND IONIANS (C and cowardice . _ g. KaTair X^as : 
90), THE AEGINETANS AND Uke Qur wjnding w/ . __ 9. ^ Kc . 

Athenians (cc. 91-93), the the blockade was thus passed twice 
Corinthians (c. 94), and f rom the outside. - 10. AtaiclSas : 

ARISTIDES (C. 95) see g 64 9 

83. I. twv TtivUov: cp. top 84. 3. irpv|tvT)v dvcKpovovro : 
wdvra 'Aorvaycos prjQevTa \6yov backed water. Below in line 14 
1. 109. 4. — 3. tc 8t| . . . KaC: and in Ar. Wasps 399 without 
Syn. § 30. 2. c — liriftarfav : the iirt. Aeschylus says nothing of 
fighting men, not the crews. — this hesitation. — 4. 'A|iuv£t|s : said 
4. irpoiftdpfvc : the preceding of by Diodorus Siculus (11. 27) and 
is left without a verb, the rest be- others to be a brother of the poet 
ing forgotten on account of the Aeschylus, who belonged, how- 
prominence given to Themistocles. ever, to the Eleusinian deme. Plu- 



37* 



HERODOTUS VIII 




valos i£ava)($£k vrjl e/x^SaXXet. cR/jATrXeKeicnjs Se r% 
veos Kal ov Swaju-eVcuy airaXXayiJi'ai, ovrm St) ot aXXoi 
"A/xeiPig /3ot}0€opt€s crvuefiLcryov. *A8y)paloi pkp ovtoj 
Xeyoucn tijs pavfia^trji; y tpiaO at tt}p apx?"* Atyt^rai 
Se r?)&> Kara roi/s AtaKtSa? aTroSij/ATjo-atrai/ es Aiyu/ap, 
raunji' eli/at tt)^ apfjatraj/* Xeyerat Sc Kal raSe, das 
<f)dafia aif>i yvvaifcos i<f>dp7), tfrapeZaav Se SiaiteXetJcra- 
crBai <3<rre /cat dtirai/ aKovaai to twp 'EWtJpwp arpard- 
ttzSop, opethia'acrap irportpov raSe • t O Sat/noi/toi, p&\pi 
kqg-qv en irpvpviqp dVaKpoi!o-ecr#e ; 
85 Kara jluv St) *A9r)vaiav$ erera^aTO <&qlplk€$ (ovtol 
yap etftop ro irpos 'EXevcru'os re Kal ecr7rep?js Kepas), 
Kara Se AaKeSat/jtovtovs *Ia>^es * qvtql 8' el^oi/ to ?rp<k 
r*)f ?)c3 re Kat tcW TTeipatea* i0€koKdK€OP fiiprot avrwp 
Kara xas ©e/uoroKXeos eVroXas oXiyoi, ot Sc TrXeWes 
ov. e)(tu /txeV vw av%pwp oivopara rpuqpap^wv KaraXe- 
fai twp peas 'EXX-rptSas iXovTtav, xpjjtrofjLai Se avToiCL 

OV?>€P TrXrjP %mfJL7}O'T0p6f* T€ TOV * Av?>pQ&dfl,aPTQ$ KOI 

<t>ukaKQv rod 'icrnaiov, %apiwp dp,^0Tipmv^ rovSe Se 



io 



larch t Them, 14, mentions an 
Ameinias u the Decelean n in con- 
nection with the battle.— 8, &px"H v: 
cp. rjp$£ S £fJLJ3akT]$ 'EXXtjvuctj 
vat's, KanoOpava Travra ^Qtvurvip 
vtm xopvfifi* Aesch. Pers* 409. 
The Phoenicians were opposed to 
the Athenians (85. 1); conse- 
quently the evidence of Aeschylus 
is in favor of the Athenian story. 
Simonides, Fr. 139, says Democri- 
tus of Naxos {8. 43, 13) was the 



third to begin. — 11. ^avctcrav : 
the constr. changes from <&s to ace, 
and innn. — 14. Kdo-ov : Dial- § 2. t. 
85. 3. AaKiSaijiovtovs : these, 
with their sixteen ships, would be 
but a small part of the right wing. 
Diodoms (11. 18. 2) places the 
Aeginetans and Megarians on the 
right. Cp. 8. 91. 2. — 9. Sa- 
|i(wv: the author's stay in Samos 
would give him a particular in- 
terest in these men, 






87. 7 ] HERODOTUS VIII 373 

elveKa fiefiprffiaL tovtcjp jiovpcop, otl ®eo/ir}<TT<op fiep 10 
8ta tovto to epyop %d/iov irupdppevcre /caTaortyc/dV 
t<op t<ov Hepcrecov, <S>vXaico? 8c cvc/oyerr/s /JacrtXc'os 
dveypd<f>r) /cat X^PV &<*>py0y froXX^. oi 8* evepyerai 
86y8acrtXeo5 opoadyyai Kakiovrai IIc/oo-toTt. irtpl p.4v 

PVP TOVTOVS OVTQ) Ct^C ' TO 8c 7rki}0OS tS)V P€(OP lv T# 

SaKafjilvL €K€pat£€TO, at /xci> wr' *Adrjpai(op 8ta<£#et- 
po/ievaa,, at 8c wr* Alywr/Tecjp. are yap t<op fiev 
'HXkrjpcjp (rw Kocrfup vQ.v\iayz6v7d}V (/cat) /cara to£lp,s 
t5i/ 8c fiap/Sdpcop ovre Terayfiepup crt ovrc (rw i>og> 
iroieovTGJV ovSev, e/xcAXe tolovto o'<f>t ovpoCaeadai oiav 
irep dire/ir). kolCtoi fjadv ye /cat lyivovro t<lvtt)v tt)p 
rjfidprjp fiaKpo) afieipopes avrol ecovrcop r) 717005 Ey/Souy, 
was tis irpodvfieoixevos /cat Sct/xatVcoi' l B4p^y]v 9 cSo/cct 10 
87 tc c/caoros icovrbp derjaacrdai /Jao-tXc'a. /cara /Ltci; 817 
tovs aXXov? ov/c c^ai [/Lterc^crc/oovs] ct7reti> dr/oc/cccos a>s 
c/caorot t£i> fiapfSdpoiv rj tS)p 'EWtJpgjp r)y(Dpl£opTo • 
/cara 8c 'Aprefiiairfp rdSe iyepeTo, air' &p cuSo/ci/x^crc 
fidWop en irapa /Jao-tXet. C7rct8^ yd/o cs 66pvfiop$ 

TTOWOP d7TLK€TO TCL /JacrtXcbs irprjy/iaTa, €I> TOVTO) T(0 

KOLipa) r) vrjvs r) 'ApTefii<riris cStco/ccro v7ro i/cos 'ArTt/ciJs • 

86. 5. <rw ictf<rp<p: this corre- 8. 100. 10 and 6 8c rrav fiaXkov 

sponds to <rvvv6<p, and icara Ta£iv SojccW Ktivrjv eurocrat 9. 109. 9. 

to T€rayfi€vwv; chiastic arrange- Here the pres. infin. would suit 

ment. — 7. 3|icXXc: was bound to. the context. See Syn. § 15. 4. c. 
— 9. afrol imvr&v : the phrase is 87. 3. Ikcwttoi : the plur. gen- 

logically unnecessary since rj 71700s erally in reference to each of sev- 

Ev/foirj follows. It serves to eral groups, yet here in contrast 

strengthen the comparative. Cp. with an individual, Artemisia. — 

2. 25. 23. — 11. 4*vt6v: obj. of 7. vt&s 'Amicus : that of Ameinias 

flci/acur&u. For the aor. infin. cp. (8. 84. 4). Cp. 8. 93. 5. — 



374 HERODOTUS VIII [87.8 

/cat rj ovk exovcra Sta<£vycti>, ifi7rpo(r0€ yap ourr}? 
rjcav aXXat vees c^tXtat, 17 Seavrtys npbs tS>v iroXe/Aiiov 
/xaXtora iruy^ai/e covcra, c8o£c ol rdSc Tronjcrat, to #cat 10 
avvrjveiKe 7roLr)(rdo"fl • Sttw/co/LtcVij yap ino tt/s 'Arrt/ctys 
<f>epov(ra ivefiake vrjl <£tXt# dvSpiov re KaXvz/ScW ical 
avroi) cm7rXco*TOS tov KaXwScW ySacrtXcos Aa/xa<rt0v- 
/liov. ct /xci> /cat rt i>ct/cos ir/oos avro*/ iyeyovei crt 7rcpl 
c EXX>;cr7roi/roi/ cojtg)*', ov fiivroi €\o) ye elirelv, ovre ct 15 
ck irpovofys aura c7rot7jo"c, ovrc ct avvcKvprjO'e 17 t<Si/ 
KaXwScW /caTa rvyiqv napairecrova'a vr/vs. a>s 8e ci>e- 
ySaXc tc /cat /caTcSvo-c, evruxfy XP y l°' a l JL * vy 1 8t7rXa c<ovt7)i> 
aya#d ipydaaro • o tc yap tt?9 'ATTt/ctys ^cos T/nif- 
papxps a>9 cT8c /Lttv ififiaWovo'av vrji dvhpcov fiapfid- 20 
ptavy vofiLcras tt}j> via rrji/ 'A/orc/itcrt^s ^ 'EXXT/w'Sa etvai 
rj avTOfioXelv e/c tojj/ fiapfidpayv /cat avTOtcrt dpivveiv, airo- 
88 oT/oa/ja? tt/oos aXXas ct/ooVcto. tovto p>kv tolovto avrg 

8. Kal ij : Artemisia. See Syn. § 8. different syntactical constructions, 
2. The construction changes to the second being a gen. abs. Cp. 
c8o£coiinl. 10. — 9. irpds r&v iroXc- 7rvpafiU XlOov tc £cotoi) #cai £aW 
|iC«av (fcdXurra: nearest the enemy. iyy€y\vfi£v(ov 2. 124. 18. — 14. cl 
Cp. 7rpos ecnreprjs fiaXXov 4. 48. 12, |icv Kal ktI. : now even if there 
and 8. 120. 8; in 9.68. 6 7rpos t&v was a quarrel . . . yet I realty 
7roA.c/uW ayxLcrra iov<ra. — ii.<mv- can not say whether. — 16. <rw- 
^jvciKc : turned out well. Cp. 9. 37. capture : this, with icara Tvyyp and 
27. In 8. 88. 11 and 7. 8. a 7 the 7ra/Da7rc<rovora, emphasizes the idea 
kind of result is indicated by an of chance. — 19. rt : the corre- 
additional phrase.— -yap: explana- sponding icat clause is lacking. At 
tory of r6$e. Cp. 1. 5. — 12. $4- the beginning of the next chapter 
pov<ra: rushing on. Cp. 8. 91. 7, tovto /jl€v repeats the first good 

9. 102. 13. — dv8pdiv tc ktI. : the fortune and the second is intro- 
two phrases descriptive of vrji are duced by tovto 8c. — 22. afoota : 
joined by tc . . . kou, though in the Greeks. 



89.7] HERODOTUS VIII 375 

avwjveuce yeveadai 8tac/>vycti> re Kal /jltj diro\eadai 9 
tovto 8c ovvifiy) were kolkov cpyaaafievr/v dnb tov.cjv 
avTifv ftdXtora evSoKifirjcrai irapa &ep£y. Xeyerat yap 
/JacrtXca 07)€Ofi€vov fiaffeZv Tr/v via infiaXovcrav, Kal Btj 5 
Tiva elnelv t£>v irapeovrtav • Accr/Tora, opas ^AprefiLaCrjv 
cos cS aytovitfirai /cat via ra>v 7ToXc/ug>i> /carc'Swc ,• Kal 
tov eireipia'dai el d\y)di(D<; iarl 9 KprepLiairjS to epyov, 
Kal rovs <j>dvai 9 cra<£cG>s rb emcrj/iov r>?s vebs eVtora- 
fiivovs • ttjv 8c Sia^dapeicav rjmoTeaTo ctpat woXe- 10 
fiir/v. rd re yap dXXa, a>s eipiqrai, airy avvrjveiKe c? 
evTv\iy}v yevopeva Kal to t<ov 4k tt)<; KakvvSiKrjs i/cos 
firjBeva airodtadivra Karrjyopov yeveadai. Sip^rjv 8c 
elneiv Xeycrat wpbs rd <f)pa£6p.eva • Ot fiev dvSpes 
yeyovaai /Ltot ywaiKes, at 8c yvvawes dvhpes. ravra 15 
89/xsi/ tHipijrjv <j>a<rl elireiv. ev 8e t<3 ttovo) tovto> dirb 
fiev eOave 6 <TTpaTr)yb<; 'A/oia/Jtyi^s 6 Aapeiov, Ec/ofcco 
i<ov d8eX<j>e6s, dirb he dXXot 7roXXot tc /cat 6Vo/xacrrot 
Ilc/ocrcW /cat MifStoi/ /cat t<Si> dXXcov <rvfifid\o)v 9 oXiyoi 
8e rives Kal 'EXXrji/cu^ • arc yap veiv eirujTafievoi, 5 
rotcrt at i>ccs 8tc</>0ct/oom> Kal p,r) ev yeipt&v vo/jlco a7roX- 
Xvfievoi, cs r^i> SaXafilva Sici/coi/. t<S^ 8c fiapfidpeov 

88. 2. Sia^vyctv ktI. : explana- — 14. ^pagrfpeva : for the pres. 

tory of Totovro. — 9. 4>dvat: said tense, see 8. 83. 1, 7. 209. 20. 
yes. For Itytxrav of the direct form. 89. 1. diri \uv . . . airi 84 : cp. 8. 

— !ir(«n)|iov : probably a figure- 33. 3 and see Syn. § 7. — 2. 'Apia- 

£ia<£ Cp. 3. 37. 7. The <rrjixyiov fttyvrp: see 7. 97. 1. — 6. Kal |tt) 

on an admiral's ship (see 8. 92. 10) ktI. : this phrase is parallel to the 

was no doubt a flag. — &irurra|i{- relative clause — those whose ships 

wws : knowing, but rjirurriaTo be- were destroyed and who did not 

lieved. — 12. r6: with the infin. perish. — 7. & tijv 2aXay.lva 8U- 

clause, which is parallel to to. aAAa. vcov : these words are cited in 



ot TroXXot iv rfj BakatTo-T) Ste^ddpTjcrap^ vtlv ovk eTTL- 
orajuei/ot, eirel Se at irpmrai is ^vy-qp (rpdwopro* 
ip&avra at TrXetcrTat Stec^etpoyTO. ol yap QincrOt 

T€TayfJL€VOl f €? TO TTpOCT^e rjJCTl ^l/GTt TTaplivOJL 7T€LpOf- 

ftevQi cas aTroSe^d^e^ot n /cat avrol ipyop jSacrtXet, 
goTijcrt <r<p€T€pya-i prjval (f}€vyovo"gcri 7repi€7n7Trop. eye* 
vera Se /cat rdSe ip rJJ Oopvfiw rovrat ■ t«3j/ rit> eg 4>oti/t- 
k<uv, rw at ^€€9 SietfiddpaTQ, ikOovres irapd /3a<xtXe'a 
St€)3aXXo^ tow? "Iowa?, a»s St* e/cetVous arroXotaro at 
i/€€Sj ok 7rpQ§QfT&w. (Twrjv€iK€ (op ovrm gjot£ 'lajj/e&y 
re rous (TTpaTijyovs fxr^ cbroXea-tfat 4>o(.PL/ca>i' re rous 
StajSaXXoira? Xa^8eti> tolo^Sc pacr86p ■ ert roi/rajj> raGra 
Xeydi'Ta/i' eVeJSaXe vijt 'Arn/cTj %apod pjjKiiq piqw. 77 re 
8^ 'Attwcjj /carcSuero /cat iirufrepopepj} Atyti/atTj prfvs 
/care'Sucre ™j> XapuoOp-Qtcmp rr)p pea, are 81 eoWes 
a/coi/Tterrat ot %ap*od pffKts tov$ eTT^SaVas aTro ttJs Kara- 
Sucracnj? peos j8aXXoi>res dmjpa^ap teal lire fjf} crap re 
/cat ecr^oj/ avrrjp, raura ye>d/x€i/a tou? *Ict;i/a<? eppi/- 
craro* a>? yap elSe' <r<£eas Sepias epyop p4ya epyacxa- 
/jtci^ous irpawero irpos Toit$ <E>otVt/cas ota UTrepXi/Tred/^ej/ds 15 
re /cat Tra&ra? atTtcapci^QSj /cat cn^ean/ e/ceXeutre rds 

proof of the view that the Greek outlets. — 13* or^tT^pflcn : reflex- 
fleet was lined along the Salami- ive. See Syn. § 10, 3. 
nian shore, and not across the go. 2. t«vtlv€s4». 1 Syn. § 11. 3. 
strait from Salamis to Attica* — — 5. irpo&6vTu*v : sc. clvtwv. Gen. 
10. 01 yap frnwfa TSTayHivoi: the abs. instead of agreeing with 
Persian line was possibly two or loiim-?. Cp> 8. 69. 5. — ovtu : ex- 
three ships deep, but the expres- plained by %tl tovtwv uri. On wore 
sion in Aeschylus* Persians (366), with uv\n]vuKt y see Syn. § 23. 4 b, 
<TTQixoi<* rpttrlv tKwXovs <£*<Aaeraeu/, — 13. «"xov: tool' possession of. 
applies only to those guarding the — 1«va$ : Samothrace was c 






92. 2] HERODOTUS VIII 377 

K€<f>a\as airorafieiv, Iva fir] avrol kolkoI yevo/ievoi tovs 
dju.etfoz'a? StaySaXXaxrc. o/ca? yap riva tSot tHep^rjs 
T(ov i(ovTov epyov tl aTroSeiKvvjievov iv ry vavfiaxtyy 
Karrjfievos vtto t<3 opct to? olvtiov SaXa/utPO?, to /caXct- 2 o 
rat AlydXecjs, dvenvvddvero rov 7roi7]aavra 9 /cat ot 
ypafifiaTHTTal dv€ypa<f>ov narpodev rov rpirjpapxpv /cat 
Tr\v ttoKiv. rrpo% Sc rt /cat rrpocrtfidXero <f>C\os i<ov 
' ApLapdfjLWfS dvrjp Heparjs napecov rovrov rov <I>ou/t- 
K7JLOV Trddeos. 25 

91 Ot ftci> 8^ rrpbs Tov? <S>otPt/ca? irpdnovro • r<ov Sc 
fiapfidpcov c? <j}vyr)v rpaTTOfievtov /cat c/C7rXcd^ra)i/ 7r/oos 
to $>d\rjpov Aiyivfjrai vTroorrdvre*; iv rco rropdfxS) epya 
direSe^avro \6yov a£ta. ot fiev yap *A0r)valoi iv r<3 
dopvfico c/cc/odi£oi> to? re avrio-rafia/as /cat Tas <f>evyov-$ 
era? roJv pca)i/, ot Sc Aiyivffrai ra? c/c7rXcovcra9 * o/ca>s 
Sc rti>cs Tov? *Ady)vaiov<; 8ia<f)vyoi€v 9 (fyepofievoi iaemir- 

92 toi> cs Tov? A lyLvrjras. ivdavra avve/cvpeov vees rj re 
©c/LttoTO/cXco? SicoKovcra via, /cat 17 IloXv/cptrov tov 

nized from Samos (Strabo 457). — Phanodemus refers to was proba- 
18. Skws -yAp: this explains how bly near Cape Amphiale. — 22. ira- 
X. knew that Ionians had sunk rptfOcv: adding the father's name 
the ship. — 20. im6 t$ 6pci: q>. for greater exactness. — 24. irpo<r- 
tSpav yap e?xe wavTos £vayrj or pa- cfldXcro : contributed, a common 
tow, xhl/rjXov ox&ov ayxi TcAaywts meaning of (rvpfiaWopuai. — fl- 
axes Aesch. Persae 466 and 'Eip- Xos &&v : 'Iokti seems to have been 
(rp pkv avu> Ka&rjaro . . . , u>s /*€v dropped from the text. 
$avo&7/ios <f>rj<TLv, virkp to 'Hpa- 91. 1. ol|ilv: those ordered to 
K\eiw,y j3paxeL7r6pw$LeLpy£TaLT7}s execute the Phoenicians. — 2. 4k- 
'Arrucfjs 17 vrjaos • a>s 8' 'Akcoto- ii\c6vt«v : *.*. out of the sound 
Scopo?, cv pxOopiw rrjs MeyaptSos between Attica and Salamis. — 
VTr€pTu)VKa\ovpcvwvKepaTu)vP\ut. 3. irop0p£: between Psyttaleia 
Them. 13. The Heracleum which and Attica. 



S7& 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[92 3 



Kpiov av&pb$ Atyipyrem vql ep^aXovaa SiSawt'g, rjirep 

€tXe TT)P 7TpQ(f)v\do-a-QVG'aV €7tI %Ktd9(t} TT)P Aiytpair)v } 

eir* t|s eVXet Ili/^eiys 6 'Ifx^epoot^ top ot IIepo"at /cara-s 
Koirivra dperrjs ttvcKa et)(op £p rg vrft itarayXeopepoL • 
top St) TTeptdyovaa a/xa Totcrt Ilepa-ftcjfc ^Xa» pr]v$ 17 
SlS&ji/lt^ ware Hi^er^ qvtw awdfjpat e's Atytiw. a»? 
o€ eVetSe r^ i^ea r^ 'Attlkyjp 6 U oXvKpt to ? ? eyya> to 
{TJffjLijiOP tSw ttjs orpar^ytSas, jcat jS&ieras to*> Befit- 10 

CFTOtfXea eWjC€pTQftTJfJ€ €S 7W AtyiJ^TeW TO^ flTjZiO-flbp 

cWiSi£ajp. ravra pep vvp ptjI ipflzXtov 6 IIoXvit/nTo? 

direppupe e'g (^eptaTOKXea ■ ot Se fidpftapoi twp al vee<$ 
Trepteydiopro {faevyovres clttiVopto e*s t&dXrjpop i/tto top 
93 it slop arparop. Ip Se rg pa.vpo.\vt} twutj] tjk overeat 
'EXX^pais dpiora AtyanjTat, eVt Se 'A^ijpatoij dpBpjjjp 
Se IIoXutfpLTos T€ 6 Atyu'T^n/s tfai *Afc^i>atoi F,vpevr)$ re 
6 *Ai/ayupao"ios tfal 'Ajteu'tijs UaXXyjpevs, 09 icat 'Apre- 
pta'irjp eVeSicufe. el /uteV &>ut> epaQe on ip TaiSrjj irXeots 
*ApT€pta , irj, ovk Slp inavcTaTO nporepop 7) elXe pip rj 
Kal aim? rjXw. TOto*t yap 'Adrjpaiwv Tpirjpdp^oLO'L 

7Tap£K£K€X€V(JTO> TTpO? Sc /CO.! OL€0XoV ZK€ITQ pvpiVLl Spajf* 

fiat, o? aV pii; £0*771^ eXjj - Seti/op yap rt iirQieopro 
yvvatKa £wl tcl* * A0yjpa$ crTpnTeveaOai. avTrj pep Srj, 10 
015 irporepop etp^TaL, St€(f>vye ■ -ija'aj/ Se Kal ot dXXot, 
T<S^ at pees Trepteyeyopeaav^ eV rm <J>aXrjp&j. 



92, 3. Kptov: referred to in 6. 
50, 73 as prominent among the 
Aeginetans, — flu-ip I the very one 
which. See 7. 179 £. — n. It: 
with reference to. — • 14. wird : 
under the protection of. 



93 . 1 . TJitoutrav : were spoken 
of. — 4, *Av<ryup&«-Lo$ : of the 
deme Aaagyrus. — *Ajutvty* : see 
8. 84. 4. — 5, Tcrfrfl : as if 
vyfiv ttjk *ApT€fuiri7fi preceded. 
— 9. &s: anteced. &'. rourw. 



94.19] HERODOTUS VIII 379 

94 ' ASeifiavTov 8c rov KopivOuov arpaTyjyov Xeyoucrt 
'Adrjvaloi avTiica Kar d/o^ds, cos (rwe/no-yov at i/ccs, 
iK7r\ay€vra re /cat vTrc/oScto-aira, ra lorta deipafievov 
ol\eadai (frevyovra, iSovras 8c rov? Kopivdlovs rrjv 
aTparqyiha <f>€vyovcrav axravrcy? ot;(€0-0ai. a>s 8c dpaS 
<j>€vyovras yiveadai rf\<s SaXa/upt^? Kara to Ipbv *Adyj- 
vairjs 2/a/)d8os, TrepiTriirreLV <r<f)i Kikrfra deijj 7TOfi7rg, 
rov ovre irepAJfavra <f>avr)vai ovSeva, ovre tl tgjv airb 
tyjs (rrpaTifjs eiSdcrt 7rpo<r<f>€peo-0ai rolat Kopivdlouri. 
rpSc 8c avfi/Sdkkovrai elvai ffelov to irpfjyfia • cos yap 10 
ayX°^ yeviaffai t<ov vea>v 9 rovs diro rov kcXtjtos \eytiv 
rdSc- 'ASct/xa^TC, cru /txc^ d7rooTpa/fas ras peas cs 
fayVV opfiyjaai Kara7r/ooSov5 rov? "EXXrji/as ' ol 8c /cat 
89 vlkoktl ocrov olvtoX ij/ogWo cTrt/c/oanJo-ai raw c^^/oaJ^. 
ravra Xcydi>TG>i> d7rto-rcu> yd/o top *A8el/iavTov 9 avnsis 
rctSc Xc'ycii>, a>5 avrot otot re ctci> ayo/ievoi ofirjpoL 
d.7rodvri(rKeiv 9 $\v p.r\ v\.kS>vtz% <f>aLva>j/T<u ol "EWrjves. 
ovto) 8rj a7TO(Trp4\\favTa ttjv via avTov re /cat tovs 
aWovs in ifjepyaa/iivoio'i i\0eiv €9 to oT/oaro7rcSo^. 

94. 3. rd UrrCa: usually left Corinthians escaped the blockade, 

on land when a battle was to be — 8. oUtc ti kt*. : and which ap- 

fought. — 6. yCvcorOai : inf. in a proached the CSs knowing nothing 

subord. clause in indirect narra- etc. rov is object of w^ful/avra 

tion. Cp. <l>avr}vai etc. Syn. § 24. and subject of irpocr<l>€pt<T$ai. The 

ii. 2. — SaXa|itvCT]s : sc. yrjs. The second ovtc does not affect the 

gen. depends upon /caret . . . 3*apa- main verb of its clause. — 13. ical 

bos. — Ipdv: the position of the Srfj : already. Syn. § 33. 1. — 

temple is uncertain. It is vari- 15. Xcydvrwv : (gen. abs.) since 

ously placed at the southern, north- A. did not believe them, when they 

eastern, and northwestern points, said this. — 16. otoC tc ckv: were 

Hdt does not explain how the ready. — 19. 4ir* 4$cpYcur|iivoiari : 



3«o 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[94. 20 



TOVTOU9 ft€i> rouLvnt} <£aris ej(ct vno 9 A$r}vaiwv, o£: 
p,€VTQt avroi ye KoplvOiat o/zoXoyeoucrt, dXX* £i> Tipci- 
roiat ericas avrovs ttjs pavftaxiij? vofw£ouo'& yepeadat • 

95 fiapTvpcl Se cr<£t #cal ^ dXXij 'EXXds. *AptcrreiSi7S Se 6 
Aufrt^ia^ot; dnjp 'A^ipcuos, rou Kal oXtyw rt nporepov 
Tovroip IwejAWjo'&yiv a)$ av$po$ dpiaroVj qvtq$ Iv tgj 
6opvj3a> Tovrtf t&> ?rept SaXa/Atpa ytpofiwat rdSe cirotet * 
TTapaka/3o*P iroXXois -"Sp OTrXtreW 01 7ra/>eT€ra^aT0 « 
irapa tyjv gLkttjv tt/s SaXajLUPi?}? X^P 7 )*** yivos iovre; 
*A&r}vaiQi 9 es ttjp ^trraXeta^ vtjo'of aTri^rja-e aywv, dt 
roifS Ilcpcra? tows eV ttj 1/170-481 raurg Kare^dpevcrai/ 

96 *f!s Se 17 vavjiaftty} SieXeXvro, fcarci.piJo'ai'TC? e? 1771/ 
SaXa^upa ol *E\Xiji/€S t£>p vavr)y£a>if oaa toutt) iruy- 
X av€ £ TL tOVTO) tToiftoi TfO'ap iq dXXiji/ vavp.ayyt}V) eXm- 
£opt€5 T|Jcrt 7T€pitova"QU'i Piqval irt xP 7 i {T€0 '^ at fHxaikia. 
r&l^ Se pavrjyitov TroXXa vnoXafitav aptjjios £,€(f>vpo<; e^cpej 
rijs 'Attwojs €7rt ttjp |Joj/a r?j^ jca.Xeo/jLCi'ijp KwXidoa, 



#/><?/- # ^f^J #// ^;'. — 20. tou- 
tows |ifv ktj. : of these I his story is 
told. — 22* o-^cas av-rovs i Syn. f 10. 
2. b. — r^s vav|iaxtv|s : dependent 
upon cv Trpcorotcrt and = t£>v mv- 

fJUL)(€QVTti)V* 23. pLttpTVpfl I Cp. th C 

following verses of Slrnonides : m 
£&v evuSpop wot ivatofLcv acrrv Ko- 
ptvBov* I vvv S* dpp! Aiarro? vatra^ 
e^ei 2tAet^iV I peta Sc (frou'tira'as 
riyas *at Ilepcrus eAdtre? | tail Mtj- 
Sov? tcpav f EAAciStt pvtrdptda Ft. 
100, and oijto? *A$£tpdvTov Kttmv 



fleptaq aptfriOtTQ (rre^ovov Fr. 103* 

95. 8. For Aeschylus' account 
of this incident, see Persae 447 ff. 
He attributed the exploit to the 
Greek sailors after their victory. 

THE FULFILLMENT OF AN ORACLE 
(C.96) 

96. I . KCtmpvflravTfs : towing 
to land, Cp. av-dyta of put* 
ting out from shore. — 3. 4Xir(£ov- 
tis: expecting. — 6. KwXiaSa : the 
promontory was a few miles south 
of Phalerum ; near by was a temple 



97. 6] HERODOTUS VIII 381 

ware a7roir\r)(r0r}vai rov ^/o^cr/xoi/ tov re aXkov irdvra 
tov irepl Trjs pavfiaxfys ravnjs elprjfievov Ba/ciSt /cat 
Moucrato), /cat 8^ /cat Kara ra vawrjyia ra Tavry i^evei- 
-^devra to eiprj/ievov iroWoio'i erccrt irporepov tovt<ov 10 
iv XPV a 'H V Av<xiOT/)aTa> 'A0r)val<p avSpl XPV^^^^YVy 
to ikekrjdei iravra*; tovs "FXkriPas, 

KcoXiaSc? 8e yvvcuKes cpc7yiouri <j>pv^ov(Ti. 

tovto Sc ifieWe airekao'avTos ySacriXc'os c<rco-0ai. 
97 Bc/)^5 8c cos €/iade to yeyovbs 7ra0o9, Scicra? firj tis 
tS>v 'Icovgjv virodrJTai toZcti "EXkrjat rj avrol vorjcraiai 
irXeiv is tov 'T&XkTJcnrovTov Xucroprcs ra? y€<f>vpas /cat 
a7To\afi<f)0els iv Tjj EipajTrrj Kivhwevarj airoXeadai, 
8pr)(Tfibv iftovXeve • dekwv 8c /lit) cm'S^Xo? eTvai fii]T€ 5 
Towrt "EXXtycri /ii]T€ Totcrt icavrov c? t^i/ £aXa/upa X^M a 

of Aphrodite Kolias. — 7. t&v xp»1- himself in thought at the time of 

<r|iov t6v tc kt4. : xprjo-fiov is sing, the battle. 
. though tc . . . Kai introduces two 

oracles in apposition to it, because ™^J^ ^ L ™? ™?"I' 
Hdt. has in mind particularly (/ecu 
Si/ icat') the second, but suddenly 
recalls the other. — ir&vra : in full. 

The first oracle is that in 8. 77 pre- TO SUSA (CC 97_99) 
sumably, though no mention is 97. 1. £|iaOc: realized the ex- 
there made of Musaeus. Possibly tent of his defeat. Diodorus 
the same oracle was found in both (11. 19) says that 40 Greek ships 
collections. — 10. r6 clpr)plvov . . . and more than 200 Persian ships 
4v xP^FH-V '• these words resume were destroyed, exclusive of those 
tov xprpiiov of 1. 7. — 11. XP 1 ! "^ - captured with their crews. — 
Xdy?: cp. 7. 6. 13. — 12. 4\c\4jOci: 6. x&pa.: according to Ctesias 
no one had understood the mean- Pers. 26 and Strabo 395, Xerxes 
ing until Hdt. pointed it out. — 14. started the mole before the battle. 
SpiXXe: past future. Hdt. places Strabo says it was near Cape 



MAKES OPEN PREPARATIONS 
AGAINST THE GREEKS. MEAN- 
WHILE HE SENDS A MESSENGER 



382 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[97. 7 



ineiparo Sta^ow, yavXovs re &olvikt)(ovs crv^cSct, ti>a 
dvri re cr^St^s eaxri kou reC^eo?, dprelro re is woke/xov 
a)S vavfiaxirjv akkrjv iroiy)<T6nevos. opcovres 8c /xti; 
irdvres ol aXXot ravra irprjo'O'ovra eZ rjiriorearo cos c/c io 
Trai/Tos i^oov TrapecrKevaarai fieva)p TrokefirjO'eLv • Ma/> 
Sd^coi/ 8* ov8ci> rovrcjv ekdvdave a>9 /xaXtara efiireipov 
98 copra rrjs eiceivov Stapot^s. ravrd re dfia 3ep(jr)s 
eirolei /cat eireinre is Hepcras dyyekeovra rrjv irapeov- 
crav <r<£t crvfi<f>opTJp. rovTcov 8e r<Si> dyyeXav earn 
ov8a/ o rt daacrov irapayiverai dmjrbp iov • ovrco rotcrt 
TLepa-jjcri i£ev prji at roOro. Xeyovtrt ya/o a>s ocrcui/ ai>5 



ijfiepeo)!/ y ij iraaa 686s, roaovroi Xttttoi re /cat dvSpes 
Stcoracri, /caret 7jfiep7}(rCrjv 

Amphiale, and Ctesias places it 



near the Heracleum, which is lo- 
cated, most probably, near Cape 
Amphiale (see 8. 90. 20). This 
point would certainly be the most 
fitting for a mole on account of 
the narrowness of the passage, and 
the shallows that are found there. 
But it is exceedingly improbable 
that the attempt was made before 
the battle. If the Persians were 
in this position at that time, the 
whole story of the alarm of the 
Greeks at the appearance of 
the fleet on the day of the battle 
and of Themistocles' message to 
Xerxes must be given up. Further, 
the Persians were confident of a 
victory by sea, and in that case the 
mole was useless. After the battle 
the Persians could not have at- 



6801/ eKaanqv Iniros re /cat 

tempted any work either at this 



point or across to Psyttaleia, for the 
Greeks were in control of the pas- 
sages. It is improbable that Xerxes 
did more than give out that he 
was going to build a mole and 
have the merchantmen tied to- 
gether, to deceive his followers. — 
8. tcIx<os : to protect the men at 
work. As a (rxe&irjs it would be 
used to carry out material. — 
11. iro\c|t4jorciv : on the fut. see 
Syn. § 15. 4. c. 

98. 3. &yy&«»v: Aeschylus 
represents his messenger as com- 
ing directly from the field of battle 
(Persae 266). The ayycAo? in the 
Drama must be an eyewitness of 
the scene he describes. — 4. ovr« : 
so skillfully. Cp. 4. 200. 1 5 . — 7. 8m- 
oracn : are placed at intervals. — 



99. 8] HERODOTUS VIII 383 

avr)p TCTay/xcpo? • tovs ovre vi<f>€Tos 9 ovk ofifipos, ov 
Kdvfia, ov wi* epyei /irj ov Karavvcrai tov irpoKeifiepov 
clvtg) hpofiov ttjv ra\iorqv. 6 fiev Sr) irp&ros hpapxov 10 
irapaSiSol ra ivreTak/iei/a Tip 8cvrc/)$>, 6 S£ Scvrc/>os t$* 
TpCrcp • to 8c ii/ffevrev rjhr) kclt aWov Sic^c/o^erou vapor 
StSoftcpa, /caret 7T€/) (iv) "EXXijo-i 17 \afi7ra8yj<j}opCr] ry)V 
to> e H<^a«rra) €7rtTeXcovcri. tov7o to SpdfirjfjLa t&v 
)lmr<ov jcaXc'oucri Ilc/ocrai ayyaprjiov. 17 //,«> 8^ irpdivq 
cs Sovcra dyycXfy anuco/icw), a>s e^oi 'A07Jvas Ecp^s, 
ercpi/ic ovrco 817 n Hepaeaiv tovs vn-oXcu^ floras a>s Tas 
tc 68ovs fivpaufQ 7raVas ioropeaav /cat i0vfila>v dvp,vrj- 
fiara Kal avrol fjaav Iv dvarljjcri re Kal evTraffeCyai • 5 
^ 8c Sevrepr) a<j>i ayyekir) cVccrcXfloGau avv€\€L ot/ra> 
coarc rovs KidZvas Karepprjtjai/TO irdvres, ftoy} (Se) tc zeal 
olficoyy i)(p€Q)VTo a7r\er(p, Maphouiov Iv aiTiv) TiflcWcs. 

8. ofrt . . . ovk . . . ov : such irvpos in a description of the flash- 
asyndeton is more freq. in poetry, ing of a message by beacon lights 
but cp. Lys. 32. 16. Emphasis is from one height to another. The 
thus given to each word. — 9. jit| word is etymologically the same 
ov : GMT. 815. — 10. abnf : after as the Greek ayycAos. 
plur. rows, the thought shifting to 99. 1. irp<fcn|: see 8. 54. I. — 
the individual task. Cp. 4. 65. 9. 3. «s: = ohttc. — 5. avrol : em- 
— 12. nor aXXov: distributive, £_y phasis upon the personal enjoy- 
relays it is passed along and ment as opposed to the public 
reaches its destination. — 13. Xaji- celebration by offerings to the 
<raSr)<|>op(T) : in this race the torch gods. — 7. ki06vo$: xtTwwis. Dial, 
must be brought to the goal still § 2. 4. — Karcpp^Javro : cp. iroXr 
lighted. It was evidently a relay- Aat 8' d/uaAxus X*? "* #caAv7rrpas 
race, but it was not run with KaTepci/co/xevcu Aesch. Pers. 537. 
horses, for their use is spoken of Aeschylus 1 word /carcpctKo) is used 
as a novelty in Plato Rep* 328. of rending garments in 3 66.2. — 
— 15. ©/fyapfyov: Aesch. Agam. 8. olpwyu ktI. : cp TtevQovcn. ydois 
282 uses the phrase cbr' ayydpov d/copeordTois Aesch. Pers. 545. 



384 HERODOTUS VIII [99-9 

ovk ovt(o Sc irepl r<ov vetav d^doixevoi ravra oi Heparan, 
eiroieov o>5 irepl avrqi Bc/o^g Sctyiau/oircs. 10 

100 Kat irepl Uepaas p>ev ty ravra rbv irdma fiera^v 
\p6vov yevofiasov, pexpi od Scpfqs avros <r<f>eas curi/co- 
fievos eiravcre. MapSovios Sc 6p<ov fieu Sep^rji/ avfJL<j)o- 
prjv fieydXrjv 4k tt}s i^au/xa^t^s noieofievov, ywoirTevtov 
8c avrov 8pr)(Tfibv fiovkeveiv eK r<ov 'Affr/vecov, <f>povri-s 
<ras irpbs ecovTov a>s SaJcrct Slktju dvayvcbaas fiacrikea 
arpareveaOai enl rr/v c EXXa8a, feat oi Kpeaaov etrj dva- 
KivSwevaai fj Kareprydtraardai ttjv 'EXXaSa f/ avrov 
KaXcos re\evrrj(Tai rbv fiCov virep fieydkwv al<x)pr]0evra • 
tt\4ov fiei/Toi e<f>epe ol 17 yvdfirj KarepydcratrOai rrjv 10 
e EXXa8a • Xoyuadfievos 2>v ravra npoaefape rbv \6yov 
rovSe • Ae&irora, fiijre \vneo fiyjre (TVfi^oprfv fir)$ep.Lav 
lieydXrjv noieo tovSc rov yeyovoros elvena Trptjyiiaros. 
oif ydp £v\a>v dy<ov 6 rb ttov <f>ep(ov iarl 17/up, dXX* 
dvSpwv re Kal i7nra>v. aol 8c ovre ns rovrtav r£>v rb 15 
irav <r<f>i 17817 8oKeovra>v KarepydcQai an o fids dirb r£>v 
veS>v TreiprjaeTai dvTicoffrjvai ovt 4k rf}<; rfireipov rrjahe • 



THE ADVICE OF MARDONIUS AND 



a great stake. — 10. tycpc : in- 
trans. With this expression the 

ARTEMISIA (CC. 100-102) ^^^ : J„ f ;« „ »» „ „ an :« 

v y person is oat. in 3. 77. 2, gen. in 

100. I. r&v irdvra . . . \p6vov: 4. 11. 10, 5. 1 18. 9 etc. — Karcpyd- 

as opposed to iravra t. XP- tn * s raxrQai : for the tense, cp. 8. 86. 11 

expression elsewhere (cp. 8. 140. and see Syn.§ 15.4. c. This clause 

a 13, P 6) in Hdt. refers to a long is parenthetical. The predicate of 

period of time. See Syn. § 8. 5. — MapSdvios 1. 3 is wpovfyepe. After 

4. Ik : cp. civc/ca below- and two the long interval Aoyura/ucvo? 5>v 

aces, in 8. 69. 2. — 6. irpds: in ravra sums up. — 14. (vXmv: con- 

reference to. — dva-yv«cras : see 7. 9. temptuously for vctuv. — irav $4p*v : 

— 9. atopT)Olvra: in a venture for cp. 8. 62. 5. — 16. or+i: agent 



101.3] HERODOTUS VIII 385 

ol T€ rj/uv rjimdOrjcraVy £8o<rav St/cas. ct /xcv yvi> So/cct, 
avTiKa neLpcofieda rfjs HekoTrovinjaov • ct 8c /cat 8o/cct 
i7rio")(€iv 9 irapi^ei iroiziv tolvtcl. /li^ 8c hvcrdvfiti • oS 20 
yap cart "EXXijcrt oihefiia c/c8v<rts /Lt>) ov Sovtcls \6yov 
t£>v iiroirjaai/ vvv re /cat irporepov elvai aovs SouXous. 
jidkiora pAv wv Tama iroUi * ct 8* apa rot fJeftovXevrcu 
avrov aftzkavvovTa dirdyeiv tt)v crTpaTvrjv, aWrjv e\oi 
/cat c#c towSc jSovXyv. ay Ilcpcras, /Ja<rtXev, p/jy 71-007-25 
o~qs /caTaycXaorovs yevecrdai "EXX^o-t. ov8c yap ci; 
Hepayai toC Tt ScSi^XijTat t<3j/ 7rprjyfidT(ov y ov8c cpcts 
o/cov cycj/6ftc0a aySpcs /ca/cot. ct 8e <I>oti>t/c€9 tc /cat 
Atyu7TTtot /cat Kv7rptot tc /cat KtXt/ccs /ca/cot eyevovro, 
ovhkv 7rpos Ilcpcra? touto 7rpoo"r]K€i to irddos. 77S77 a>v, 30 
C7rct8») ov Ilcpo-at rot atrtot ctcrt, cpot ireldeo • ct Tot 
ScSo/crat p/ij napafMeveiv, ai> fiev c§ ^ca ra crcaivroi) 
cwrcXawc rfjs orpartij? dirdy^v to ttoWov, ifie Sc crot 
XP»7 t^i> e E\Xa8a irapaaxelv heSovXojfieisqv, TpvrJKovTa 
lOipvptaSa? toS CTpaTOv d7roXc£ap€i>oi>. tolvtcl a/cov<ra? 
Hcp^s a>s c/c kolkq)v i\dpr) T€ /cat rj<r07), irpbs MapSo- 
i/toV tc fjovkevcrdfievos €(f>rj vTTOKpiveiadai oKOTepov 

with KarepydvOai. — 21 . 8<Svras ^. — 32. <rv ji^v : the advice begun 

X670V : render an account, here = in 1. 26 is now concluded. — ijOca : 

& punished. — 23. |idX.Mrra : best home. Cp. 7. 75. 8. — 34. rpt^JKovra 

of all. Cp. 8. 22. 7. — 25. fcravSc: pvpidSas: the division of one of 

following upon that, i.e. in that the six generals (7. 82, 7. 184. 20 ff.). 

case. — 26. oiSc . . . n: not even 101. 2. us 4k kchcwv: joyful 

anything. — 27. ipcfe : almost you considering his misfortunes, as joy- 

can not say. — 29. Atyvirrioi ktI. : ful as circumstances allowed. Cp. 

cp. Artemisia's opinion in 8. 68. y. — Thuc. 7. 42. 2 and see Syn. § 23. 

30. o$$€v irp&s . . . irpoor^JKci : bears 3. b. — 3. povXcvo-dpcvos : part of 

no relation to, i.e. is not the fault what he said. — viroicpivcurOai : Att, 



386 HERODOTUS VIII [101 4 

troirjo-ti tovtwv. d>9 8c ifiovkeveTo a/xa Hepcricov rota-i 
€TTiK\rJTOi<ri, I8o£c ol Kal 'AprefiLairjv cs aviifiovXirjv 5 
lierairifL^axrO ai 9 ort irpoTtpov i<f>a[veTO fiovvr) voeovcra 
rd 7roL7jT€a rjv. a>s 8c diriKero 17 'ApTe/iio-ir), iieTaoTTj- 
(rdfievos tovs aXXovs, rou? tc ov/i/Sovkovs Hepaeav koI 
tovs 8opv<f>6povs, iXetje Scp^s raSc • KeXcvct /ic Ma/> 
Sowo? p.ivovra avrov ireipaadai rqs ■ IT€Xo7roi^7j<rov, 10 
\4y<av ak jiLOt Ilcpcrcu re Kal 6 7rc£os crparbs ov8ci>os 
/icratriot irddeos cicri, aXXa /JovXo/icVowri <T<j>i yivoir 
dv d7rdSc^i5. c/x€ all/ ^ ravra kcXcvci 7rot€ti/, 77 avros 
€0cXei rpirjKOVTa fivpidSas diroXe^diievos rov arparov 
iraparry^eiv fiou rrjv c EXXa8a SeSovXwfievrjv, avrov 8c /jl€ 15 
Kekevei direkavveiv avv ra> Xoi7ra> arparco c§ rjdea rd 
ifid. <rv mv ifioi, Kal yap irepl rf}<; pav/ia)(ir)s c5 
<ruvefiovkevya<; rrjs y€i/ofi€vr)<5 ovk iaxra 7roielcr0ai, vvv 

T€ <rVfl/3ov\€V<TOV 6/COT€/)a 7rOl€Q)l> €TTITVX(D €V /3ov\€V- 

102 ad/ievo*;. 6 fxev ravra <rvve/3ov\€V€To 9 17 8c keyeu tc£8c • 
Bao-iXcG, xaXenbv fiev coti cvfifiovXevoiAevq) rv^eiv rd 
apiara eiTraaav, cm p.4vroi Totai KanJKova TrpyjyfjLaaL 

faro-. — 5. 4-iriKX^Toiori : his chosen followed by an explanatory yap 

advisers. Cp. 9.42. 8. — 7. rd: clause, the prin. clause begins with 

Syn. § 13. I. — 12. povXo^vowrv yvy &v (1.30. 13, I. 121. 4,9.87. 5) 

ktI. : they would be glad of an or <rv vw (1. 124. 5, 4. 97. n). 

opportunity to prove this. Cp. 8. Here the introductory cru wv c/ioc 

10. 13. — 18. vvv tc : re is difficult, is hardly parallel. Now also is the 

vvv tc freq. begins a sentence with meaning best suited to the context, 

an inferential rather than a tempo- but T€ can not mean also. Possibly 

ral meaning. Cp. 8. 140. a 4, 8. vvv en (cp. 1. 57. 3) should be 

143.7. But vvv is temporal here, read. Cp. 9. 58. 4 a> irai8cs *AXcvc<o, 

with reference to the former good In rC Ac'ferc what further have 

advice. After aw iptroductory voc, you to say? 



103.6] HERODOTUS VIII 387 

80/cci fioi ovtov fieu are d7rcXaweti> onCcra), Maphoviov 
8c, el idekei re Kal viroSc/ccrat ravra iroujaeip, avrovS 
KarakiTrelv <rw toij*i eOekei. tovto fieu ydp } ty icara- 
OTp&lrr)Tou rd <f>r)<ri dekew /cat ol Trpo^pyjaji rd voea>v 
Xeyct, cov to epyou 9 Z BeanoTa, ylverai • ol yap crol 
80OX01 KarepydcravTo - tovto 8c, rjv tol evavTia tiJs 
MapSovlov yi/cofjLTj^ yevrjTai, ovSe/na <rvfi<f>opr) fieydkr) 10 
corai do T€ nepieovros /cat eKeivw tS>v 7rpr)yfiaT(t)p 
[7T€/)l oXkov tov <tov\. fjv yap oij Te 7T€pijjs /cat oT/co? 
6 <7os, 7roXXou§ 7roXXd/cts dyaWs SpafxeovTai 7repi 
<r<f)€a)i/ avT&v ol "EWr/ves. MapSoviov 8c, ^i> rt ird0y 9 
Xoyo? ouScts yii>€Tai • ouSc' rt i/t/caWcs 01 v E\X^i/cs '5 
viKMcri) hovkov (top diroXeaavTes • <ri> Sc, iw etpc/ca tov 
103oto\ov i7ronj(T(D, irvpdcras Tas 'Adrjvas dneXas* rjadr) 
Te St) rg <rvfij3ov\ir) Hc/^s ' Xeyovaa yap eireTvy\ave 
rd itep ai>Tos ivoei. ovSe yap el ttoVtcs Kal Trdaai 
<TvvefSov\evov aural p.eveiv, e/iei/e dp So/ccti/ ip.01 • ovtcj 
/cara/^/ocoSry/cct. eiraiveo'as he rfjv * kpTep.i<riy\v Tavrrjvs 
puev a7roo"TcXXct ayovaav avTov tov? 7rat8a? cs *E<£c- 



XERXES SENDS HIS SONS TO 
EPHESUS IN CHARGE OF AR- 
TEMISIA AND HERMOTIMUS. 
THE STORY OF HERMOTIMUS 



102. 4. ainhv |iiv <rc : Syn. § 10. 
4. — 5. Tavra iroi4jarciv: refers to 
irapaoyav rrjv 'EAAaSa 8c8ovXa)/A€- 
vrjv. — 7. tA votav Xfyct : what he in- 
tends and tells. — 8. yCvcrai : pres. 
in anticipation of the fut. Cp. the ( CC# io 3- 106 ) 

aor. icarcpyacravro in 1. 9 with the 103. 2. re 84j : on account of the 

force of a fut. pf. — 9. ivavria: on yap clause, kcu does not follow, 
the following case, see Syn. § 4. i. but iiraivicras $L — 6. fryov<rav: in 
A. — 11. IkcCvuv : there, in Persia. aya> and ^:po> the pres. ptc. is more 
— 13. Spa|t4ovTai ircpC: cp. 7. 57.6. freq. than the fut. after 7re/*7ro> 
— 15. yCvctcu: pres. for fut. etc. GS. 338. — tovs iratSas: 



3 8S HERODOTUS VIII [104. i 

104<roi/ • vodoi yap rivts iraihis oi (rvvtCwoPTo. Krvviit^puir^ 
8e rotcrt naioi <j>v\aKov c E/)/x,drt/AOi>, yivos fiep lovra 
II77 Sacred, <f>€p6fi€vov Se ov ra Sevrepa rS)v evvov^cou 
irapa /JacrtXet. [ot Se Il^Sacrets oIkcovctl xmkp *AXt- 
Kapprjo-o-ov. Iv Se rotcrt ntySdcrotcrt rourotcrt rotdi>8e5 
crufupepeTou Trpfjyfia yiveadai ' iireav rotcrt d/x^tferuocrt 
Tracrt rotcrt d/x<^t ravrrjs otfceoucrt rrjs 'TrdAtos fiik\rj rt 
ei/ros xP° vov €cr€(T^at ^a\€7rw, rdre 17 [pea? avr69i rrjs 
'Adrjvairjs <f>v€i Trarywpa fieyav. rovro Se <r<f>i St 9 ^817 

105 iycvero. 4k tovtwp S77 t<ov IbjSacreGH/ 6 'Ep/xdrt/io? 771/] 
r<3 ficyurrr) rtcrts 1781; dStfojfla/rt iycvero irdmaiv ra>v 
lj/xct? t8/xei>. dXcWa yd/o avroi> v7ro 7roXe/ucoi/ icat 
TTcoXedjLtci/oi/ awetrat Ilaz'tcoz'to? di^p Xtos, 05 t^p £otjj/ 
fcarecmjcraro air epycw dvoGiwrdTtoV okcos yap kt>}-$ 
aaiTO 7rat8a? etSeos iirafifiei/ovSy lKrap.v<av ayivecov 
C7r<uXct €? SdpSis re /cat "Ytyecrov yfir\[Lar(av fieyd- 
\o)v. irapa yap rotcrt ftapftdpoKn TLfJuarrepoL eurt 01 

cp- 7- 39. 4. The yap clause also sense exceedingly rare (Theocr. 

explains the rows* Cp. 8. 21. 2. 25. 9). — 8. brrfa xP*"°v: this 

104. 3. o* ra 8€vrcpa: i.e. he phrase is not elsewhere used. — 

held the first place. —4. ol Sc 9. 8(s: in 1. 175 rpk. 
ni)Scurci$: the bracketed passage 105. 2. tJ8r|: limiting fieyiartf 

occurs in 1. 175, where it is tetter — greatest as yet. Cp. 8. 106. 13 

suited to the context. It was and Thuc. 6. 31.6; with a com- 

probably a marginal note to parative 2. 148. — 3. tSpcv : ftr/iev. 

ILrfiao-Gi. The words vary con- —4. ira»X.c6|&cvov : being on sale. 

siderably from 1. 175 and there are — ttjv %6i\v KarccrHjo-aTo : had set 

a number of peculiar expressions, himself to gain his living. — 

— 6. Toto-i &|&$iktvoo-i . . . ir6Xxo$ : 6. tauppivovs : possessed of. Perf. 
in I. 175 avToto-i tc #cat TrepioiKouri. part, of c^cmi-tcd. Cp. 1. 199. 23. — 

— 7. irao-i: the word is unneces- JicrdjAvtov: Dial. § 1. ii. 1. The 
sary. — aa^L: with gen. in local pres. parties, of his regular 



IO6.18] HERODOTUS VIII 389 

€VVOV*)(Ol TTtOTtOS €IP€KCL rf)S TTOLtrqS T<OV ivop\€(OV. dX- 

Xous re S77 6 IIai/ia>i>(,os i^era/ie ttoXXovs, arc iroieofLevos 10 
4k tovtov tt)v tpy)v, /cat St) /cat tovtov. /cat ov yap tcl 
irdvra ihvcnv^ei 6 e Ep/xort/xo?, airiKveiTai 4k tcov SapSUov 
napa /JacrtXca fier dk\<ov Scopcov, ypovov 8c Trpolovros 
irdvTw t5)v evvovx<t)v iTifnjdr) fid\iara wapd Bepijy. 
106 cu? 8c to orpdrevfLa to TlepaLKov op/ia /JacrtXeus im 
ra? 'Xdrjvas icov iv SapStcn,, ivdavra /Caracas /card 877 
ti wprJYiia 6 'Ep/xort/to? c? yrjp rip Mvauqv, ri^ Xuh 
vip.ovrai y 'Arapvevs Se /caXctrat, euptitr/cct toi> IIai/ta>^ioi/ 
ivdavra. imyvovs Se cXeye 7rpo? auroi> ttoXXou? /cat 5 
<f)t\iov<; Xoyovs, Trp&Ta fiei/ oi /caTaXcyaw ocra avro? St' 
eKtivov €)(ol ayadd, Sa/re/oa 8c ot v7rto"x&'€o/ui€J>os di>rl 
rouro)^ ocra /xti/ ayadd TTotrjcret, 771/ /co/ucras tous ot/cera? 
ot/cTj e/cctj/Tj, coare inroSeijdfiepov dcrfievov tovs Xoyovs 
top TlavL(oviov KOfJLurai ra rc'wa /cat 7771/ ywai/ca. a>s 10 
8e dpa irapoLKLTf pav TTeptcXa/Jc, eXeye 6 'Ep/xort/ios 
rctSe * *ft irdvTtovavhpSiv 77877 jLtdXtcrra d?/ ipycov dvocna)- 
raTQiv top fivov KTr)<rdpL€i/€, tl ae iyco KaKov 77 avTos 77 
tS>v ifi&p rt? epydcraro, 7^ ere 77 t<Si> ow rti/a, art /xe 
awr* d*>Spo9 iiroirjaas to firjSkv €lvcu ; eSo/cets re 0eou9 15 
Xijaetv ofa ifirjxavco Tore' ol ere TrovrjcravTa di/ocrta, 
pd/x,a> St/catiw ^/D€o>/x€i/ot, vmjyayov is x e ^P a ^ r< * 5 fyds, 

<5aT€ (T€ /AT) fJi€fl\lfa(T0at TTjP dlT CjLtCO TOt CCrO/ACI^U 8iK7)V. 

custom. — 9. t^s irdaTrjs: in all — 14. Sri: in respect of which, on 

things. account of which. — 15. tirotipras : 

106. 2. Wj ti: cp. 8.53.2. — with accus. and infin. /ut€ cfvat. Cp. 

4. 'Arapvcvs: opposite Lesbos 8.100.26. — r6: with fuq&ev. Cp. 

See 1. 160. — 9. IkcCvti : there, in 1. 32. 4. — 16. Mjo-uv: the sub- 

Atarneus. — 12. j|Si|: see 105. 2. ject is ola inrixa-vv. — 18. fort: 



39© HERODOTUS VIII [106. 19 

o>5 8e ol TOLvra oweiSicre, ayQ4vT(av tS)v ttolShov e? o\\nv 
yfvayKa^ero 6 TLolvmAvios t£>v iwvrov 7rai8a)i/, reaaipcwx 
iomcjv, tcl cuSoia a7rora/ti/cti/, avayKa^ofitvos 8c en-oici 
ravra * avrov re, a>9 ravra ipydaarOy 01 ^atSe? dvayKa^o- 
fievoi anerafivov. VLavKoviov fi€v vvv ovt<o Trepirjkde rj 
re rtcrt? /cat 'Ep/xort/Ao?. 
107 Ee/ofrjs 8c a>? rov? 7r<uSa? iirerpofse 'A/ire/ucrig 
dirdyeiv is "Ecfreaov, fcaXcora? MapSoVio*/ iicikevi pxv 
Trjs crr/oari/r/s SiaXeyeiv tovs /JovXerai, /cat iroieiv rom 
Xoyotcrt ra cpya [V€i/0(o/x,€i/oi/] o/jlolcl. tovttjv fiev rr/v 
rjfieprjv is roaovro eytVcro, ttj? 8e i/v/cro? /ceXcvcra^s 
to? fixaiXios ra? i/cas ot arparrfyol 4k tov ^akrjpov 
airrjyov ottivq) is tov 'TZWrjaTrovTov, a>? ra^cos ct^e 
e/cacrro?, $ia<f)v\a£ov(ras tcls cr^cSta? iropevOijvai /?a- 

see Syn. § 23. 4. h. — 23. mpifjXOc: mgle? When did the councils 
<r*zw£ around to, as his inevitable with Mardonius and Artemisia 
fate. — 4J « tCo-is Kal 'E. : for the take place ? When were the 
gen., because Hermotimus him- Egyptian marines disembarked (9- 
self took part in the punishment. 32. 10) ? And was no time taken 

for repairs ? It is to be noted that 

THE PERSIAN FLEET SETS SAIL ^ ^^ lasted m n{hM 
FOR THE HELLESPONT AND IS (Aesch ^ ^ Rdt ^ fre . 



PURSUED BY THE GREEKS AS 
FAR AS ANDROS. THE ADVICE 
OF THEMISTOCLES. HIS MES- 



quently very loose in his chronol- 
ogy (see 8. 15). — 5. Is -roffofro 
tyCvcro : things reached this points 

SAGE TO XERXES (CC. 107-1 10) Cp ? ^ ^ g ^ ^ g ^ l8 , 

107. 4. T«rt>n)v |icv tt|v T||&^pt)v : 9. 66. I, though all these passages 

there has been no reference to have subjects of cytvcro expressed, 

time since the close of the battle — 7. rdxcos: for the gen. with 

(chap. 96). Apparently this day €x«v, f/Keiv and an adverb see S. 

is still the day of the battle (cp. 1441. — 8. <rxcSCa$: = yc^vpas- 

the next chap.). But when, then, Cp. 8. 97. 8. — iropcvOfjvcu : infin. of 

was the attempt made to build the purpose. See Syn. § 23. 6. c— 



108.19] HERODOTUS VIII 391 

criXct. iirel Sc dyxov fow Z&orfjpos 7rX eovres ol fidp- 
fiapoi, dvareivovai yap a/cpat Xcwrat rfjs TjTreCpov, ravras 10 
ehotjdv T€ i/eas elvai /cat €<f)€vyov em iroXXov. XP° V V 
Sc fiadovres art ov vees elev dXX* a/cpat, av\kexOevres 
108 c/cotu^oiro. a>5 8c 17/Acp^ eytj>cro, opcovres ol "HXXrjves 
Kara x^P 7 !^ pevovra rov (xrparov rov iretjov 17X7^^01/ 
/cat ra? i>cas cl^at 7rcpt ®dXr)pov, c8d/ceoV tc vavfia- 
XTfjaew a<f>€a<; irapapriovro re a>s dXcfrjadticvot. enel 
8c eirvdovro rag i/cas ot^aj/cutas, avrt/ca ftcrq ravras 
cSd/cct cmStai/c€ti>. rov fiev vvv vavriKov top Uep^ea) 
orparbv ovk €7rct8oi> Stcofai/rcs ^XP L *Ai/Spov, c$ 8c tt)i/ 
"AvSpov diTLKOfxepoi efiovXevoirro. ©ftttaro/cXetys /x,©> 
iw yvdfirfv direheiKwro Sta vrjawv rpairofievovs zeal 
cViSuu^airas ras i>cas 7rXct^ i#cW C7rt tw 'EXX^ct-io 
iroi>roj/ Xvcroiras ra? ye<j>vpa<; ' EvpvfiidSrjs 8c r^ 
lvavrlr\v ravrjj yv(ap/qv eriOero, Xeycov &>s ct Xvaouat 
ras a^cSta?, rovr' a*/ pjyiarov navrcDV a<£cts kolkov 
rrjv 'EXXaSa ipyaaaiaro. el yap dvayKavdevr) diro- 
Xafi<f>6els 6 Tlepar)s p*eveiv iv ry J&vpdmrj, ireipwro 15 
av rjovxtyv [xrj dyeiv, a>? ayovri p.ev ol rjcrvxtyv ovre 
tl irpox^peiv olov re carat ra>v irprjyfidrcov oyre rts 
ko/xiStj to oiriaa) <f>av7Jaera^ Xl/jlco re ol 17 arpanr) Sta- 
(f)6epeLTaty eirix^p^ovn 8c avra> /cat epyov c^o/xo/a) 

9. ZcMrrfjpos : a promontory on 108. 8. "AvSpov : just south- 
the west coast of Attica, halfway east of Euboea. — 12. yv&pi\v trl- 
from the Peiraeus to Sunium. - Octo: cp. 7. 82. 3. — 13. tovt: in 

10. ravras: after a parenthetical apposition to fiiyurrov #ca#cov. — 
yap clause, the main clause fre- o-$cts: Syn. § 9. 1. a. — 16. «s 
quently begins with a demonstra- a-yovri ktI. : since if he remained 
tive. See Syn. § 31. 4. quiet nothing could come out well 




392 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[108. 20 



. 



s 



TrdvTa tcl Kara tyjv Hvpdmrjp oia re ecrrat Trpoa-^foprjcr at 
Kara irdXts re koi Kara idvea t Tjrot dkicrKopevoiv ye rj 

TTpO TQVTQV OfLokoyeoVTMV ' TpO(f>l}P Tt t^eiV (T<f}€aS TOP 

ewereiov alel Tov '^Kkrjvmv KapTrov. dXXa SoKeu> yap 
viK7)0€VTa rfj pavfia^ij} ov pLevelv ev rjj Kipanrr} top 
Tliptriqv ■ eariov wv elpat <f>€vyetv, e<? o €\0j) <f>evya)P2 

C? Tt)p €WVTOV * TO £v0€VT€» Se 7T€p\ Trjs €K€LVOV TTOtet" 

aBai 17S7J top aywva eVeXeue. ravTTjs Sc el)(opTO ttjs 
ypwfjLY)<; Kal nekQTroppTjcrlwv rmv dkkcjp ol o-rparrfyoL. 
109 a>s Se efJLade art ou treCo-ei tqvs ye ttdXXou? TrXet^ es 
roi> EXXTjp-7rorrw 6 He/itcrro^XeT/?, fierafiaktop irpb*; 
rovq *A#tjjWou'? (oSrot yap fiaktcrra eWc^euydrcui/ 
wepnqpiKreop, oppiaro re e*9 to*/ 'EXXtjVttoj'tgi' TrXety 
Kal inl a<fa£oAv avrSiv /8ak6pepoi y el <£XAot fir) f3ov-s 
Xduxto) eXeye crr^t raSe ' Kat auros rj^rj TTokkoiai Trap* 
eyepopLTfP teal ttqXXgj irXeiu axij/coa xotaSe yeveadat, 
aVSpas e\ avayKairjv drretXT/tfeWas va/iKrjpeifovs dva- 
pd^erdai re /cat dvakapfSdvetv rrjp wpoTeprjv KaKOTTjTa, 
r}fjL€L<; Se (evpyjpa yap evpjjKapep rfpeas re avrov*; /cat I 1 



of his affairs. — 20. old t* Scrrai 
irpo«rx*ap*lcraL : will be likely to join 
him. — 21. cLXia-Kopivwv : gen. abs. 
instead of agreement with c£Wa, 
Cp. 8. 69. 3. — 25. h 5 tXOu : ori 
the omission of dv, see Syo. § 20. 
2. — 27. tJStj : with to cytfevrcv. Cp. 
8. 98* 12 and 8. 3. 12. 

iog, 2. pjTdflaXuv : shifting his 
ground. Cp, 8. 4. to. — irpfts 
totjs 'A0T|vatous: with eAeye ; on 
account of the parenthesis re- 



peated in cr</n. — 4. apyA&ro : were 
eager. Plupf. — 5. fSoXdjuvoi : eiten 
taking it upon themselves. Cp. 3. 
71. 20j 4. 160, 4. — 6. clvtos . . . ira- 
piY€v6p.Tjv ; I have had personal ex- 
perience of. — iroXXouri: man y such 
cases. See following roui&Ci which 
is explained by av&pas . . * koko- 
rirra. — 9, AvoXo-npAvav: retrieve. 
— 10. evpTinci y&P KT i- > far ty & 
stroke of good fortune 
saved ourselves, tvprf^ua is in Rp- 



' 



110.5] HERODOTUS VIII 393 

rqv 'EXXdSa, ve<f)os toctovto dvOpdnrcov dv^crdfievoC) 
firj 8tawc&>/x,€i/ dv8pa<; <f>evyovTas. rdSe yap ovk rjfieis 
KaT€pya(rdfi€0a, dXXd deoi re /cat rjpcoes, oi i<f>d6vr t aav 
avSpa £va rfjs re 'Aeries /cat rfjs Evpd)7rr]s /JacrtXevcrat, 
cdi/ra dvoaiov re /cat drdcrdaKov • 05 ra tc t/od /cat ra 15 
t8ta e*/ ofioico eVotetro, ifnrnrpas re /cat KarafidXkcDV 
t5>v decov tcl dydX/xara * 05 /cat t^ 1/ 0d\a<r<rai/ direfia- 
OTiyaxre 7rc8a5 re /carrj/ce. dXX' cu yap €^€t cs to 
irapeov f)/uv vvv fikv Iv t# 'EXXdSt /cara/ACti/ai/ras 
r)fi€<ov re avTtov imiLeXrjdfjvai /cat twi/ oIk€T€(ov' /cat 20 
rts oiKiiqv re dvaTrkaadcrdot} /cat airopov dz/a/ca>? €^era>, 
TrajreXew? d7reXdo"as to*/ fidpfiapov • d/x,a Se t<5 capt 
KaTaTrXeafiev €7rt e EXX^o"7ro^rou /cat 'Ian/t^s. raSra cXeye 
dirodrJKiqv fieWcjp Troirjvtcrd ai c? toi/ Ilcjpcrqi/, Iva rjv 
apa rC fiiv KaTa\ap,/3dvy npbs ' Adrjvaicop Trddos, €XQ2$ 
Hod7roaTpo(f>7Jv ' rd 7re/o Si/ /cat eye/cro. ©e/uaro/cXc^s 
fiei/ ravra Xeycoi/ Ste/JaXXc, 'AOrjvaioi Se lireidovTO • 
€7rct8^ yap /cat wporepov SeSoy/iei/os etz/at ao<f>bs i<f>dvri 
€0)i/ dXi7^€a>5 crowds re /cat cu/JouXos, irdvT<D<z erot/AOt 
fjaav XeyovTL ntCdeadai. a>s 8e ovroi oi dveyvcoo'fLevoL 5 

position with ly/xeas and 'EAAaSa. dvaxtos ty^™ : unusual expressions. 

We should expect t^v awrjpiav See note on 1. 10. — 24. cs: w. a 

^/iw, etc. Note also the rhetorical person, as the place of deposit. — 

effect in the poetical v€<^os, and in 26. »v: really. Syn. § 32. 1. 

cs avayKavqv airttXrfiivTas above. Themistocles was ostracized some- 

— 13. ty06vT|<rav : see 7. 1 o. c 5. — time, between 476 and 471 B.C. 
14. pao-iXcfarai : ingressive. — no. 2. SiipaXXc: was trying 

17. &irc|&flurr('ya><rc : see 7. 35. 2. to deceive. — 3. eirciSi) *ydp ktI. : 

— 18. AXV & -ydp : see Syn. § 31. for after he was found to be truly 

4; but cp. 7. 158. 12. — 21. tis: wise — he had had the reputa- 

Syn. § 11. 1. — dvairXao-do-Gto . . . Hon of wisdom before — they were 



394 HERODOTUS VIII [110.6 

rjcrav, avrUa fiera ravra 6 ©c/uoroicXetys dvhpas aire- 
irefine fyopras ttXoIop, rolai iiriareve aiyap c$ iracrav 
ftdaapop diriKpeofiepoMri, ra avros ipereikaro jSacriXei 
(fypdaat ' ra>p Kal Xucippos 6 owcenjs avus iyepero • ot 

€7T€l8^ aTTlKOVTO 7T/0O5 r>)l> 'AtTI/CIJI/, Ot /X,€I> KQji[L€UOV IO 

eVl raJ 7r\ota>, Suaiwos Se ava/Sas irapd B'ip^rjv ekeye 
raSe ' "YSareptyi fie ©e/xtarofcXery? 6 Neo/cXco?, orparrjyb^ 
fiev ' A0r)paia)p, apr^p Se t<S*> av/xfid^cop rrdprtop apt- 
otos Kal (ro^ftJraro?, <\>pd<jomd rot ori ©c/uaTOicXeijs 
6 'Adrjpalos <rol fiovkofievos virovpyelp ccr^e rous 15 
v EXX>ji/as ras ^cas /3ovXo/x,e>ov5 8kok€lp Kal t<l$ iv 
'EWrjo-TrovTcp y€<j>vpas Xveip. Kal pvp Kar rjovxvqv 
llliro\\r)P KOfiC^eo. oi fiep ravra OTjfirjpapres dweirXeop 
dirura)' ol Sc "EXXtji/cs, iireire a<f>i dir&oije p/rjr £m- 
8lo>k€lv ert Trpocrotnepa) rS>p fiapftdpcov ra? peas pyjre 
irXeip e? top 'EWrfairoprop Xvcroira? top 7ropop, rr/p 
"ApSpop irepiKariaro i£e\elp idikopres. irpSnoi yaps 
*Ap8pioL pyjcrionitop airrjdepres irpbs ©c/uotokXcos XPrf m 

quite ready , etc. — 7. ovyav: the about the story of the second 

fut. inf. might have been used message to Xerxes in spite of the 

with reference to this particular letter which Thucydides gives us 

case; the pres. is a general state- (1. 137.4) as sent by Themisto- 

ment = in whose silence lie trusted, cles to Darius. This letter con- 

— 8. rd . . . tvcrcCXaro: object tains the words ypdipas . . . Tt)v 

of <f>pd(TaL. Cp. €vraA.a/icvos ra twv y*<f>vpwv totc hC avrov ov 

\iyav XP € '° V 8. 75* 5* — 9* °* : &aAw*v. 

relative, divided into ot /icv . . . 

SiWvos 8f. — 14. 0c|i«ttokXIi|s i 

'A0i)vaio$: this is the beginning 

of the message as Themistocles ' cc ' III_II2 J 

gave it, ra olvtos cvcrctXaro. Con- 11 1 . 6. vf|0'i«»Tfov : on the omis- 

siderable doubt has been expressed sion of the article, see 8. 46. 1. — 



THE GREEKS COLLECT CONTRI- 
BUTIONS FROM THE ISLANDS 



112.4] HERODOTUS VIII 395 

ftara ovk ISocrai/, dXXa irpolcr^oiiei/ov ©c/AtaroKXcbg 
\6yov rouSe, a>$ rJKOiev *A6r)vaioi irepi ecovrovs €\ovt€s 
Svo 0eov$ ftcyaXou?, ITct^ftl tc Kal 'AvayKafyp, ovtoj 
t4 <t<\>i Kaipra Sorca cli/at x/orj/xara, vwcpivavro irpbs 10 
ravra Xcyoircs a>s /card Xdyoi> ^crai/ a/)a at 'Adrjvai 
/leydXai re Kal evSai/AOPe? Kat 0€<S*> *%py)OT<l>v rJKoitv 
cS, €7rcl 'AvSpiovs ye eli/cu yecoireiva^ €? ra /x,eyiara 
avrJKomaSy Kal deovs Svo a^pyjorov^ ovk c/cXewreti/ 
cr<f)€Q)v tt)v vfjcrov dXX' aid <j>i\ox<*>pew, Ila/ap re ical 15 
^Afirf^avCrjPy Kal Tovrav t5>v 0e£)v iirrffioXovs iovras 
*Ai/$piov<; ov hdxreiv xPVI Jiara ' ovSckotg yap (av) 
Trjs £<i)vr<t>v a8vvaiAL7)<; rrjv 'Adrjvaicov Svvafiiv elvcu 
Kpecraco. o#roi p.kv S77 ravra xmoKpivafievoi Kal ov 
U^Soi/rcs x/ )1 7/ jtaTa iirokiopiceovTO. ©e/uoro/cXojs Sc, ov 
yap hravero 7rX€oi>€fCT€a>j>, £(nr4pM<ov c? ra? aXXa? 
vrjcrov? aTretkrirqpiovs Xoyovs atret yprjiiara Sid iw 
avT&v ayyiXwv [j(p€<oiL€vos] touti Kal 7rpos ftaaiXea 

8. *t pi Iwrofc : around them, as is *>* proportion (Kara \6yov) . 

part of their force, = 0# their side. Mathematically stated, it is /<w 

— 11. Kord Xdyov : *# proportion . Andrians : bad gods — rich Athens : 

— Ipav &pa: the imperf. with apa good gods. Translate it is then in 
is used when the real state of perfect proportion that Athens 
affairs is suddenly appreciated, is prosperous and well provided 
See Syn. § 15. 2. f. The Andrians with good gods, since the Andri- 
had known before that Athens ans are poor and two worthless 
was great and prosperous, but gods never leave their island. — 
they had not known of their two 12. Qt&v: on the gen. see 8. 107. 
good gods. They had known 7. — 13. ctvai: inf. in a subord. 
that they themselves were poor clause in indirect narration, though 
and had two worthless gods, and, Acyovres a>$ with finite moods pre- 
now that the fourth fact is known, cedes. — 18. dSwajiCi^s ktI. ; see 
they realise that the whole thing 7. 172. 17. 



396 HERODOTUS VIII [112. 5 

exprjaarOy Keycap a>? €t pr) Stucrovcrt to aireopevov, 5 
€7ra^ct rf/p or parity t5*v ^XXrjvcov /cat iroXiopKeaiv 
i fat/o rjati. Xeywv ravra avvekeye \prjpara peydXa 
irapa KapvorCtov T€ /cat Hapicov, ot irvvdavopevoi rrjv 
tc ¥ Av8pov <u? 7roXtop/ceotro Start iprjSiae, /cat ©c/tt- 
crro/cXca a>? enj «/ ati/|/ peyurrr) rS>v arpaT7)yS}Vy Set- 10 
craire? ravra eirepirov yjpi)paTa. € ' L ^ ^V Tti/cs /cat 
aXXot cSocrai/ vrjaiayrecov, ovk e^co e^rcti/' So/cca* Sc 
rti/a? /cat aXXous Soui>at /cat ou rovrou? povvovs. 
/cat rot Ka/ovcrrtotcrt ye ouSei/ tovtov etW/ca rov kclkov 
inrep/SoXr) iycvero . ITaptot Sc ©e/xtcrro/cXea xPVf JLa(TL l 5 
IXaadpevoi 8i€<f>vyov to orpdrevpa. ©c/ucrro/cXcijs /*a^ 
i>w ef ¥ Av8pov opficopevos xprjpara irapa vqcrimitov 
e/craro Xddprj tcov dXXcov o-Tparrjycov. 
113 Ot S* a/x<£! Bepijrjv i.mcr)(0VT€<z oXtyas rjpepas pera 
rq*> vavpa\yqv eijrjXavvov is Botcurou? ri)i> avrr)v 6S0V. 
eSofe ya/o MapSovico dpa pep 7Tpo7r€p\jjcu /SacrtXea, afta 
Se dviopiiqv eTi/at rou ereos 7roXc/xcti/, xtipepUrai re 
apeivov eti/at «> OccrcraXtTj, /cat ejrara afta raJ capts 

112. 8. Kapvo-TUuv: in southern that the withdrawal from Athens 

Euboea. — 10. o-TpaTrrywv : parti- took place on October 2, because 

tive. — 11. ravra: a siege. — there was an eclipse of the sun on 

15. vircpPoX^j : = <iva(3o\r}. On that date, and in 9. 10. 14 it is 

the treatment of the Carystians, said that an eclipse occurred as 

see 8. 121. 2. Cleombrotus with the army at 



THE PERSIAN ARMY LEAVES 
ATHENS. MARDONIUS SELECTS 



the Isthmus was sacrificing for an 
attack upon the Persians, pre- 
sumably at the time of the with- 
his force (c. 1 13) drawaL _ 2 . ^ aMlv . the ^ 

113. 1. oXCyas T)|Upas: Busolt clause tells why Mardonius made 
{Griech. Gesch. 2. 704) concludes the same march as the King* 



114.6] HERODOTUS VIII 397 

ireipacrdai rrjs UeXoTrovvijo-ov. o>? 8c airucaro is rr/p 
SeaaaKCrjPy ivdavra MapSovtos igekeyero irpwrovs p.kv 
tovs Ilcpcra? ndvras roits ddavdrovs /caXeo/AO/ous, irXr/v 
'TSa/ouco? tov arpanqyov (ofhros yap ovk £<f>r] Xea/jc- 
adcu /JacrtXcos), /xcra Sc tcov dWcov ITe/ocreW rous 10 
0(opr)Ko<f>6povs /cat rr/v Imrov ttjv x^tyvy k<u MrjSovs 
re /cat 2a/ca? /cat Ba/cr/otbu? re /cat 'Ij/Sous, /cat rw 
7rc£oi/ /cat t^i/ ittttov* ravra pjkv edvea oXa etXero, e/c 
8c t<Si/ aXXa)!/ avfifid)(a)v itjekeyero /car* oXtyous, to tcrt 
etSea re VTrrjp\e 8taXeya>i/ /cat et rcotcrt rt x/ot/otoi> 15 
avvghei ireirovqiiivov • cV Se 7rX€toTOj> c#i>os Ilc/ocra? 
at/oetro, az/Spa? oTpeirrotfropovs re /cat xfteXio^opovs, 
cm Sc MtySous. o#rot Se ttXtJ^os /xii/ ou/c eXacrcroi/e? 
'r/cra*' iw UepcrecDv, p^fij/ Se ^crcroi/cs * ware avfjaravTas 
UATpirJKovrd /xu/otaSa? yevdaOai crvv t7nreC(rt. ei/ 8c 
Tovrai to) xpdi/<w, ci> tgi Ma/oSoVtd? re t^i> arparvr^v 
Si&cpLve /cat Scpfyj? 771/ 7re/ot ©ecrcraXtrji/, xPV aT VP LOV 
ikrjXvdei e/c AeX^ai^ Aa/ceSat/moi/totcrt, Bepijrjv airetp 
St/ca? roC Aean/tSew <f>6vov /cat to StSd/A«>oi> ef €Keipov$ 
StKeadcu. Ttipmovo'i Si) KrjpvKa tyjp ra\iaTriv %7rap- 

— 8. -rofa AOavdrovs : see 7. 41. 7, to €0vca, which is in apposition. — 

7.83.2. — 10. |&crd&: adverbial. 14. kcit 1 6\C<yov$ : distributive. As 

— 11. Ottpqico^lpovs : see 7. 61.4 we learn in 9. 32 men were 

for the equipment of the Persian selected only from a small number 

division. Apparently the main of the nations. — 15. cl&a: physi- 

body was thus equipped, though cal appearance. — rfouri: riot. — 

here a selection is spoken of. — 16. 4vW: adverbial. — 17. orp€- 

ti|v xtX(i)v: there were two bodies irro^tfpovs: see 7. 83. 10, 9. 80. 9. 

of 1000 horse in the bodyguard of — 18. o*k 4X£o-<rov€s : a correction 

Xerxes. See 7. 40. 6, 7. 41. 5, 7. of wXuarrov above. — 20. o^v: in- 

55. 11. — 13. TaOTa: assimilated elusive of . 



398 HERODOTUS VIII [114-7 

TLTjTai) 09 iireiSr) /carcXa^Sc iovaav en iracrav ttjp arpa- 
titjv iv (deaaaXir), iXdcov is oi/a*> rfjv tleptjeco i\eye 
raSe • *ft jSacriXeO MtjScoj/, Aa/ceSat/Adptot re ere /cat 
'H/oa/cXetSat ot a7ro %Trdprr)s airiovai <f>6pov 8t/ca?, art io 
a<f)€(tiv top /JacrtXea d7r€/cT€t*>a9 pvofievov ty)v 'EXXdSa. 
6 8e yeXdcras re /cat KaTaoyihv ttoWov xpovov, cos ot 
iTvy\av€ 7rapcar€ai5 MapSdpto?, Set/a/us €? rovroi/ ctTrc * 
Totydp a-(f>L Maphovios o8c Suca? Scocrct rotavra? otas 
115 e/cetVotcrt 7r/oe7T€t. 6 /x,ei> 8t) Seijdfievos to prjdev dVaX- 
XacrcreTO, Scp^ij? 8e Ma/>Sdi/toi> €i> ©ecrcraXtg KaTaXnrcov 
avTos inopevero /card ra^os €? roi/ < EXXi7<r7roi>TOj> /cat 
a7rt/«/€tTat es tw iropov rfjs StajSacrto? «> 7reTe /cat 
T€crcT€/oa/coi/Ta r)p,€pji(ri, dirdycov rfjs OTparirjs ov8ev$ 
fiepos a>s €t7rcti>. o/cou Se Tropevo/ievoi yivotaro /cat 
/car* ouorwas dv0pco7rovs, top tovtojv Kapirbv apird- 
tpvTts icriTGovTO • ct Se Kapirov /rrjSci/a eupotev, ot 8c 



THE SPARTANS DEMAND SATIS- 
FACTION FOR THE MURDER 



o-cpdicovTa: one half the time of 

the march to Attica (8. 51. 4). — 

5. o*8cv |&{pos: no doubt a great 

of leonidas (c. 1 14) exaggeration and not sufficiently 

114. 12. KaTcwrx<&v: restrain- qualified by ws ct7rcTv. The di- 

ing himself, i.e. remaining silent, vision of 60,000 men under Arta- 

— 14. o8e : the article is omitted bazus, which was part of the escort 

with deictic 08c of the King as far as the Hellespont 



THE RETREAT OF XERXES (CC. 



(8. 126. 4), had still 40,000 men 
in the spring (9. 66. 8), although 
5~ I2 °' engaged in military operations 

115. 4. rbv irtfpov rfjs Siapd- after leaving Xerxes (8. 127 ff.). 
crios: iropos is the place of pas- For 60 000 left in Ionia see 9. 96 12. 
sage, cua/Wis properly the act of See Aeschylus 1 description of the 
passing. Translate — the place return march in the Persae 
where they crossed. — it*vtc k<&1 tcct- 480 ff. — 8. ol hi : Syn. § 9. i.e. — 



116.9] HERODOTUS VIII 399 

ttjp noCrjp TTjv e/c Trjs yf}$ dva<f>vofi€i/r)v Kal roiv 8ci>- 
hpiwv top <f>\otbv 7rcptX«roKT€5 /cat tol <f)v\Xa Kara- 10 
hpeirovres Karrja'diov, o/aouos ta>v re ruxepcov Kal rSiv 
dypicov, Kal cXctxroi/ o&Sev ' ravra S* iiroUov vtto Xt/xou. 
tinXafitov 8e Xot/xd? re top (xrpaTov /cat SvaevrepCr) 
KaT 68bv Siecfcdeipe. tovs Se /cat voaeovras aurcJi/ 
/carcXct7rc, iiriTaaaa)!/ Trjai TrdXtcrt, Iva e/cdororc yivoiTo 15 
ekavvtov, pLtkehaiveiv tc /cat rpcc^eti/, ei/ ©ecrcraXtij re 
Twas /cat €1/ Sipt tjjs natoj/trjs /cat ei/ Ma/ceSoi/t^. 
c^^a /cat to tpoi/ dp/ia KaTaknrcov tov Atos, ore €7rt 
ttjv "EXXdSa rjXavi/e, diruav ovk aWXa/Je, dXXa ScWes 
ot IIatbi/€9 rotJ-t ®py£l airaiTiovTos Beptjeco e<f)acrav2o 
v€fiOfL€i/a$ apiraadrjvai virb tcov dv<o ftp-QKCJv t£>j/ 
irepl ras irrjyas tov ^Tpvfiovos oiKy/iei/cov. evda Kal 
6 tcov BtcraXrewi/ /JacrtXcu? yrjs ti ttJs KprjaTcovLKrjs 
®Pv£ tpyov v7T€p(f>v€s ipydaaTO ' 65 ovre avros €$77 
to) Eicptjii eKtov elvai Soi/Xevcreti>, dXX* ot^ero aVa> cs 
ro 0/005 ttj*' 'PoSothji/, TOtcrt re 7ratcrt dirrjyopeve firf 5 
orpaTeveadai im rrjv 'EXXdSa. ot Se dXoy^cra^TC?, ^ 
aXXai? o"<£t dv/ibs eyivero derjeracrdai tov iroXtfiov, 
£<JTpaT€vovro d/xa t<5 Tleparj. intl Se ave^copiqaav 
dcrt^et? 7rdiT€5 If €oi>tcs, i^apvtje avr£)v 6 Trarrjp tovs 

14. rofcg W: others, without pre- Strymon. Cp. 7. 115. 4. — Kptj- 

ceding tovs ficv. — 15. tva: where. o-rwviKfjs: situated between the 

— 17. SCpi: on the east bank Axius and the Strymon. Cp. 7. 

of the Strymon. — 18. appa: see 124. 6.-3. o&n . . . rt : both 

7. 40. 14. — Ai6$ : the Persian refused himself . . . and. — 6. fl 

Ahuramazda. — 21. vcjiopivas: sc. aXXcos: or else. We should expect 

ras hnrovq, implied by appxi. a participle with this, parallel to 

116. 2. Bio-oXt&ov: west of the aXoyrjvavrvi. Cp. 8. 54. 7. 



4 oo HERODOTUS VIII [117. i 

117 6<f>0a\fioif<; Sid rf/p alrvr}v ravrrjp. Kal ovtol /l€p rov- 
rov top* ixiaObv cXa/Joi/* ol 8e Tiepaai a>9 e/c rrjs ®/>#" 

K7)S Trop€v6jJL€POl aTTLKOPTO €7Tl TOP TTOpOP, €7T€(,yd/X€I/Ol 

top 'EWtJo'ttoptop TrjcrL prjval 8ii^qcrap is ¥ A/3v8op' 
tcls yap axe8Cas ovk efipop en cWera/xcVa? dXX* V7T0 5 
^e^cii/o? SiaXeXv/xeW?. ipdavra 8e Kare^ofiepoL atria 
re 7rXea> 77 /car* 6Soi> iXdyxapop, ouSeVa Te Kocfiop 
ip.7n7rXdp.ep01 /cat vSara p.€Ta/3dXXopres oLTridvqo'KOP rov 
crrpaTOv rov irepieopTos 7roXXoi ol 8k Xonrol a/xa Septjr) 

118 airiKpioprai is SdpSis. ecrrt Se feat aXXos o8e Xoyos 
Xeyopepos, a>s €^€1877 'EUptjrjs d7T€Xawa>i/ e£ 'Adrjpiojp 
diriicero iir 'Hidj/a tt)i> eVt %rpvp.6pL, ipdevrep ovkcti 
68o:7ro/)L]jcrt Ste^p^ro, dXXa tt)i> ti€i> crTparirjP € T8dpp€i 
em.Tp6.Trti dirdyeip is top 'EXXtjctttoptop, avrbs 8* €7rl veoss 
^oii/tcrcrtys i7n/3as e/co/xt^ero €5 tt)i> *Aalr)p. rrXiopra 
8i flip dpefiop %Tpvfiop(r)p viroXa/ScLP fieyap Kal tcvpa- 
rir)p. Kal St) paXXop yap tl ^etpatpeadai yep.ovo'rjs 
ttjs J>eos wore €7rl tou KaTaarpdipLaros iireoPTwp ov)(P(op 
Tlepaicop tup avp 'EUpij) /co/xt£o/xeVa>z/, ipOavra is Setfia io 
7T€0"cWa roi/ /SacrtXea elpeaffai /3a>crapTa top KvfieppTjTrjv 
ei tl's tori o-<f>i aayrqpir). Kal top evrrai, ' AeoTroTa, ovk 
io'Ti ouSe/xta, fjp firj tovtwp airaWaynj ns yepr/rai t£>p 

117. 4. TQo-t vt)v<t(: the fleet. 118. 1. &X\os&Sc \6yo%: another 

Cp. 8. 130. 3. — 5. o*k cvpov : Aes- story as follows, — 4. 'YSdpvci : see 

chylus, Persae 734, says: Hep^v 8. 113. 9. — 5. 4irl v*6$: connect 

<f>aal . . . aafxtvov fxoXuv ye<f>vpav with c#co/xi^cro. — 8. poXXov yap 

yaiv Svotv fcvKTrjpiav. — 7. ovS^va ktI. : since he was being pretty 

. . . k<5o-jiov: without restraint, roughly handled by the storm. On 

Adverb, ace. Cp. 9. 65. 3. Dat. tl see Syn. § 11. 2. — 9. &rrc: 

in 8. 60. y 4. Syn. § 25. 4.— 13. <fjv |&4j: Syn. 



119. n] HERODOTUS VIII 401 

ttoXXcop imfiaretov. Kal Bepfyp Xeyerai aKovaavra 
ravra elirelv ' "ApSpes Htpaai, pvp ris SiaSc^anu vp(<op l S 
/JaaiXcos Krfiopepos* iv iplp yap oIk€ elvai ipol f) 
(Tayrrjpirj. top p£p ravra Xeyeip, rovs Sc TrpoaKvvtovras 
iKTnrj8av es rr)v ddXao-aap, /cat rrjp via €TriKov<$>i<r9ei<rav 
ovrco Srj aTTo<TQ)Orjvai cs rrjv 'AaCyv. a>s Se iicfirjvai 
rdyiara €5 yrjp top Hkpi^qv, iroiyjcrai roidi/Se * otl pep 20 
etrcocre /JacrxXcos rr/p $vx*i v > Saprjcrao-ffai xpucrea) crrc- 
<^aVa> tw Kv/Sepptfrqp, on 8c Htpaecop iroXXovs air- 
UBdkecre, dirorapelp rfjp Ke^aXr/p avrov. ovros 8c dXAos 
Xeyerai Xoyos irepl rov Sepfca> i/darov, ovSa/xa)? epoiye 
moTos, otJre dXXws ovre to IlcpcreW toCto Trddos. ei 
ydp 8t) TaSra oura> tlpedr) eVc tou Kvfieppijrect) irpbs 
s,ep£r)P, iv pvpCrjai yp<oprjai ptap ovk e\(o dprCijoopS 
prj ovk olp Ttoirjcrai /JacriXea roioVSe, rov<; pep eVc rov 
fcaraar/Oftj/iaro? /cara/Ji/Jdcrai, es kolXtjp pea, iopras 
Hepaas Kal Tlepaecop rovs irpdrrov^ t<dp 8* iperecov 

ioPTO)P &OLVLKG)P OKOJS OVK OLP LCTOP TtXtjOo; TOtCTt Htp- 

o^r/ai c^€)8aXe e? tt)i> OdXaaaap. dXX* 6 /x,cV, a>9 Kal 1Q 
irportpop poi eiprjrai, 68a> xpedpepos dpa ra> dXXo> 

§18. 1. — 15. ti$: Syn. § 11. 1. — ently. — 6. |it| o4k: not to be 

17. Xfyuv . . . fcirrtSav: repre- translated; they are due to the 

senting imperf. indie. Cp. a7roo-a>- negative idea in dvTi$oov and the 

Orjvai. — 21. Scop^jo-oo^ai : on the additional ovk. — 9. &ko>$ . . . £{l- 

following cases, see Syn. § 4. ii. B. 1 . fioXc : we should expect an inf. par- 

119. 3. irddos: ace. of re- allel to Kara/fyGao-cu. o#ca>$ for on 

spect. This position of rovro is is more frequent in Hdt. than in 

allowable when an additional at- Attic (cp. 7. 161. 5, 7. 237. 5) ; the 

tribute like Ilcpo-eW is present. — preceding verb is negatived, ovk 

5. Iv jivpCflo-i ktI. : i.e. not one after ok<o<s is to be omitted here in 

man in 10,000 would think differ- translation. 



402 HERODOTUS VIII [120. i 

120 (TrpaTQ) airevooTrjcre cs ttjv 'AcrtTj*/. fieya 8k /cat rdSe 
fiaprvpiov • fyaiverai yap Bep^rjs iv rfj diri(r<o KOfxihfi 
amicoiLtvos is *A/}Srjpa /cat £ewiy)v ri a<f>L avvdifievo^ 
/cat Soprjcrd/xevos avrovs d/cti/a/c# re xpyaeq) /cat rnjpjj 
XpvaoTrdaTO). /cat a>9 avrol Xeyovai 'A/jSij/otTat, Xes 
yovres e/xotye ou8a/x,a>s mora, irpiarov ikvaaro ttjv 
Qcovrjv <pevy<x)V eg Aurjveeov 07rt<xa>, eos ev aoeirj cwi/. ra 
Sc ¥ Af}8r)pa ISpvroLL npos rov ^W'qcnovTOv fiaXkov ^ 
Tou %rpvp.6vos /cat r>j9 s Htdi>os, o^ci/ 8rj piv <f>a<TL cm- 
firjvau e7Tt rrp i>ca. io 

121 Ot Se "EXXtji/cs iireire ou/c otot re iyivovro i^ekeiv 
rr/p *Av8pov, rpairopevoi is Kapvarov /cat S-flwcravTes 
clvtwv T7]v x^PV p diraWdaaovTO is SaXa/xti/a. nparra 
pei/ vvv rotcrt Oeolau itjeikov olk pod Lvia aXXa re /cat 

120. 2. 4>a(v€Tat . . . &itik6|&c- from the Strymon since he had 

vos : /'/ is clear that he came, — reached Abdera, which is farther 

3. cr+i: the inhabitants of Abdera. on the way toward the Helles- 

— 6. 4Xv<raro -Hjv \&vt\v : supply pont. The latter translation is 
in Abdera. The phrase means possible if we assume that the gen. 
this was the first place he rested, is used instead of the nom. (a 

— 8. i&aWov tj toO Srpvji<5vos : since doubtful construction), or omit fj 
i) is present the easiest construe- (with /?). There is still a third 
tion syntactically is to supply 7rpos possibility if we keep in view the 
with 2,Tpvfi6v<ys, meaning Abdera fact that irpbs rov *EWr)<nr6vTQv is 
is situated nearer the Hellespont not exactly near the Hellespont, 
than it is to the Strymon. But, that is, it would not be used of 
in the first place, Abdera is really a place on the other side of the 
much nearer the Strymon, and Hellespont from the point of view 
further this is not the meaning of the writer. It is barely possi- 
the context demands, but Abdera ble, then, that the meaning is 
lies nearer the Hellespont than the Abdera lies on this side of the 
Strymon does ; for the argument is Hellespont, but not on this side of 
that Xerxes could not have sailed the Strymon, 



123. 7 ] HERODOTUS VIII 403 

rpnjpeas rpeis Qoipura'as, rffp fikp €5 'lafffiop avadelvai, 5 

7/ 7TC/9 €Tt KO.I €9 €/XC 7^, T7?J> 0€ €7Tl ZOUI'lO*', TTp OC T(p 

Aiapn avTOv is XaXa/Juva. /xcra 8c tovto SicScurai/ro 
t?)i> krjCrjv teal rd dicpodipia dneTrefXAJfap is AcX<^ou?, 
4k tS)v iyivero dphpids e^a>^ c^ t$ X €( 7^ aKpwTrjpiov 
peos, caw fieyados SikoScko, wqyiw ' cott/kc Sc ovro$ io 

122 rg 7rcp 6 Ma/ccSaw 'AXcfai/Spos 6 xpvaeos. irifixfiapres 
8c aKpodivia oi *EXXi?fc>cs is AeX<£ous iireipcoTcop top 
dzov koipj} el \ekd/3r)K€ irkrjpea kcli dpeara rd aKpo- 
divia. 6 8c 770,/)' 'EXXtji/gw jxci/ roll/ dXXajj; tyr/ae c^i*', 
7rapa AlyivrjTeojv Sc ou, dXXa airairei avrovs ra api-5 
(TTrjia rfjs ip SaXa/upi pav/JLax'r)s. Alyiprjrai 8c rrvdo- 
fievoi avedeo'av dcTepas xP V(T * ov S> °* *ui toroS ^aX/ccov 
ccrracrt rpeis cttI ttjs *ya)vir)s, dy^or^Ta) roS Kpoio'ov 

123Kprjrr)pos. /xerd 8c Tip Siaipeaiv rrjs Xrjirjs eirkeov oi 
"EWrjpes is top ^Wdfibp dpianjia Scoaopres rat d£ia>- 
Tara) yevofilvco 'EWijvwp dvd top iroXe/ioy tovtop. a>s 
8e aniKOfievoi oi aTparrjyol hievefiov rds xfrrj^ovs iiri 

TOV Ho<r€l8€G)VOS TGJ y6atyi<W, TOP 7rpS)TOP KOI TOP $€VT€pOP 5 

Kpivovres c/c ndpTCDP, ipdavra iras tis avrwp cgjvtgJ 
iridero rr/p \]jf}<f>op, airbs c/caaros 8ok£<op apiaros 



THE GREEKS DIVIDE THE SPOIL. 
THE HONORS PAID TO THE- 



— 5. Apurrijia: see 8. 93. 1. — 
8. Tf*ts : two to the Dioscuri, the 
third probably to Apollo Delphi- 

M1STOCLES (CC. I2I-I2*) • » 1 A t ~ 

v D/ nius. — cirl Tf)s 7<«)vitjs : sc. tov 

121. 5. tt|v \uv h *I<r0|i6v: to 7rpovrjiov. Cp. 1. 51 9. 
Poseidon. Cp. 8. 123. 5. — 6. ttjv 123. 4. Silvcpov: the usual verb 
. . . firl Sovviov : Athena had a with ifrfj^ov is <f>£p€iv. Cp. 8ta- 
temple here. — 11. 'AXlgavSpos: <t>epuv 4. 138.2. Possibly Siavc- 
see 8. 34 and 8. 136 ff. pew is used because two votes 

122. 3. XcXdprjKc : Att. €tAT7<£c. were cast, one for first and one for 



40 4 HERODOTUS VIII [123.8 

yeviadcu, Sevrepa 8c ol iroXXol o'vpe^eimrrov @c/uoto- 

kXco, KpivovTts. ol fiev St) £p.ovvovvro, Hc/uoto/cXc'tis 

124 8c Scvrcyocioicri vnepefidWero iroWov. ov fiovXofievcov 

8c ravra Kpiveiv r£>v 'EWrjvojv <f>06p<p y aXX* diroirXeov- 

T(OP iKaCTTCDV CS TY)V €Q)VT(OV CLKpiTOJVy O/XOJ? 0C/UOTO- 

jcXer/s ificoadr) re Kal i$o£<69r) elvat avrjp 7toXXoj> 
'EWrfvcw <ro<f)dyr<LTOs dvd iratrav rrfv 'EXXaSa. otl 8c 5 
viKOiv ovk iTLfiijOr) irpbs ra>v iv £aXa/upi vavfia^r)- 
advTcoVy avTiKa /lerd ravra e'9 AaKeSai/xova dirtKero 
deXcov TtfirjOrjvaL • /cat fiiv AaKcSai/AOi>ioi /caXa>? fiev 
vneSe^avrOy /xcyaXcos 8c irip.r)<rav. dpuarijia fiev vvv 
eSoaav EvpvfiidSrj cXatTjs are^avov, <ro<f>ir)s 8c Kalio 
Sc^torrjros ©c/uoto/cXci, kol rovrco <rr€<f>avov iXatrjs' 
ihcopTjaavro re p.iv oyip rw iv Sirdprjj /caXXioTcuojri. 
aivd&avres 8c 7roXXa, irpoeTrepAfjav diriovra rpir^ocrioi 
XirapriyrecDV XoyaSes, ovroi ol irep imrels /caXcojrcu, 
/xe^pi ovpcov rS>v Teyer)riKQ>v. fiovvov St) rovrov irdv-i$ 
raw dvdpdmcov rcov tj/icis tSfiev Xiraprvrjrai irpoeirepy^av. 
I25ct>s 8c €K rfjs Aa/ccScu/AO^os diriKero C9 ras 'A^Tj/vas, 

second. — 8. Scita-cpa: z# the sec- contrast to <jo$vty% 8c; otherwise 

ond place ; adverbial. — 10. Jkvtc- cro^n;? must depend upon the idea 

pcCouri : for the second prize. Dat. of prize in apiaryui. — 11. k*\ 

of reference. Toirnp : in his case also. — 13. rptn- 

124. 2. Tavra icp£vci.v : to settle k6<tioi : in partitive apposition to 

this matter, i.e. who was best. — the subject with which atvccravrc? 

3. &Kp£Ta>v: in act. sense — without agrees, namely, all the Spartans. 

deciding. — 4. lfM><rQr\: Dial. § 1. Cp. 8. 83. 4. On the number, see 

ii. 8. — 6. vuc&v: though the vie- 7.205.10. — 15. |iotivov: cp. ©e/uu- 

tor. — irp6s : Syn. § 5. — 9. dpi- oroKAea . . . Kal avrot &a tovto 81/ 

crHjia : the prize of valor. Some fxaXto-ra cViftiycraTC av&pa $cvov tu»v 

editors supply dv8pi?ir/s ficv as a d>s v/ias cAflovrcov Thuc. 1. 74. 1. 



126.9] HERODOTUS VIII 405 

ivdavra Tt/jLohrjfios 9 A<f>i&valos, rS)v i^(6pS)v fikv t5*v 
®c/aiotokXcos cow, dXXojs Sc ov tcov iin(f>ave(ov dvSpcov, 
<f>06v(o Karafiapyecjp c^ct/cct rov ©c/xxcrroKXca, rf/v cs 
AaKeSaifxova airi^iv Trpo<f>€p(ov, a>s Sid rds 'Adijvass 
€)(ol rd yepea rd irapd AcuccSai/Aoi>iGjj>, dXX* ov Si* 
ktovrov. 6 8c, iireire ovk iiravero Xeycov ravra 6 
Ti/ioStj/aos, €i7re • Ovrct) e^ci tol ' ovt dv iya) i<ov BcX- 
/Jwittjs ernirjdiqv ovrco irpbs XirapTLrjTeoov, ovt dv <rv, 
atvdpame, i<ov 'Adrjvalos. 10 

L26 TaSra p,a/ wv is roaovro iya/ero y * Aprdfialp*; 8c 
6 <I>api>d/c€Os, dvfjp Iv HiparjO'i Xdyi/xos kclI irpocrde 
call/, €K 8c T<ov H\aTauKa>v Kal fiaXXov cri yevofievoSj 
ix<ov c£ fivpidSas (rrparov rov MapSowos c^eXc^aro, 
irpoeirefiTre ySacrtXea p-typi toS wopov. ws 8c 6 ficj> 171/5 
cj> t$ 'AtrCrfj 6 8c oniaa) iropevofievos Kara ttjp IlaX- 
Xrjvrjv eyiverO) arc Maphoviov T€ xci/Acpi£oj>ros 7rcpi 
®€<r<raXur)v re Kal MaK€$ovir)v Kal obSev k<o KaT€7rci- 
yoiros ^fcct^ es to ctXXo crrpard7rc8o^, ov/c cSikcuov 

125. 2. 'A<j>i.8vaios : Aphidna form of the story makes the man 

was an Attic deme of the tribe a Seriphian. Cp. Plato Rep. 329 e ; 

Aiantis. — 8. ovrw cxci toi : cp. Plut. Them. 18 ; Cic. de Senect. 8. 

ovtu) toi Iotwuc €x« 6. I. 9, and — 10. lav 'ASijvaios: though you 

7. 161. 12. It is sometimes diffi- #r* #« Athenian. In 1. 8 ccov is 

cult to distinguish the particle tol conditional, 
from the dat. of the pronoun. 

Something of the pronominal artabazus on his return from 

value seems to be retained here. THE Hellespont takes olyn- 

For the case, cp. toioJto fr i^uv T ™ s A ^ D ™ smGES kwidaea 

€(tti r) rupawt's, <U A(LK€o\llfl6vt.Ol * ' *' 

5. 92. rj 27. — Bc\Pi.v£tt|$ : Belbina 126. 3. II\aTauic&v : Artabazus 

was a very small and unimportant brought a considerable force back 
island near Sunium. The later to Asia after the defeat. Cp. 9. 66, 



4 o6 HERODOTUS VIII [126. 10 

£vtvx<i)v dTre<rT€(i)<Ti IloriSatffrjjcri pr) ovk i(j avhpairo- 10 
hi&ao'OaL ericas, oi yap IloTiScttTyTcu, a>9 )8ao"iXev9 
TrapeijeXrjXaKeL Kal 6 volvtikos tolctl UeparjCTL ot^al/cet 
<f>€vya)v €K t^5 2aXa/xw>09, ck rou <f>avepov diriorao'av 
dirb TOiv fiapfidpeov • a>9 Se Kal oi akkoL oi rr/v IlaX- 

127 Xijirqv €Xovt€<$. ivOavra St) 'Aprd/Sal^os iiroXiopicei rrfv 
Tlorihaiav. VTroTrrevaas Sc Kal tovs *O\vv0iov<$ ait'ioTa- 
aOai dnb ^8ao"iXco9, Kal ravrrjv zirokiopKei ' efyov 8c 
airr/v Bomatot oi 4k tov ®eppaiov Kokirov e^ava- 
ordvres vnb Mcucc8oi>g>i>. cVei 8c cr^ca? elke 7ro\iop-$ 
K€cov, KaT€<r(f)a£e i£ayay<ov €9 XCpvyv, rfjv 8e irokiv 
irapaSihol KpiroSovkcp Topojvaico eTrirpoirevew Kal t<3 
Xa\KL$LKco yevei, Kal ovt<o "OXvvdov XaXfaScfc ecr^ou. 

l28c£e\aH> Sc TavTT\v 6 'ApTa/Ja£o9 ttJ IIoTiSaijj ivrtTa- 
p,€va)S irpoaelx^ irpoo'e^omi Sc oi irpodvp(oq avvrfflerai 
irpohooriiqv Ttfioijeivos 6 twv XKLcopatcov arpaTqyos, 
ovtivol pkv Tpoirov dpxyjv, eycoye ovk e^o) threw (oi 
yap Zv Xcycrcu), rc'Xo9 pevroi roiaSc iylveTO* ok<os$ 
fivfiXiov ypd\fj€i€ rf T(/iofe«>o9 iOeXajv irapa 'Aprd{ia£ov 
Tre/ju^at, rj , Aprct/3a^09 irapa Tipotjeivov, To£cv/xaro9 
napd ra9 yXv<^t8a9 irepieiKi^avre.^ Kal TTTepaxravres to 
fivfSkiov iro^evov €9 ovyKtipevov ytopiov. C7ratOT09 8c 
lyivero 6 Tipotjeivos npoSi&ovs tt}v IIoTiS(uai> * to£cvg>i/ io 

89. — 10. |ui o^k: GMT. 815. 2. their name to the whole peninsula. 

— 12. nipo-fl<ri. : dat. of interest, — hr\ov: ingressive. 
practically equal to a possessive 128. 3. Siuuvatov : the cities 

gen. of Pallene were in alliance and a 

127. 2. &irC<rra<r0<n : conative contingent had been sent from 

pres. — 8. Xa\Ki8iKw : colonists Scione to the aid of Potidaea. See 

from Chalcis in Euboea had given 1. 16. — 4. &px^v : at first. — 5. &v : 



129. io] HERODOTUS VIII 407 

yap 6 'AprdfiaCos i$ to avyiceCfievov, a/iaprcov tov 
Xapiov tovtov fiaXkei dvSpbs . IIoTiSaofrcGJ tov a>/xop, 
tov 8c fihr/devra mpiehpafie 0/X1X09, ofa <£iXci yiveadai 
iv 7ro\€fi(Oy 01 avTiKa to To£ci>/xa Xafiovres, a>s epaOov 
to /3v/3\iov, e<f)€pov eVi tovs <TTpaTr)yovs ' iraprjv Sc Kal 15 
t£)v ak\(ov HaWrjvaLwv (rvfi/JLa^Crj. Totai 8c aTpavq- 
yolcri im\^afi€voL(TL to fivfi^Cov Kal fiadovcn TOV OLLTLOV 
rfjs Trpohovuqs cSofc fir) KaTaTr\f}£ai Ti/xoijeivov irpo- 
hoaljj tyjs %KL<ovaC(ov 7roXto5 elveica, pr/ po/u£oiaro 
elvcu Xklcovolol cs tov pererrevra yjpovov aiei irpo- 20 
Sorai. 6 fiev Srj toiovtw Tpoirco iirdXcrTOs iyeyovei* 
fr'Apra/Ja^ 8c eirciS^ iroXiopKiovri iyeyoveaav Tpels 
firjveSy yiverai a/x7rcoris Trjs dakdacrq^ peydkrf Kal 
yjpovov em iroWov. ISovres Sc oi fidpfiapoi Tevayos 
yevofievov 7rapjjaav cs rf/v TlaWTJvrjv. a>s 8c rag Svo 

fl€V [AOipCLS hlo8oLTTOpTJK€<TaV t €Tl 8c TptLS VTTOkoiTTOl $ 

fjcrav, ras hieXOovTas XPV V & vai €(ra> iv ttj IIaXX>;^, 
iirr}\de irkrjppvpls Trjs OaXdcrcrrjs peyd\r) y oat] oihapd 
#ca>, co9 oi €Trv)(d)pioi Xeyoucrt, 7roXXa/ct9 ytvofiew). oi 
pev 8^ i/eu> avTcov ovk iiriCTapevoi hi€<f)0eipovTOi tovs 
Sc imaTapdvovs oi IJoriSanijTcu C7rt7rXa5cra^T€5 7rXoioiax 10 

Syn. § 32. 1. b. — 13. +iXet: «• Persians, having no ships, had been 

wont. — 18. KaTairXfjfai. : strike unable to attack it from the south. 

him dumb by producing the evi- They now take advantage of the 

dence of his treachery. ebb tide and attempt to walk 

129. 1. 'ApTafttgcp: on the case, round. — t&s S*o: on the arti- 

see Syn. § 4. i. B 3. — 4. irapfj<rav: cle, see 8. 73. 2. — 6. Tds SuX- 

Potidaea was situated on a nar- 66vras ktI. : . which they had to 

row isthmus between the mainland pass over so as to be in Pattern. 

and the peninsula of Pallene. It yjyqv governs the ptc, logically. — 

stretched from sea to sea, and the 8. yivoiilvi) : concessive. 



4 o8 HERODOTUS VIII [129. n 

a7r(6\€<rav. avriov 8e \4yovcri nortSatrJrai ttJs re pqx^ 
[/cat ttjs 7r\T7ft/xvpt8o5] /cat tov Uepcnicov ndOeos yeve- 
adai, ro8c, art €5 tov HocreiSeojvos top vqov /cat to 
ayaXfta to kv t<o 7r/>oaaTcta> rjaefi-qaav ovtol tg*v 
Hepaewv ot irep /cat hi^ddpiqa'av viro rfjs da\dcro"r)s " 15 
avriov 8e tovto Xcyoi/rcs ev \4yeiv c/xotye £o/ccovo*t. 
rovs 8e Trepiyevo/iepovs aVyjyc 'Apra/Ja^os c? ©ccrcraXa]^ 
irapa MapSoviov. 
130 Ovrot /acj> ot npoirefi^avTes /Saatkea ovtcj €irpr)£av. 
6 8e vavriKos 6 Hcp^cco (6) Trepiyevofievos, a>g irpoa- 
€fju£e tji 'Aairj <f>evy<ov c/c SaXa/xtfo? /cat ^6ao*tXca re /cat 
r^ CTpaTirjv c/c Xepaovrjaov hieiropd Revere is'Afivhov, 
i^eifiepi^e. ej> Kvfijj. capos 8e iTrikdfixjjavTOs irpmoss 
crweXcyero cs Xa/xop • at 8e 7W i/cwi/ /cat i)(€ifi€piarav 
avrov ' Hepcricov 8c /cat Mt?'8<ui> ot 7tXcoj>cs iirefidTevov. 
(TTpaTrjyol 8c o-<£t c7r^X^o^ MapSoW^s re 6 Bayatov J 
/cat 'ApTavvrrjs 6 y kpTa\aU<a • avvrjp^e Sc tovtolctl /cat 
dSeX^tSco? avroS 'ApTavvTea) irpoaeKofieuov 'itfa/xtrp'tys. 10 
arc Se /xcyaXa>5 TrX^ye/rc?, ov npoyaav avcurepco to 
77/305 eo-Treprjs, ovS* imjvdyKa^e ouScts, aXX' & r^ ^dfjuo 
Kanjfievoi ic^vXaacov ttjv *I<ovir)v /itj a7roo"n}, i^cag 

€)(OVT€S (TVV TYJCL 'laVt TpiTfKOCTiaS. OV fl€V OuSc 7TpOO'- 

eheKovro tovs "EXX^j/as cXeuarcarflat c? r^y 'Iojvitjv aXX' 15 



THE PERSIAN FLEET, AFTER WIN- 



4m\d|M|ravros : properly of the 

dawn. — 7. Ilcfxrlav kt*. : M* ///#- 
TERING IN CYME, ASSEMBLES ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ • „„„ ^ 

AT SAMOS. THE GREEK FLEET ^ „„ ^^ w ^^ 

SAILS TO DELOS (CC. 130-132) _ g .j^^^. see 7. „. % 

130. 5. Kvp.^: on the coast of 7. 117- 3. — 14. <H»v: including. — 
Asia Minor, south of Lesbos. — oi juv ov&: Syn. § 26. e. — 



131.ii] HERODOTUS VIII 409 

aTroxpyjcreiv a<f>i tt)v eojvrcov ^vkdaa-eiVy o-ra^/xed/xe^ot 
ort (7<£ca5 ovk eirehua^av <f>evyovras e/c £aXa/xtPO? dXX' 
dcr/iei/ot dirakkda-aovTO. Kara p,ev vvv ttjv ddXacaav 
iacrcjfiei/OL rjaav tg> 0u/a&>, Tret.rj 8e ehoiceov 7roXXaJ 
KparrjaeLV rov Maphoviov. eovTes he ev Xdfuo a/xa2o 
fiev efiovkevovro el ri hvvaiaro kolkov tovs iroXefiiovs 
Truelv, dfia he /cat oyraKova'Teov oktj TreaeiTaL to. Map- 

L3l8optov irprjy para, tovs he "EXKrjvas to T€ eap yivor 
pevov rjyeipe /cat MapSwtos ev Seo-aaXCrj id>v. 6 pev 
St) 7T€^o? ovko) avvekeytTO, 6 he vclvtikos diriKero €? 
AlyivaV) vies dpidpov Sc/ca /cat eicaTOv. oTyoarT/yos £e 

^ /cat vavapxos r\v Aevrvr^iht]^ o Mevdpeos tov 'Hyrjcrt-s 
Xca) ro£ 'Ittttok parchec* tov Aevru)(Lhe(o rov 'AvaijCkeoj 
tov ^ Ap^ihrfpov tov ' Ava£avhpihe<o tov Seowopnov rov 
Ni/cdVSpoi; rov Xaptkeo) tov Evvopov tov TloXvheKTea) 

' tov Tlpvrdvios tov Evpv<f)a)VTOS tov HpoicXeos tov 
'Apiorohrfpov tov * ApiaTopd^ov tov KXeohaiov tov 10 
*TXXov tov 'Hpa/cXc'os, ecov tyjs erepijs oIklt)s tcov )8a- 

19. iroXXtp: with verbs iroWov is <tto8^^ov: who led the Lacedae- 

more frequent. monians to Laconia (6. 52), 

131. 5. AcvrvxtSip: the sue- according to their story. From 

cessor ofDemaratus (6. 65). Both his two sons, Eurysthenes and 

were descended from Theopompus Procles, sprang the two royal 

(1. 7), but Demaratus by an elder houses of Sparta. For the 'Ayia- 

line, so that the seven (cp. 1. 12) &u, see 7. 204. — 11. Tfjs Mprjs 

between Theopompus and Leoty- otters: of One of the two royal 

chides had not been kings. — houses, z\e. the Eurypontidae. On 

9. Evpv<j>»vros : one of the two the death of Leonidas, who was 

royal houses, ol Ev/ov7ni)i/Ti'&u, was the head of the other house, 

named from Euryphon. He was, Cleombrotus, his brother, was 

according to Pausan. 3. 7, son of made guardian of Leonidas' son, 

Soos, son of Procles. — 10. 'Api- Pleistarchus, and commanded the 



410 HERODOTUS VIII [131. 12 

<rik4p)v. ovroi names* irXr/u ro)v kirra rwv fierd Aev- 
ri^iSca 7rpcoro)v Karake^OeiTcov, oi aXXot fiacriXeU 
iyivovro 2,7rdprr)s- y \dy)vaia>v Se iaTpaTrjyei Ecu^itt- 
132 7T05 6 'Api<f>povos. o>s 8c irapeyivovro is tt)v Axyivav 
iraaai at vies, dniKOvro 'Id&vtov ayyeXoi is to tTTparor 
ire&ov tcov 'EWrjvooVj ot kcll is Xirdpriqv 6\Cya) irporepov 
tovtwv d-mKOfi'voi iheovTo KaKehaifioviayv ekevdepovv 

TT)V 'icDVirjV • T(OV KCLI e Hpd8oT09 6 BaCflXT/tScO) TjV o\$ 

oTao*ta>Tat afao't, yevofievoi inefiovkevov ddvarov Xrpdrn 
tw Xlov Tvpdvva), iovres dpyrfv kmd • iiri^ovkevovTes 
Se a>> <f>avepol iyivovro, i^eveiKavros rfjv iTn^Cprfo'iv 

ivOS TCOV fJl,€T€x6vT<0V, OVTQ) $7) Ot XotTTOt If ioVT€S 

vTre^ia^ov 4k rfjs Xlov /cat is %Trdpnqv re diriKOvro /catio 
877 icat Tore is tyjv Atyt^at/, t&v 'JLWtJvcm heofievoi. 
Acara7rX5crat is ttjv 'Iwvirjv • ot Trporjyayov avrovs fioyis 
p>iXP L A77X01;. to yap Trpocroyripo) irav Setpop rjv rota 

Peloponnesian forces at the Isth- before, is very striking. Diodorus 

mus (8. 71. 6). He had died (11. 27. 3) says it was because of 

during the winter, and his son, the gifts he accepted from the 

Pausanias, was placed in command Peloponnesians. This may have 

of the Spartan army (9. 10). — been used against him, but more 

12. 4irrd: the Mss. have Suwi/. — probably his policy of a vigorous 

13. ol aXXoi: repeating the sub- prosecution of the war by sea (cp. 
ject ovtol after the explanatory 8. 109. 22) was rejected by the 
clause. Cp. 8. 67. 3. — 14. gdv0- Athenians, who desired to return 
iinros: father of Pericles (6. 131, to their homes and defend them 
6 J 36> 7- 33)* He belonged to against Mardonius. 

the same party as Aristides, who 132. 6. cr^Co-i : = aWr/Xoim. — 

was this year in command of the ETpdrri : he was tyrant before 

Athenian land forces (9. 28. 28). the Ionian revolt (4. 138. 7). — 

The setting aside of Themistocles, 12. ot: but they. For the rel., 

after his brilliant success the year cp. 7. 205. 9. Kiihn. § 561. 2. b. — 



134.3] HERODOTUS VIII 411 

^EXX^cri ovt€ tcov x&poyv iovcri ifiTreCpoiriy OTpaTLrjs 
re Trdvra irkea eSo/cei cTixu • rr/v Sc Xd/iov imoTearo 15 
So^y kcll 'Hpa/cXea? cmjXas utov dne^euv. crvvemwre. 
8c tolovto aiarc tovs fiev fiapfidpovs to npb$ ianeprjs 
dvarrepa) Xd/xov fir/ rokfiav KaTairXaxrai KaTappcohr)- 
KoraSy tovs Sc "EXXipas x/o#£6Wa>i> Xicov to 7rpo? ttjv 
r)S> KaTcoripo} AtjKov. ovtw Sebs to fiicrov i<f)v\a<T(r€2o 

33 (T<f>eo)i/. 61 fiev 8rj *EXXip€s eirktov es rffv Afj\ov> Map- 
Sdi/109 8c nepi ttjv &€(T(rakirjv i^ei/ia^ ivd&JTev Se 
6pp,co/A€vo<; ene/jLTre Kara tcl \prj(rrijpLa dvhpa Evpawrea 
yevo$ y ra> ovvofia rjv MS9, €*>T€iXa/A€i/09 iravTaxfi p>w 
Xprjcrofievov iXdelv, tcov old tc tjv crfyi diroireipri a-aadai. 5 
o ti /xci> ftovkopevo? €Kfia0elv irpb? tcov yjpy\<TTr)picov 
tclvtcl iveriXktTOy ovk e)(co cf>pd<rcu • ov yap <ov Xeye- 
rat • hoK€(o 8* eycoye nepl tcov napeovrcov TrprjyfidTcov 

34 /cat ovk aXXwi> 7rept, TrefAxfjcu. ovros 6 Mvs es tc 
Aefid&eiav <f>aiveTcu dnutofLevos kcll /ALcrOcp ireicras tcov . 
€7Ti)(Q)pi<jt)v dvhpa KaTaftrjvou napd Tpocf>cbviov> kcu 69 



14. loflo-i . . . 486 kci: for parti- 
ciple and finite verb in parallel 

„ * M1 „ + - „ ^ „ /: ,, o qa r „ OF GREEK ORACLES (CC. I33- 

constructions, cp. 7. 0. 11,8. 86. 10, v JD 



MARDONIUS CONSULTS A NUMBER 



8. Il6. 7. — 15. Imo-WaTO 



135) 



8<&5fl : beliewd. The statement is 133. 2. tvOctircv 8c £p|i<&|icvos : 

rather an exaggerated expression omit the partic. in translation. — 

of their feelings under the circum- 3. Kcwd: around to. Cp. 1.30. 6. 

stances than 'their actual opinion — Eipwirla: of Europus, a town 

of the relative distance of Samos inCaria (cp. 8. 135. 16). — 5. r&v: 

and the Pillars of Hercules. — the antecedent is (xpyoTrjpiois) — 

18. &v<i>Wpa>: farther from land. 7. ovydp&v: cp. 8. 128. 5. 

— 19. XPTl!# VTWv: concessive. — 134. 2. AcpdSciav: a town of 

20. icai-wlpo) : farther toward Asia Boeotia, west of Lake Copais. — 

Minor, 3. tcaTap^vai: near the city was 



412 



HERODOTUS VIII 



[134. 4 



*A/}a$ ras <I>g>/<cW amKo/xevos C7ri rb xp r ) aT VP L01/ * KaL 
&rj ical cs ®TJ{5a<z irpwra a>9 dirucero, rovro fikv r<£ 'Ict/llt;- 5 
via) 'AnoWtovi e^prjaaro (coti 8c Kara irep iv ^OXvfiirirj 
Ipoicri avrodi xP r ) OTr )P L( *'£ €a 'O aL )i tovto 8c tjelvov riva 
koi ov %r)fiaiov xpriiLa<Ti ireiaras KareKoifirjae cs *Afi- 
<f)idpca). ®r){5ai(ov 8c ovhevl escort fiaiwevecrd ai avrodi 
Sia rdSc • ckcXciktc ericas 6 *A[i(f>idp€a)s 8ta xpV (rTr IP^ <ov I0 
7roted/x€i/os OKorepa fiovkovr ai iXeadai rovr<ov 9 cgjvtg) 
^ arc fidvri xpfjo'Qai f) are avfifid)((o, rod kripov air- 
€)(Ofieuovs • ol 8c oijfifiaxov \liv ciXoito etvai. Sid 
roCro /xe> ouk cfcari (drjftauov ovhevl avrodi iyiiara- 
135 KoifjLr/dfjvai. rdSc 8c 0<utta xtot ficyiarov yeveardai 



a cave sacred to Zeus Tpo<£ti)j/ios. 
Any one who wished to consult 
the oracle descended into this cave 
and afterward related his expe- 
riences to the priests, who gave 
an interpVetation of them. On the 
rites, see Pausan. 9. 39. 5 ff. ; on 
the origin of the oracle 9. 37. 4 ff. 
The story of Trophonius is in part 
similar to that of the thief of 
Rhampsinitus' treasures in Hdt. 
2. 121. — 4. "Apas: see 8. 33. 6. 
— teal 8t| kcU : introducing the in- 
cident which Hdt. wishes to refer 
to particularly, with a change of 
constr. — 5. irp&ra: he visited 
Thebes first, — 7. Lpobri : with 
(burnt) offerings. Cp. iif *l<rfitf- 
vov T€ fmvT€UL cnroSa) Soph. O.T. 
21 and Iva /uavrtc? av&pes ifnrv- 
pois TCKfuup6fJL€voi 7rapa7€ipa>vr<u 
Aios apyiKepavvov Pind. 01. 8. 2. 



— 8. KaTCKoC)it)crc Is 'Ajujudpcw: 

he made him lie down to sleep 
in the temple of Amphiaraus. 
Plutarch, Afor. 412, Arist. 19, tells 
that a Lydian sent by Mardonius 
slept in the temple of Amphiaraus 
and dreamed that an attendant of 
the god bade him depart ; on his 
refusal he was struck with a great 
stone on the head and died of 
the wound. In fulfillment of this 
dream, says Plutarch, Mardonius 
was slain by a Spartan named 
Arimnestus, who crushed his head 
with a stone. Hdt., 9. 64. 7, re- 
lates that Mardonius was killed 
by a Spartan Arimnestus, but gives 
no further details. — 10. Std xpn* 
<mipCa>v irou6(icvos : by means of 
oracles. Cp. 6. 4. 1. 

135- i- t*&€ Si teri. : the follow- 
ing, to me a very great marvel — 



135.i 7 ] HERODOTUS VIII 413 

Xeyercu vnb &r)/3aC(ov * i\0elv dpa tov Evpconea Mvv y 
irepL^Tpoxfxofievov ndvTa rd xpijoTz/pia, KaL & T °v 
Ht(oov 'AttoXXgjj/os to tc/acj/09. tovto Sc to ipov /ca- 
Xcirat, p,kv IItgJo^, cart 8c %r)j3aia)v y Keirai Sc vtrkp Trj$$ 
Kwnathos \Cfivrjs npbs opei dy^orarco *AKpou<f>lri<z wo- 
X105. is tovto to Ipov cTTCtre napeXOelv tov Kakeofievov 
tovtov Mvv (c7T€<r0(u 8c 01 TQ>v darcov alperovs dvhpas 
Tpels dirb tov kolvov a>s diroypaxjjoiievovs rd deameiv 
c/xcXXc), koL npoKdTe tov irpo/iavrLv fiapfidpu) ykwaarjio 
XPyv- KaL T0V< > P-^ v eirofievovs tcov %r)fiaia>v iv dco- 
[ultl c^ca-^ai aKOvovras fiapfidpov yXcoacrrjs dvrl 'EXXa- 

809, Ov8c C^Ctl/ O TL XPV°' <0PTaL T V WptOVTl ITpTjyfiaTL • 

rbv 8c Evpcjirea Mvv itjapTrdcravTa nap' avrcov tyjv 
i<f>epovro ScXto^, ra Xcyo/xci/a virb tov 7rpo(f)T]T€a) ypd- 15 
<f>eiv €5 avrfjVy <f>dvai 8c Kapifj p,iv yXcoa-ajf XPV V > 
avyypaxjidfjievov 8c ol\^ad ai diriovra cs ®c<r craXiTjj'. 

2. &pa: introducing the story of connected by a ridge with Mt. 

the marvel. Cp. 5. 87. 8. More Ptous, which lies to the northeast, 

commonly yap. — 4» IIt<j>ov: the — 9. &ir6 toO koivov: from the 

name here applied to Apollo is people of Thebes (cp. 1. 5). — 

said to have been derived from 10. 3|icWc: subject 'AttoAAwv. — 

Ptous, son of Athamas and The- ical irprfia&Tc : koi in the apodosis 

misto (Pausan. 9. 23. 6). There after lircirc emphasizes the corre- 

was a mountain (cp. 1. 6) of this spondence in time between the 

name, bounding the Copaic plain entrance and the utterance of the 

on the east. — 6. irpds &?**> : u the oracle : as soon as he entered, at 

remains of the sanctuary are to be once. — irp6|iavri.v : cp. 7. 1 1 1 . 9. — 

seen in a little mountain valley 12. 'EWdSos: Art. TSAAiyviiriJs. — 

high up on Mt. Ptous" (Fraser, 13. oiti: Att. kol ov. iv Otofwri 

Pausanias 9. 23. 6). — 'Aicpai4(T|$ : exccr&u implies the opposite of 

a lofty hill, crowned by a citadel, l^av know. See Syn. § 29. — 

on the east of Lake Copais. It is 16. \uv : the prophet. 



4 i4 HERODOTUS VIII [136. i 

136 MapSdito? 8c €7n\c£ap,ci/os o tl Srj \tyovra tjv rd 
yjpt\<JTr '/ota, /xera raura cWc/a/rc dyycXoi/ cs 'A^vag 
'AXefjavSpov rov 'Afxvjsreo) dvSpa MafccSdi/a, ap,a p,ci> 
arc ot 7r/)oor/cij8£t5 ol Ilcparai 'ijarai/ ('AXc£ai/8pov yap 
aScX<£ci)i> TvyaCrjv, 'A/xiWcg> 8c dvyarcpa, Bou/JapT/95 
dvrjp Hepcrr)? ccr^c, ^ k T1 7 9 °* tyeyovti ^Afivvrrfs 6 e/ 
t# 'Acrtg, ej(a)i/ to ovvo/xa tov firfrpoTTdropo^ rco 8rj 
c/c fiacriXeos rrjs ^pvyCr/s iSodrj 'AKdfiavSa 7roXi? fieydXr/ 
vdfieadaLJy dfia 8c 6 MapSdpto? irv06[i€yos on irpofjei- 
vos re cit/ /cat evepyerqs 6 'AXc^ai/Spos enefnre. tovs io 
yap 'Adrjvatovs ovtco cSokci fidkioTa TrpoyKTrjcrecrOa^ 
Xccoy re 7roXXoi> apa <xkov(dv et^at /cat aX/ap,op, ra re 
Kara T^f ddkacrcrav avvTv\6vTa <r<f>i iradrjiiara k<lt- 
epyacrafievovs ftaXtara 'Adrfvaiovs C7rwrraTO. tovtcov 
8c npoayei/OfievoDP icarr/Xm^c cuTrerccos r/js 0aXao-<ri7$ 15 
Kparrj(T€iVy rd irep av ical rjv y iretfij re cSd/cci 7roXXa> 
cti>ai Kpic&tov - ovto) T€ ikoyC^ero Karuircpde ol ra 
irprfyfiara eaeadai tS>v € EXXT/i/Mc£i/. ra^a 8* ai> icai 

consul in some respects, though 

MARDONIUS SENDS ALEXANDER a citizen of the state in which he 



OF MACEDON TO WIN OVER THE 
ATHENIANS. THE HISTORY OF 
THE FAMILY OF ALEXANDER 



lived, not sent from the state he 
represented. After cvepyeTqs a 
pronoun referring to the Atheni- 
v 3 39J ans S eems to have been lost. — 

136. 8. 'AXdpavSa: there was 14. kvitrraro: instead of a partici- 

a Carian town of this name, but a pie parallel to d/coiW. Cp. 8. 132. 

Phrygian is not known. Cp. Steph. 14. — 15. K<vHjXm.f;c : Kara has 

Byz. *A\a/3doTpa 7rdAis Opvyta? • strengthening effect. Cp. 8. 10. 7. 

"HpoSoroj. — 9. a|ta W: after the — 17. ol: possessive dative. Syn. 

long parenthesis the prin. verb is § 4. 1. B. — 18. rd\a 8* av . . . 

repeated with the second reason vpoXfyoi,: may have foretold. Syn. 

for sending. — iro6£ci.vos: like our § 17. 



137. 18] HERODOTUS VIII 415 

ra xPV crT VP La Taura ol 7ry>oXeyot, crv/xfiovXevoPTaavfi' 
fia^ov tov 'Adqvalov iroitixrdai ' rotai Br/ Trtidojxevos 20 

C7r€/X7TC. 

137 Tov 8c 'A\e£dv8pov tovtov c/JSo/xos yeverwp IlepSuc- 
foj? carl 6 KTTjcrdfitvos t£>v MaKe$6v(ov tt/v Tvpav- 
vtSa rpowq) TOtaJSc • c£ "Apyeos ecfrvyov cs 'iXkvpiovs 
rS>v Tr/iiepov airoyovaw Tpcts aScXc^cot, Yava.vy)% re 
/cat 'Acjp07T05 /cat Ilc/oSi/c^g, c/c 8c 'IXXv/naij' vnep-s 
/JaXdVrcs cs tt)i> cu>a> Ma/ccSoi^i^^ clttikovto cs Ae/3air)v 
noXiv. evdavTa 8c eQrjTevov iirl fiLcrQai irapa t<o fia- 
atXct, 6 /xcy Ittttovs i/c/xcup, 6 8c /Jovs, 6 8c pccoraTos 
avrtov HephCKKTfs tcl Xc7rra t<wi> irpofiaToov. Tjcav 8c 
to 7raXat /cat at Tvpavv'ihes t5)v avdpumwv ao-da/eis 10 
^prjiiatTiy ov iiovvov 6 S77/AOS. 17 8c yvvrj tov /Jaa-tXcos 
avrrj ra crtrta o"<£t eweo-cre. okcjs 8c otttcot), 6 <x/>tos 
rov 7ratSo9 rov dr/Tos, UepSiKKecoy &nr\.TJcrios iyivero 
avros ca>vrov. cVct 8c atet towto tovto eyti/CTO, ct7re 
irpbs tov avhpa tov icwTrjs. tov 8c a.KOvo'avTa iarjXde 15 
avTiKa a> 5 cny TCjpas /cat <f>epoi cs ftcya Tt. KaXco-as 
8c tovs drJTas irporjyopeve cr<f>i d'7raXXao , o , €ar0at c/c yTjs 
rr/s ccovrov. ot 8c top fiiaOov tyaaai/ Sticatot cti>at 

137. 1. i'pSoftos: this includes 6. Acf3a(i)v: its situation is not 

Alexander himself; see 8. 139. known. — 9. TdXcirrd: i.e. sheep 

Cp. Thuc. 2. 99. According to an- and goats ; irpdpaTa of herded 

other account (Theopomp. Fr. 30) animals in general. — 10. Ttipav- 

Kapavos was the founder of the vCScs : = i-vpavvoi. — 13. toS0iit6s: 

dynasty. — 4. Tr\\Uvov: when the in apposition to 7rat8o$. — SiirX^j- 

Peloponnesus was conquered by crios: indicating that he would 

the Heraclidae, Temenus received be King. Cp. 7. 103. 7. — 

Argos as his domain. — 5. wrcp- 14. feovroti: gen. after the com- 

poXdvrcs : over Mt. Scardus. — parative idea in ^urA^o-to?. — 



4 i6 HERODOTUS VIII [137. 19 

airokafiovTes ovrco i^iivau ivOavra 6 ^SacrtXcu? tov 
fiiaOov 7repi aKOV(Tas y rjv yap Kara tt/v KanvoSoKTfv 20 
€S tov oXkov eaiyoiv 6 17X105, elire deo/SXafiris yevor 
fievos " MicrObv 8c v/up iya) v/iecov a^iov rwSe diro- 
StSaj/u," 8e'£a5 tov rjXtov. 6 fiev 8rj Tavdvrjs T€ /cat 
6 'Adponos oi npecrfivTepoL icrrao'av €fcire7rX^y/xe^ot, a>5 
rJKovaaP ravra • 6 Sc 7rat5, irvy^ave yap e^aiv tta^at- 25 
pavy et7ras raSe "Ac/cd/xc0a, ai /JacrtXcG, ra 818015," 
Trepiypdfai rf} ficiX a ^PV ^ T0 & a< f>°s tov oikov tov 
rjKiov, TrepLypdxjjas 8c, C5 toi> /coXttoj/ rpt5 dpvad/ievos 
138 roS i^Xtov, a7raXXacrcrcTO avro5 re /cat ot fier iiceivov. oi 
fiev Stj airf/aav, r<3 8e fiaaikei arjfiaCvei tis t<ov wapeSpcov 
otov tl xPVI ia iroiyo'ei.e 6 7rat5 /cat a>5 o~vi/ i>da> Keivav 
6 vea>TaTos \d/5oL tcl SiSd/xo/a. 6 8c ravra dtcovcras 
/cat d£w0ct5 Trifxirei in avToi>s iinreas a7roXcoj^ra5. 5 
7rora/jto5 Se ccrrt cV rp X^PV Ta ^ 7 !7» T< ? Ovovai oi tov- 
tcov t<ov dvhpwv air v Apyco5 dnoyovoi arcjrfjpL. o5ro5, 
iirtLTe Siefirjo-av oi T^ttci/tSat, fieyas ovt<o ippvrj gjotc 
tov5 i7T7rca5 /x^ otou5 T€ yeveaOai Sta/Jiji/at. oi 8c aTrt- 
KOfLevoi €5 aXXiji/ yr\v 7-175 Ma/ccSo^t^ olicqa-av 7rcXa5 10 
raw KTjncjv t£)v Keyofievwv elvai MtScco tov Top- 
Sicct), ci> rotcrt <f>verai aurd/xara p68a f ev c/caoroi/ c^oy 
iiJTJKovra <£uXXa, dS/x^ tc vnep^epovTa t<ov dXXcoi/. c*> 
rovrotcrt /cat d StX^i/05 rotcrt tajiroio'L rjXo) y C05 Xcycrat 
V7rd Ma/cc8di/a>i/. wep 8c rail/ ktjttwv opos /cctrat Bcp-15 

22. hi: Syn. § 27. — 29. tjXCov: ii. M£8co»: for his connection 

partitive gen. with Macedonia, see 7. 73. — 

138. 2. o-r)|ia£vci, : points out. 14. 2i.\i)v6s: cp. Xen. A nab. 1.2. 

— 8. TnjwvtScu: see 8. 137. 4. — 13. — 15. B<p|uov: situated be- 



140. a 13] HERODOTUS VIII 417 

fjxov ovvofia, dfiarov vnb \eifiS>vos. evdevrev Sc op/ico- 
fievoi, a>9 ravrr/v eoyovy Kareorpefyovro koX rr)v dWr/v 

l&MaiceSovirjv. amo rovrov hrjrov ncpSi/cKCGj'AXcfai/Spos 
£>8e eyevero • 'A/iiWcgj irals rjv 'AXc^ai/Spos, 'Afivvrrfs Sc 
'AXkctccw, 'AXkctcco Sc narfjp rjv 'Aepoiros, rod 8c ®i\itt- 
7705, ^iXimrov 8c 'Apycuos, rov Sc ncpSi/c/cr/s 6 KTrjo'd- 
fievos rr\v o>PXV v * 5 

140 'Eyeywci fiev 8r) <S8c 'AXcjfcu/Spos 6 'A/awtcgT 
a>9 8c airiKeTO cs ras 'AOrjvas d7ro7rcp,<£0cis v7ro Ma/)- 
a Soptbv, c Xeyc raSe • *Aj>Spcs ' Adrjvdioi, MapSoiao? raSc 
Xeyct • 'E/Ltot ayyekirj ^/cct 7rapa /JcurtXcos Xeyovo-a 
ovro) " * A0r)vaioicn ras a/xapraSas ra? c? c/xc c£ eKeivcov 
yevofievas irdcras ttcrtry/xt. iw re cDSe, MapSoiac, iroiei * 
tovto fiev tt)v yrjv a<f)i cwroSos, rovro 8c aXX?p irpb<;$ 
ravrg ekeaO&v avroC^ rjvnva av cWXgkti, iovres avro- 
vo/ioi. Ipd re ndvra <r<f>i, rjv Syj /3ov\<ovt<iC ye ifiol 
6[io\oye2v, dv6p0(o(TOv, Sara eyco iveirpr)<ra. tovtcjv 
8c amyfievoav dvayKaiax; e^ci fioi iroielv ravra, r)v 
fir) to vfierepov avnov yevrjrai. Xcya> Sc v/ilv raScio 
vvv * tC fiaivecrde irokefiov /Saaikel dvraeipofievoi ; ovre 
yap av inrepj3d\oi(r0e ovre oloi re core avre^etv rbv 
rrdvra ypovov. ctScrc fiev yap rfjs Bepijeco orpaTT/Xa- 



tween the rivers Haliacmon 
and Lydias. — 16. im6 : in conse- 

~„ M ,* „f - o ,„ ~»A ATHENIANS, AND THE ANSWER 

quence of. — x ci l JL " V0 ? ; snow and * 



Alexander's speech to the 



MADE BY SPARTAN ENVOYS 



severity of climate. — cv0c$tcv Sc 

6p|t4|uvoi : cp. 8. 133. 2. — 17. ret*- ( CC * l 40-i42) 

•nrjv: refers to aWrjv yrjv 1. 140. a 8. tovtwv Sc d/nvftiiv«*v : 

10. — co-xov: became possessors this order having come. The words 

of. are those of Mardonius. — 10. rh 



418 HERODOTUS VIII [140. a 14 

crfys to irkfjdos kcu ra epya, uvvOdvecrde Se kcll tt)p 
vvv trap i/xol iovaav 8vpa/xLP, alare kcu fjv fjiieas 15 
virep/3dkr)<rd€ kcu vucTJcrr)T€, tov irep v/up ovSe/ua eXms 
ei irep ev fypoveir^ aKkr) Trapeorai iroWairXrjcrCri. 
fir) Sjv fiovXeade irapurovfiepoi fiacrCkei aripecrOai p,€v 
rfjs X^Pys> ®*** v ^ a(C * 7r€ /°^ v/A€aii> avrSiv^ dXXa kclto- 
Xvaaade. irape)(€i Se vpip KaXXwrra KaraKvcrcuTOai 20 
)8acnXcbs ravrg op/xyjiiepov. core ikevOepoi^ rffuv 
ft ofiaixft'LW cvvOifiei/OL dvev re SdXou kcu a7raT^5. Map- 
Swios /iez> ravra, S 'Adrjpaloi, ez>ereiXaro fioi elwelv 
irpbs v/xe'as. eya> 8c 7TC/H /i«> eupotrjs ri}s 7T/)os v/xeas 
iovarjs e£ €/i€o ovS«> Xe£a> (ov yap ai> i>£iz> irpS>Tov 
eVc/xa0oi/re), Trpoo-xpiQ^Q) Se ificcjv ireideaOai Map$ovla>. 5 
ivopS) yap vfiip ovk oloici re eaoiiipouri top iravra 
XPopop TroXefieup Eep^. el yap ivcopcov tovto iv vfjup, 
ovk dp Kore eg v/xeas TyX^oi/ 6J(oj^ Xoyovs rovcrSe* kcu 
yap SiW/xt? v7T6p dpdpamop 17 fiaaiXeos iarl Kal X^P 
VTrepfirjKr)s. j\p 2>p fif) avr'iKa 6jio\oyrj(rr)T€y /xeyaXaio 
7rpoT€ip6pT(op in old bfjiokoyeip iOeXovo-i, Set/xau'a 
virkp vixiojp ip Tpificp re /xdXwrra oIkt)ix€pq)p tS>v <rvpr 
/xdxcop wdpTcop aiei re (fydeipofxevcov [iovpodp, i£aiperov 
IxeTaixfMLOP re tyjp yfjp iKTr)fjL€PO)P. dXXa 7reC0€cr0€' 
7roXXov yap vp2v d£ia ravra, et /Jao'iXevs ye 6 /xeyas 15 
fiovvoiai ifiip c EXXtjVo>i/ ra? d/xa/ardSa? dmels idekei 

v\Urtpov : your part = v/xcis. Cp. partic 1. 123. 4, 1. 170. 10. — 

3. 155. 16. — 19. 8ctv Kri. : to be II. irpoT€iv6vr»v : sc. r<av Ilep- 

always running for your lives, — crcW. — 13. IfaCpcrov kt4. : JtWr^ 

22. &vcv t€ : on the position of tc, you possess in your land a place 

see Syn. § 30. 3. set apart and serving as a common 

P 6. 4vop6: with accus. and battleground. 



142. 9 ] HERODOTUS VIII 419 

141 <£iXo$ yevtaOcu. 'AXegavSpos fiev Tavra eXege ' Aa*c- 
SaifiovLOL Sc irvOo/JiepoL tJk€lv 'AXe^avhpov cs 'Adrjvas 
cs ofioXoyirjv a^ovra t<o fiapfidpa) 'A0* y j>aiovs, dvap.vt)- 
aOevres t<ov XoyCcov als o"<£cas XP € ® V * crT( ' a f ta T °^ a ' L 
aXXotai Aaj/Dieucn, iKirimreiv Ik TleXoiroppyjaov virbs 
Myjhtov re Kal ' Adr)vai<j>v, Kapra re eSeuaav firj 6/jlo- 
Xoyrjaoxri to! Ylepaji 'A^t/z/cuoi, avriKa re a<f>i cSo£c 
rtepmeiv dyyeXovs. /cat 8rj avvemwre wore 6/iov 
a<f)eQ)v yiveadai tyjp Kardaracnv * erravepewav yap 
ol 9 A07)vaioi SiaT/n/Joi/res, ev em<jrdp.evoi on epeXXopio 
AaKeScufiovLOi irevo'eo'dai rjKow'a napa rov fiapfidpov 
ayyeXov in OfioXoyCy, rroOofxevoi re 7rc/n/f€ij> Kara 
ra^o? ayyeXovs. cmT^Scs 2>v eiroieov, ivheiKinjfievoi 

142x010-1 AaKeSou/iovCoLcrL tyjv i(ovT<ov yvdfirjp. a>s Sc 
eiravararo Xeywv 'AXefcu>S/oos, SiaSc^a/xcpot e\eyov ol 
drib %irdprr}<; dyyeXoi ' 'Ifyicas Sc eirep%\iav Aa/ccScu/io- 

l>lOl Sc7JO"0/iO/OV9 VfJL€(OV fl7]T€ V€(OTtpOV TTOielv fl7j8ev 

Kara rrjv 'EXXaSa /xTfrc Xdyous ev8eKeadai irapd rods 
fiapftdpov. ovre yap hiKaiov ovSa/xa>? ovre koct/jlov 
<f>epov ovre ye aXXoucri 'EXkujvcw ouSaftouri, v/up Sc 
8rj Kal Sta TrdvTtov rJKiora 7ro\\a>v elveKa • r/yeCpare 
yap rovhe rov iroXeyLOv v/iels ovScj> rj/iewv fiovXo/ie- 

141. 2. tJKctv : cp. TJJKovra in 1. 142. 3. 4)|&la$Sl: in contrast to 

10, and irifupew 1. 11. — 4. Xo- Alexander. — 4. vc&ripov : = kol- 

■yCwv : brought from Athens by kov. Cp. 8. 21. 8. The common 

Cleomenes. See 5. 90. — 9. Kcn-d- meaning revolutionary in 5. 35. 22, 

orreuriv : presentation of ambassa- etc. — 5. xard: in respect to. — 

dors. Cp. 3. 46. 4, 9. 9. 3. — 7. oCtc : with following 8e, giving 

13. 4v8cikvv|uvoi : intending to greater emphasis to the second 

show. clause. Cp. 4. 76. 2. — 8. TJ-ycCpai-c : 



420 HERODOTUS VIII [142. 10 

v<ov, /cat irepl rrjs vp,£repr)<z dpyjqv ° oiyiov iykvero • 10 
vvv 8c (f)tp€L /cat €5 iraaav ttjp 'EXXdSa. dXXa? re 
tovtq)v atrdvTdiv ambus yeviadat SovXoTvVr/s rottxt 
^EXXrycrt *A0r)vaiov<; ovSa/xa>? dvacr^cTd^, oinvcs atct /cat 
to 7rdXat (jyaiveade 7roXXov9 ekevdepdxravTes avdpdmwv. 
me^ofievoKTL p&vroi ifiiv vvvaydopttQa^ /cat art Kapwcop 15 
i(TT€pyjdr)Te 8l£cov r}8r) /cat 6Vt oiKO<f>06pr)O'0e yjpovov 
rj8r) 7roX\dV. am tovtgjj> Se v/uz> Aa/ceSat/AoVtot re 
/cat 01 crv/ifta^ot €7rayy€XXoi>Tat yiwat/cds tc /cat rd cs 
iroXe/xov d^prjcTTa ot/ccTcaw i)(6p€va trdvra imdpopeivi 
ear av 6 7rdX€/ios oSe crweonf/c^. /x^Se vplas 'AXccfcw. 20 
Spos 6 Ma/ceSaw dj>ayj>aitX7j, Xer/Vas tov MapSoptov 
Xoyoz>. tovtq) pep yap ravra iroLTjTea €(TtC* rvpavvos 
yap iwv rvpdvv(t) cjvy/carcpyd^erat * u/uj> Sc yc ou 
TroirjTea, el irep cv Tvyyavvre <j>poviovT€<z> imoTapevoKn 

ft>9 fiapftdpOLCTL COTt OVT€ TTLCTOP OVT€ akr)0€$ OV$€V. 2$ 

143TaSra eXccfai> oi dyycXot. 'Adrjvcuot, Sc 7rpbs pkv 
9 A\££av8pov vjT€Kpivavro rdSc* Kal avrot rovrd ye 
imoTdp,eda art iroWaTrhqciy] cart tgJ Mt/S^> SuVa/us 

by taking part in the Ionic revolt supplied avev before tovtcov. — 

(5. 97). — 10. &px^jv : in the be- 14. rb irdXcu : referring to the 

ginning. — 11. &XXo>s tc : and on story of the help given the Hera- 

other grounds. The gen. roirrwv clidae, and the Seven against 

cbravTtov perhaps depends upon Thebes. Cp. 9. 27. — 16. Si(&v: 

aAAws. Cp. aAAa twv 0W1W Xen. Dial. § 2. 2. No harvest is counted 

Mem. 4. 4. 25, tcovoc to, rrcpa on for the present year and that 

irouZv Hdt. 4. 126. 4. Abicht and of 480 had been taken by the 

Stein take tovtcov as well as 801A0- Persians. — 18. *rd . . . oIkctcmv 

crvvrys with amovs = that the Athe- cx*pcva : the children and slaves, a 

nians who have been the cause of periphrasis for tows ouce'ra?. Cp. 

all this should be the cause. Reiske to, r(av ovtiparwv c^oftcva 1 . 1 20. 1 7. 



144.ii] HERODOTUS VIII 421 

fj irep rjfiLVy axrre ovoev oct tovto ye oveioi^ew. akk 
ofxcos ekevdepirjs yXt^d/iCj/ot d/xweo/ie#a ovtcd okcjss 
dv Kal Swd/xeda. 6/io\oyy}orai Sc rc3 ftapfidpa) p/rJTe 
av rjneas ireipS) dvaireLdeiv ovre 17/1615 ireiaofieOa. vvv 
re a/rrdyyeSXe Maphovla a>9 'AdrjvaZoL Xcyovai, ear 
av 6 7/X109 tt^v airrfjp 68bv vy rfj irep Kal vvv ep\e- 
Tat, inJKore ofiokoytjaeiv ij/icas Bep^rj ' dXXa deolaC re 10 
(Tv/i/ia^otcrt ttlovvoi fiiv iire^Lfiev dpwop.eioi Kal Tolari 
rjpcti(ri> T(ov eKelvos ovhefiCav oirw e^v eveirpt)ae tovs 
re olkovs Kal rd dydX/iara. av re tov Xowrov \6yov5 
e\(ov Toiovahe p.i) eTn^atveo * A6r\vaioiai, /xrjSe Sokecov 
-)(jpr)OTd vnovpyelv dde/iiara epBeiv irapaivei. ov ydp 15 
ae ftovko/JLeda ovSev a^api irpbs 'Adrjvaiwv iradeiv, 
144 eovra irpotjeivov re Kal <f>ikov. 7rpos fiev 9 A\e£av8pov 
ravra vireKpCvavro, 7r/>os 8e tov<$ dnb Xirdprrfs dyyer 
Xovs TctSc* To fiev Sclera 1 Aa/ccSai/xowov? /xr/ 6/ioXo- 
yTjaw/Jiev T(o fiapfidpa) Kapra dvdpcjmjLOv rjv. drdp 
alaxpas ye otKare e^eTnaTd/xevoL to 'Adrfvaicov <f>po-$ 
vrj/xa dppcoSrjaaLy art ovre \pvao<z Ioti yrjs ovSafioOv 
roaovros ovre x^PV kclXXci Kal dperrj fieya vnep<f>tpovaa, 
Ta rifiels Setjdfievoi eOekoufiev av firjS iaavre% KaraSou- 
Xcocrai ttjv 'EXXdSa. noWd re yap Kal p.eyd\a earl 
rd 8iaK(o\vovTa ravra fir/ iroietv firjh 9 fjv ideXcojiev, 10 
irp&ra /xev Kal fieyiara t<ov Oewv rd dydX/iara Kal 



THE ATHENIAN REPLY TO ALEX- 



the reference to their weakness. 
— 11. o-viiadY oiort : in apposition 

ANDER AND THE SPARTANS f _ /j « , . ..* » 

to UeoLcrt. — |uv : with afivvo/xevoi. 

(CC. 143-144) I44 . 6 . dpp«8i\<rai: with ot- 

143. 4. ij irep : not Attic. — icarc. — 8ti ktL : explanatory of 

ovciSCSciv : cast up. They resent <f>povrjfm. — 7. dpcTfj : fertility. 



422 HERODOTUS V11I [14*. 12 

tol olmjiiara epfneitp^eva re /cal cruyKexcoaiieva, tolctl 
rjfiea^ avayKaio)? c^ei n/Kopelv cs ra fteytora fxaXkov 
77 irep 6fio\oye2v r<S ravra ipyaaafievcoy auris Se to 
'EXX^t/coV, ebv o/jbai/xop re /cat o/JLoyXaxrcrov, /cat de5>vi$ 
iSpvfiaToi re kolpol /cat dv&Lai rjOed re 6/xorpo7ra, tg)z> 
7rpo8ora5 yevecrOai * A.dr)vaiov<z ovk av ev ?^ot. C7rt- 
araaOe re ovtcd, el firf rrporepov ervy\dvere Ittixttot 
liei/oty ear &v /cat eh Kcptr} 'Adr)vaL(ov, /A7?Sa/ia bpo- 
Xoynjaovras rj/ieas Uepijfl. vfietov /jlcvtol dydfieda rfjv 20 
7rpovoL7)v ttjv cs rj/xeas e\ovaaVy on irpoeiheTe r/fiecov 
olKO<f>dopr)(ieva)v ovtcj ojcrre emdpoltai eOekeiv rj/jiewv 
tous ot/ccras. /cat ifiiv fiev r/ X^P 1 * iKTre7r\TJpa)Tai> 
rjfiels fievTOL \nraprj(Toiiev ovtoj okcos av e^w/icv, oiSev 
Xvireovres v/nc'as. jw Se, a>s ovra> iypvrw, arpaTLr/v 25 
cos Ta^tcrra 6/c7r€/i7rerc. a>s yap T7/Ltet9 €t/ca£o/i,€z>, ovk 
€/ccts xpovov itaperrai 6 /3dp/3apo<; iafiaXaiv cs r^i> 17/16- 
reprjVy dXX' iwedv ra^tcrra irvOrjTai ttjv dyyeXirfv on 
ovhev noLyjaofiev t<ov eKelvos rj/iewv 7r/>ocrc8ctro. 7rp«> 
a>i> trapetvai eKelvov is rf/v 'AttiktJv, rjfieas Kaip6$$o 
ian Trpo/3or)0rjaai €$ tt)j> BotamTjj/. ot ficj/ raCra 
VTroKpLva/Aevtov *K9y)vai(av diraWdaaovTO €9 ^Trdprrfv. 

From toctovtos supply ovtcd with //>/?*. — 31. Bou»t(i)v: the Pelo- 

fxeyn v7rep<f>£pov<ra. — 14. t&'EXXtj- ponnesians desired to guard the 

vik6v : the Greek race, — 16. icoivd : Isthmus, but the cooperation of the 

this belongs also with Qvo-iai. — Athenian fleet was essential. The 

21. 8ti irpocCSerc: explanatory of Athenians desired to return to 

Trpovotrjv. — 23. Kal vjjitv \uv ktI. : their own land at once, and with- 

and so far as you are concerned out doubt they worked on the 

the kindness is performed in full, fears of the Spartans by a threat 

i.e. we take the will for the deed. — of alliance with Mardonius. Cp. 

26. o*k ck&s XP* V0V : at n° distant 9. 7-10. 



APPENDIX 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 

i. MANUSCRIPTS 

A. Mediceus. Tenth century. Laurentian library, Florence. 

B. Angelicanus, or Passioneus, or Romanus. Eleventh century. 

Angelican library, Rome. 

C. Florentinus. Eleventh century. Laurentian library, Florence. 
P. Parisinus. Thirteenth century. Paris. 

R. Romanus. Fourteenth century. Vatican library, Rome, 
v. Vindobonensis. Fourteenth century. Vienna, 
s. Sancroftianus or Cantabrigiensis. Fourteenth century. Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge. 

These fall into two groups, A, B, C (a), and R, s, v (£). P agrees 
sometimes with a, sometimes with /?. In the critical notes z represents 
Aldi editio princeps. 

2. TEXT EDITIONS 

Dietsch-Kallenberg : Leipzig, 1885, 1894. 

Fritsch, Adolf : Leipzig, 1899, 1906. 

Herwerden, H. van: Utrecht, 1888, 1889. 

Holder, Alfred: Vienna, Leipzig, 1886, 1888. 

Stein, Heinrich: Berlin, 1869-72 {editio maior), 1884 {editio minor). 

3. ANNOTATED EDITIONS 

Abbott, Evelyn: Books V.-VL, Oxford, 1893. 

Abicht, K. : Leipzig. Fourth edition of VIII. in 1893, of VIII.-IX. in 

1892. 
Baehr, I. C. G. : Leipzig, 1856-61. 
Blakesley, J. W. : London, 1861. 
KrUger, K. W. : Leipzig, 1855-75. 
Macan, R. W. : Books IV.-VL, London, 1895. 
Merriam, A. C. : Books VI.-VII., New York, 1885. 

423 



424 HERODOTUS 

Sayce, A. H. : Books I.-IIL, London, 1883. 

Sitzler, J.: Books VI.-IX., Gotha. Second edition of VII. in 1892, 

of VIII. in 1898. 
Stein, H. : Berlin. Fifth edition of VII. in 1889, of VIII.-IX. in 1893. 
Strachan, John: Book VI., London, 1891. 

4. TRANSLATIONS 

Macaulay, G. C. : London and New York, 1890. 
Rawlinson, G. and H. : Oxford, 1858. Text of the translation with 
notes abridged by A. J. Grant, London, 1897. 

5. AUXILIARIES 

Abicht, K. : Die Wiener Handschrift des Herodot, Oels, 1888. 

Bauer, A. : Die Entstehung des herodotischen Geschichtswerkes : eine 
kritische Untersuchung, Wien, 1878. 

: Die Schlacht bei Salamis, Berichte d. oster. arch. Inst., 1901. 

Delbruck, H. : Die Perserkriege, Berlin, 1887. 

Gomperz, Th. : Herodoteische Studien, Wien, 1883. 

Goodwin, W. W. : The Battle of Sa/amis. Harvard Studies in Clas- 
sical Philology f , 1906. 

Grundy, G. B. : The Great Persian War, London, 1901. 

Hachez, K. : De Herodoti itineribus et scriptis, G6ttingen, 1878. 

Hauvette, A.: Hirodot : historien des guerres midiques, Paris, 1894. 

Hoffmann, O. : Der ionische Dialekt, Gottingen, 1898. 

Kallenberg, H. : Stand der Handschriftenfrage bei Herodot. Philo- 
logus, 1885. With bibliography. 

Kirchhoff, A. : Ueber die Entstehungszeit des herodoteischen Geschichts- 
werkes, Berlin, 1878. 

Munro, J. A. R. 

Raase, H. : Ein Beitrag zur Darstellung der Schlacht bei Salamis, 
Rostock, 1904. 

Scholl, A. : Herodots Entwicklung zu seinem Beruf Philohgus, 1855. 

Smyth, H. W. : The Sounds and Inflections of the Greek Dialects. 
Ionic. Oxford, 1894. 

Wheeler, B. I. : Herodotus } s Account of the Battle of Salamis. Trans- 
actions of the American Philological Association, 1902. 

For additional bibliography on the battle of Salamis, see Busolt, 
Griechische Geschichte, II. 700. 



APPENDIX 425 



CRITICAL NOTES. BOOK VII 

8. f$ 11. [dTTtKo/Acvot] omitted by Dion. H., followed by Kallenberg, 
Holder, Fritsch, Sitzler. — 26. 16. [iv tyj ttoAi] del. Valckenaer, foil, 
by most eds. — 36. 12. £e<f>vpov, so nearly all eds. ; K. and Kriiger 
cfyxw with Mss. — 36. 29. [koi oi ImroC] del. Stein (ed. 1884), foil, by 
K., Hold., Fr., Sitz. — 49. 9. [tov AcpcVa] del. Kr., foil, by K., St., 
Hold., F., Sitz. — 63. 8. [rovrtav 8c p*Ta£v XaA&ubi] del. St., as a 
later interpolation, foil, by most eds. — 73. 6. cs 3>pvyas del. Gom- 
perz, foil, by K. and Hold. ; but while not necessary to the sense, 
there seems to be no convincing reason for suspecting the words. 
— 97. 1. o&t a omits, foil, by K., St. (1884), F. — 106. 2. povvy a 
omits; also K., St. (1884), F., Sitz. — 119. 17. cVkc a omits, foil, 
by K. — 121. 9. [orparoi/] omitted by /?, foil, by K., Hold., F., Sitz., 
Ab. — 137. 13. [ck ti)s /xijvios] del. Gomperz, as an interpolation; so 
K., Hold., St. (1884), F., Sitz. — 142. 9. [icarot tov <£pay/AdV] del. Gom- 
perz, as an interpolation, foil, by K., St. (1884), F. — 153. 19. [tov] 
del. Valckenaer, foil, by K., F., Sitz., Ab. — 154. 8. [8s] del. Reiske, 
foil, by K., F., Ab. A lacuna is assumed by St., who would write (®iqp<o~ 
vos Sc 7rarp>os or simply (utc)os. Sitz. writes (AKpayavrCvov <£vop)o?. — 
157. 4. r€ Kal 'AOrjvaZoi a omits, foil, by K. and St. — 162. 7. [ovros 
8c ictc.] bracketed by K., Kr., Ab. The words to c0c\ci Acyeiv del. 
Eltz, foil, by Hold., St., F. — 167. 3. [cv Trj 2t#ccA^] omits, foil, 
by K., Hold., F.— 167. 7. [cflvcro Kal] del. Ab., foil, by K., Sitz. 
[icat cicaAAicpctTo] bracketed by Kr., St. (1884). — 167. 12. [o>s Kap- 
yrfiovioc kcu ^vprjKoatoi] reading of a ; a>s Kapxrj&ovLoc reading of f$. 
St. brackets, foil, by K., Hold., Sitz., Ab. Kr. brackets KapyrfSovioi 
kolL — 190. 6. auTTf reading of /3, foil, by Hold., St., F., Sitz., Ab. 
a omits, foil, by Kr., K. — 190. 8. [xpvcrca] del. Valckenaer, foil, by 
eds. generally. — 203. 13. [av] del. Kr., foil, by K., Hold., F., Sitz., 
Ab. If genuine, it belongs to 6<f>et\eiv. 

CRITICAL NOTES. BOOK VIII 

2. 2. ctpcarat; Mss. tlprfai. 3. a>? to irXfjOos Mss. ; ooov Reiske, 
K., Ab., Sitz. — 3. 5. piya tc irotcd/xcvot St., Sitz.; /x,cya wtiroirjfievoi 
Mss., K., Hold.; /icya tl Ab. — 5. 12. TrXiyycWcs ft and eds.; irdv 
tcs a. — 19. 2. 6 a; ft omits. 5. Oakaccav Tavrrjv a, St.; OdXacrcrav, 
Tavry fi, K., Hold., Ab., Sitz. — 22. 5. Zkeyov raoc ; raSc eA.cyc a, eds. ; 



426 HERODOTUS 

Acyovra rdSe f3. 19. cttcitc av; Mss. omit av. — 25. II. TcWcpcs 
XiAia8cs bracketed by K., Hold., Sitz. — 32. 9. oiKrjphrqv K., St., Sitz. ; 
oiK€OfX€vrjv Mss., Ab., Hold. — 38. 7. /Ac'£ova? . . . c^ovras Mss. ; 
most eds. omit or bracket l^ovras ; /xc£dva>? Reiske, Hold. ; /Ac'£ova . . . 
avtfpanrov Wessel. — 43. 4. to f3 ; oa; St. omits, cp. 7. 6. 11, 8. 45. 
1, 8. 46. 16. — 46. 16. Tas Trcp a, K., St., Sitz. ; -ras *at'/?, Hold., Ab. — 
49. 9. eta; fy p. — 50. 2. i\r)\v6eL eds. ; cA.ijA.v0c Mss. — 53. 2. !£o- 
80s Gomperz, K., Sitz. ; ccro8o? Mss., St., Hold., Ab. — 8. /cawrcp /J, K., 
Hold. ; /cat roc a. 10. cVi rrjv ax. bracketed by Cobet, K., Hold. — 
60. a 3. koyouri Kr., K., etc.; A.cyov<n Mss. 6. to; is o Mss. — 
65. 33. 817; MSS. 8c. — 73. 3. vvv rrj', Mss. T€. — 74. 2. Bpopua; 
Spopov Mss.; opd/xov K., Sitz.; bracketed St., Hold., Ab. 6. tods; 
fo>s Mss. — 77. The whole chap, is bracketed by Kriiger, Gomperz, K. 
3. prjficLTa St., Sitz. ; irpriypaTa Mss. 8. inOicrBcu AP ; iriLOicrOax B ; 
Tidto-daiCS; iricaOcu Diintzer, St. 12. cs toulvto. pev (cV/JActyas) St. y 
Sitz. 13. dvriAoyias; Mss. avrtXoyCrjs. — 79. 9. TrpoaicqKOti eds.; 
irpoaicrJKoc Mss. — 80. 1 1, ravra 817 ret #eaAAxora, bracketed by Kriiger, 
K. — 82. 3. avrjp <TiJvios) Kriiger, K. — 83. 3. t€ Srj &U<f>aive Wessel., 
K., Sitz.; tc 8rj 2<£aivc a; tc fkc<f>aiv€ P. 5. <Tot> Dobree, K., Sitz., 
Hold ; Mss. omit. — 84. 2. cVt bracketed by Bekker, K., Hold., Sitz., 
Ab. — 14. avoLKpovvto-Ot Naber, Hold., Ab. ; avatcpoveaOe Mss. — 
85. 9. tovBi 8c' Reiske, etc. ; tov fc Mss. — 13. x^PV ^oMfl P » X^PV 
7roAAiJ other Mss. — 86. 5. /cat; Mss. omit. 6. ovrc TCTay/icvov; Mss. 
ov. — 87. 2. p€T€$cr€povs bracketed by St., Hold., Sitz. — 89. 6. #eai 
pv\ Mss. ; ol p-i\ Kriiger, K., Sitz., Ab. — 90. 2. $>otvucci>v eds. ; 3>oivt#cc9 
Mss. 10. 8c P ; 81} other Mss. 23. hi ti eds. ; 8* hi Mss. — 
94. 1. Koptv&W Naber, K. ; KopivOiov Mss. — 96. 7. a7ro7rXrj(r0rjvaL 
most eds. ; airoTrXfjcrcu Mss. 13. <f>pv£ov<ri eds. ; <£pi£ov<n Mss. — 
98. 4. 17 eds.; Mss. omit. 12. icar' aAAov Mss., K. ; icar aAAov <#cat 
aUov) St., Hold., Sitz., Ab. 13. <cv> St., Hold. — 99- 6. cVccrcA&wou 
K., Sitz., Hold. ; cVc£cA0ov<ra Mss. . 7. <8c> K. (Praef.), Sitz. — 
100. 27. ovBi K., Sitz. ; ovBiv Mss. — 101. 3. vTroKpiviLcrdai eds. ; 
dTTOKpLvdaOai Mss. 19. tc Mss. ; suspected by Kriiger, St., Ham- 
mer, etc. — 102. 12. 7r€pl oTkov tov gov bracketed by St., Hold, Ab. — 
103. 6. tov? P ; a omits. — 104. 61 8c IIiyoWeTs . . . "Ep/xorifio? iyy 
bracketed by eds. — 106. 4. XTbt ft ; Xioc /icv a, St., Ab., Sitz. — 
107. 4. ircipupevov bracketed by Kriiger, Ab. 10. Tavras /? ; Tavnys a, 
St.; Tavrrf K., Sitz. — 108. 13. o-^et? K., Sitz., Ab. ; a<f>eoLs f$; cr^i a, 
St., Hold, kulkov P ; kolkwv a. 14. cpyaxrcuaTo most eds. ; ipydaaro 



APPENDIX 427 

R. ; -oatirro sz ; -a-auro a, St. 23. rbv T2AA. Kapirov K. ; toy t&v "EAA. 
#cap7rova; f$ omits rdv. 25. 2A.00 /?; eA.0oi a. — in. 1 7. <<Xv); Mss. 
omit. — 112. 4. xpew/x€vos bracketed by Cobet, K. Aoyotcrt Tdort /?; 
rotort a. 5. 'AvSpiovs /J; ^auriXia a. — 113. 4. avwpirjv fi\ dytoptrj a, 
St. 16. cv K., Sitz., Ab. ; iv St., Hold. (cp. 6. 127. 2) ; fi has tv. — 
128. 18. KaTcwrXty&u a; /career Ae'&u )3. — 130. 2. 6 Kriiger, K. ; Mss. 
omit. — 131. 12. €7rra Paulmier, eds. ; Mss. 8vu>v. — 135. 1. rod* 8c 
most eds. ; r&rt 8c Mss. — 140. a 11. vvv • ti K., Sitz., Ab. ; raSc. vvv 
n St., Hold. — P 13. ijjaiptTov fitraix/JLiov re K., St., Hold. ; i(aiperov 
ti /act. z, Sitz.; cjtuperov tc /act. R., Ab. — 142. 10. ipxyv Schaefer, 
K., Sitz. ; dpx^« Mss > St., Ab. 1 1 . aAAusrc Mss., K., St., Ab., Hold. ; 
wore ovro> cxdvrcov oltloxs Sitz. — 144. 28. cVcav Bredow and most 
eds. ; cVci8av Mss., St. 



GREEK INDEX 



[D. refers to the Dialect Forms, pp. 20-22 ; S. to the Syntactical Usage, pp. 22-78.] 



dyyapfjiov 8. 98. 15. 

ipporif- 7. 5. 3, 7. 48. 9. 

dOdvaroi 7. 83. 4. 

dicofciv: r. accus. 7. 116. 4* 

&Kpos 7. 5. 16,7. ill. 5. 

dXtip 7- *34. 8. 

d|u|>t S. 5. 

d^4>i<rpaT€tv D. I. ii. I. 

av S. 22. 

dvd S. 5. 

dva^i-y v<oo*K€iv : ( = dvaireidetv) 7. 7. 

144. 6. 
dvappiirrttv kiv&vvovs 7. 50. 20. 
dWicaftcv 7. 221. 4. 
dWo^ovro: c. inf. 7. 139. 30. 
dwC S. 5. 
dvrCos S. 4. I A. 
dirlpyciv 8. 35. 4. 
dirt S. 5. 

dpp«Sctv D. I. ii 1. 
-utcu D. 4. 3. 
&Tf : <:. ptc. S. 25. 4. 
dnfita: (at Sparta) 7. 231. 3. 

pdcravos 7. 10. a 6. 

?a|itfpos 7. 155. 8. 

ydp S. 31. 

y4)v tc xal CS<op 7. 32. 2. 

Y(vo|uu D. 2. 5. 

71W&CKM D. 2. 5. 

«yv»orinax€tv 7. 130. 7, 8. 29. 3. 



SI: in apod. 7. 51. 3, 7. 103. 10, 7. 153. 15, 
7. 157. 19, 7. 159. 8, 7. 160. 12. S. 27-28. 
SIkw|u D. 1. ii. 2. 
SIko|uu D. 2. 4. 
8* S. 33. 
84)0cv 8. 6. 10. 
Sid S. 5. 

Stcpydi;c<H)ai 7. 10. 7 9, 7. 224. 3. 
Sifrfe D. 2. 2. 

IOIXci: (is won/) = <pi\et 7. 50. 15; in 

fut. conds. S. 18. 3. 
cl|it D. 4. 5- 
Ik: {=hr6) c.gen. 7. 1 1. 14, 7. 16. 7 17, 

7. 164. 10. S. 5. 
Ikcuttos 8. 19. 12. 
Ik&v ctvat S. 23. 2. 
•EXXds: (adj.) 7.22. 16. 
IXOciv T)iitv Is H^xnv 7. 9. 7 6. 
l\irCg» »t 7. 157. 21. 
iv S.5; Iv x«P<rl *X"" 7- 5- IO » 7-47-5J 

Iv <p S. 20. 3. 
IvavrCos S.4.1A. 
IvOavra D. 2. 4. 
IvOcvtcv D. 2. 4. 
'EvWa 680C 7. 1 14. 2. 
Svtos: (for /act a£«J) 7. 100. 15. 
Ivtos IjicuvtoO 7. 47. 12. 
IfcXOctv: r. <*^«j. 7. 29. 1. 
tin fa S. 20. 3. 
tirC S. 5; lirl toOSc: (= Att. &w6 roOSe) 

7. 40. 11. 
429 



43<> 



HERODOTUS 



tirhcXiirof 7. 8. 3. 

Mo'Tafiai : {believe) 7. 218. 15, 8. 

25. 4. 
tir(<m||u : c. gen. 7. 22. 9, 7. 117. 3; c. 

dat. 7. 35- 13- 
liriTpoircvciv : c. gen. 7. 7. 8, 7. 62. 12; 

*:. aivftf. 7. 78. 9. 
4irut>oiTdv : r. dat. 7. 16. 2; c. a ecus. 

7- 16. 7 13. 
cpxojtai Xlgcav 7. 49. 14, 7. 102. 9. 
Is S. 5; ls& S.20.3; Isov S. 3.4,20. 3. 
Io*<ro0|&ai D. 1. ii. 2. 
fcrcpaXicfos 8. 11. 10. 
cftw : S. 20. 3. 

Ocoirpoiros 7. 140. I. 
O&pa D. 1. ii. 8. 

Ihto-Qai 8. 27. 15. 
t8rp {forest) 7. III. 4. 
t0vs D. 1. ii. 7. 
tpov 7. 140. 3. D. 1. ii. 7. 
"laves 7. 9. 4. 

KoXXupctv 7. 113. 10, 7. 167. 6. 

Kdpvcia 7. 206. 4, 8. 71. 8. 

KdpTa 8. 27. 5, 8. 37. 9. 

Kcvrd S. 5. 

KaTcvycXdo-ai : c. dat. 7. 9. 6. 

KaTaXa|if3dvci : {it happens) 8. 55. 6. 

KctTairpotfccu 7. 17. 9. 

KaTOpvo*o*ctv : (3«rj/ alive) 7. 114. 7, 11. 

kiOcov D. 2. 4. 

KotXa 8. 13. 7. 

k<5t€ D. 2. 1. 

k&s D. 2. 1. 

XajifkLva : Ionic forms, D. 4. 8. 
\a|MraSt]<^op(T| 8. 98. 13. 
XcCirarOcu : {to be inferior to) 7. 48. 6. 
AuraC 7. 123. 12. 



lidXurrd kjj 8. 8. 13. 

(i^aOos D. 1. ii. 1. 

McXdpmryos 7. 216. 7. 

liciJ^Ocfe 7. 146. 8. 

\Uv S. 26. 

Herd S. 5. 

|icraPovXcilc<r6at 7. 12. 8. 

|UTc£6rcpa 8. 8. 16. 

|UxP l °« s - 2 °- 3 J I^XP 1 *■*» 8. 3. 9. 

|M|8l S. 29. 

|uv S. 9. 5. - * 

vrfi* : forms, D. 3. i. 7. 
vik$: {it prevails) 8. 9. 3. 
vOvtc 8. 101. 18. 

ot S. 9. 5. 

ota : c. ptc. S. 25. 4. 

oi ft S. 9. I c. 

ok«s: temporal S. 20. 3; final S. 21. 5. 

opiXctv 7. 26. 10, 7. 214. 11. 

6|t6i|nf)<f>os 7. 149. 16. 

ovcipos: 7. 15. 9; 6vetpov 7. 16. /3 3. 

oppfyrfai 8. 12. 12, 8. 35. 2. 

opoo-dyyen 8. 85. 14. 

0$: (in ei-clause) 7. 9. 11 ; (with single 

word in prot.) 7. 10. 10. S. 18. 2. 
{ij) 0$ : after jxaWov, 7. 16. 7 5. 
o*84 S. 29. 
oipavos 7. 8. 7 6. 
ofi-rw 7. 19. 12, 7. 175. 14. 

irdyx v 8. 10. 3, 8. 12. 7. 

iraXftv : 8. 21. 5. 

irapd : S. 5 ; {c. gen. of agent) 7. 103. 

1 1 ; (for gen. or if with compar.) 7. 

103. 21. 
irapaf&Wc<r6ai : {wager) 7. 10. 6 4. 
irap^xii: {it is possible) 8. 8. 8. 
ircipdv, impcurOai 7. 9. /3 12. 
irctp»|iai : (with suppi. ptc.) 7. 9. a 5. 



GREEK INDEX 



43* 



Illpyapos : (of Troy) 7. 43. 6. 
ircpC S. 5. 

iriicp&v ti8«p 7. 35. 7. 
ol irXctovcs 7. 149. 12. 
irtfXcpos: (personified) 7. 220. 12. 
iroXXairXtfjo-iov : (as compar.) 7. 48. 5. 
irpCv S. 23. 8. 
irpd S.5. 

irpoSotivoi: (= iviXiiretv) 7. 187. 7. 
trpdicarc 8. 65. 8. 
irp6|iavns 7. in. 8, 7. 141. 11. 
irpfe: S. 5 ; (c. gen. of agent) 7. 2. 12, 
7. 5. I2 f 7. 10. 17 12, 7. 16. a 7, 7. 18. 13. 
irvp^dpos 8. 6. 11. 

<ra-y&pis 7. 64. 6. 
«r*v S. 5. 

o-wCo-TOo-Oai 8. 27. 23. 
<rvvrpo<J>o$ 7. 102. 5. 
o-^a S. 9. 4. 
<r<^€ts S. 9. 1 0. 

rdpvfiv D. I. ii. I. 

Tavra: (looking forward) 7. 84. I. 

T€ S. 30. 

Ti&voi v6\lqv 7. 8. a 2. 

tis : S. 1 1 ; (intruding in attrib. pos.) 7. 

143. 2, 7. 146. 9. 
rp&\M D. 1. ii. 8. 

virapxos 7. 6. 3. 
viWp S. 5. 
viri S. 5. 

+€p^nrvo« 7. 49. 8. 

XcCp: (&*»</) 7. 20. 4, 7. 157. 14. 
Xpfyrtiai <rv|i<|>op{) 8. 20. 9. 

<S8t 7. 15. 15, 7. 62. 7, 7. 133. 1. 
&v S. 32. 



«S : (= &<rr€) 7. 24. 6. S. 23. 3 ; {c.fut. 

for inf.) 7. 161. 6; c.pte. S. 25. 3. 
as 8' atii-us 7. 86. 9, 8. 21. 6. 
wt Sc kcU 7. 104. 15. 
cbo-cC 7. 109. 11. 
fto-ircp S. 20. 3. 
wore : (pleonastic) 7. 6. 4 ; <:. inf. S. 23. 

4; <:.//<-. S. 25.4. 



Once Used Terms : &iro( clpi)p4va : d7xo- 
rkpn\ 7. 175. 6; d&ovt/cfo-epos 7. 187. 
16; 7J'<3/*a 7. 52. 3; dtadlgtor 7. 180. 
4; 66ki)<tis 7. 185. 3; iaUvai (rb v5wp) 
7. 109. 7; &ri<rraT€<j' 7. 22. 9; Itto- 
dpA/uos ^1X6$ 7. 158. 20; 6fi6<riTOi 7. 
"9' I3» ApxyMv 7» I44« 5> vpoSticrwp 
7. 37. 14; irpoavnidvyta 7. 129. 15; 
<n/w£776\oj 7. 230. 5; ffvvlicirapxos 7. 
88. 2; TaxwiXwrop 7. 130. 9; toiovto- 
Tpowov 7. 227. 2; inrod^ios 7. 49. 10; 
inrefripfju} 7. 225. 4; xetptdwrAs 7. 61. 
4; axrel 7. 109. II. 

Herodotean Words: Ayepeis 7. 5. 3, 7 
48. 9; diriow 7. 9. a 9; dirapr 1X07/17 
7. 29. 13; drpeictos 7. 10. 17 10; 8c- 
561-w<r0e 7. 135. 11; SevTepa 7. 8. 13; 
dtiicpoos 7. 129. 19; Hicpoos 7. 129. 15; 
?Xa<ri$ 7. 6. 26; £*(#Xv<ris 7. 129. 4; 
br&yepais 7. 19. 12; iirafjpevis 7. 158. 
IO; fViXd/Mreii' 7. 13. 2; ei/airifriTTOS 
7. 63. 4; evirp6<TU)Tra 7. 168. 9; 0*;Xv- 
dplris 7. 153. 22; Mew 7. 8. 5; 
Karaeldu) 7. 191. 7; KarTjyefxuv 7. 128. 
15; tcarriytofjuii 7. 130. I; KaraKpcovp- 
yeiv 7. 181. 5; KOTa0otTe?i' 7. 125. 3; 
/jLeXedcovds 7. 31. 9; <riTo<f>6pos 7. 125. 
2; (rvvtraipos 7. 193. 10. 

Herodotean Idioms: dytvei* 7. 25. 7; 
drapalveiv (= dicopalveiv) 7. 10. 6; 
dirovoareiy 7. 10. 9; ivurrarelv 7. 



43 2 



HERODOTUS 



22. 9; IdMai 7. 208. 2; Kardirep 7. 16. 
a 5; KaraXdfx^aveLv (settle) 7. 9. /3 10; 
<rvyxup€ii> (= irapaxupciv) 7.-161. 1 8; 
0op/8ifr (food fox men) 7. 107. 11. 
Herodotean Constructions : dvapr^pxii 
c. inf. 7. 8. 7 I ; dvacrirdv fficqrtjv 7. 1 19. 
20; drW *". inf. 7. 170. 14; Atcus $p*€- 
vos ybvov 7. 61. 16; a&rov ryde 7. 10. 
12; elirat es <r^ 7. 15. 5; iicTeivetv 
iraaav irpodv/xiijp 7. 10. f 6; eV Si 8r) 
teal 7. 224. 8; 4v x € P*l ^X 6 *" 7* 5* IO 
(cp. /*erd x e 'P a * ^X et " 7» 16. /3 10); 4s 
Xctpas &£e<rOai 7. 8. I ; 4irhrra/jtai *. */*/C 
7. 172. 13; ivitvai. (r6 v5wp) 7. 109. 7; 
e*$ tf 7. 58. 17, 7. 225. 4; cifplffKCW 
c. in/ 7. 12. 3; tcTaaOai tto\{/movs 7. 9. 

2 » 7- 175- 3* 7- 2 36. 19; &" w 7- 7- 4, 
7. 8. 5 ; m^XP* o5 7. 60. 1 1 ; tficwt = &t 
7. 159. 5, 7. 161. 5; irpo<ptp€iv v6\epjov 
7. 9. 7 2; inrepotKecv c. a ecus. 7. 113. 2. 
Herodotean Periphrasis : 7. 2. 5, 7. 3. 13, 
7. 5. 3, 7. 11. 7, 10, 7. 30. 1, 7. 58. 6, 

7- 99- 3» 7- io 5- 2 , 7- "3- 6, 7. *7 2 - "» 
7. 190. 10, 7. 193. 13, 7. 194. 16, 7. 
203. 1, 7, 7. 207. 5. 
Homeric Words: &ToOopetv 7. 182. 7; 

a<r<ro>' 7. 233. 7; dricov 7. 223. 22; 
7^pa? 7. 3. II; clddfievos 7. 56. 6; 
OeoTTp&mov 7. 117. 9; tccpalfa 7. 125. 
4; /upm 7. 134. 2; fierapdarrii 7. 161. 
20; tv/a/3oxo€ii' 7. 117. 8. 



Homeric Constructions: <W* <% <&/. 7. 

I 43* 9» Se&repa aftrij 7. 141. 5; did 
irdirwi' 7. 83. 8; eVArx*™ 7. 128. 15; 
6 8e* (Horn, repetition of subj.) 7. 6. 24, 
7. 8. 7 I3» 7- 9. * 2, 7. 10. $ 11, 7. 125. 
5» 7- J 63- 7» 7- 218. 18, 7. 224. 2; ol = 
euJrfp 7. 8. 5 5; rtfAveir SpKiov 7. 132. 
5 (cp. 7. 124. 4); rts 7. 5. 12; foro^- 
veiv c. suppl. ptc. 7. 101. 8, 7. 209. 18; 
m Ay c. opt. 7. 176. 24. 

Ionic Words: dXlfriv 7. 170. 5; dprcc- 
vdai 7. 143. 16; Sikcu6w 7. 159. 7; 
5t£6s 7. 205. I ; irepoiov<r0ai 7. 225. 7; 
/xereZtrepos 7. 142. 6; £w<a (= po/mm) 
7. 228. 9. 

Poetical Words and Phrases : aUl core 
7. 102. 5; alvot 7. 107. 6; alxnt 7. 
152. 16; a$x«" 7. 103. 13; 7«3/ia 7. 
52. 3 ; dctpaltKa 7. 103. 21 ; 6omy 
7. I. IO; iXivvut 7. 56. 4; itrhrttv 7. 8. 
a 7; Hp8e<TK€ 7. 33. 11; 4fp«ros 7. 191. 
4; fy^av 7. 8. /3 13; 4t fct/ia fidXKeiw 
7. 139. 29; etypdwi 7. 12. 1; jcpartfvw 
7. 156. 4; Kudos 7. 8. a 14; ficrdpaios 
7. 188. 15; /ii;W« 7. 169. 6; Kim* 7. 
158. 7; Sui'Oi' 7. 53. 7; OAuXei*: (of 
place) 7. 26. 10, 7. 214. 11; 6\f>lyopos 
7.3. 15; vai8o<l>6vos 7. 190. II; rta/iw 
7. 10. 5, 7. 85. 7; ff-nftdrrup 7. 81. 6; 
ffTdpvvfuy. 54. 4 (cp. 7. 193. 5); ret- 
XeW ict^Siw 7. 139. 10; Te>M« 7. 54. 8. 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Abae 8. 27, 8. 33, 8. 134. 

Abdcra 7. 109, 7. 126, 8. 120. 

Abronichus 8. 21. 

Abydenes 7. 44. 4, 7. 95. 7. 

Abydos 7. 33 f., 7. 37. 7, 7. 43 *- 7. 43> 7- 

147.11,7.174.3,8.117,8. 130. 
Acanthus 7. 115. 8. 
Accusative S. 2. 
Aceratus 8. 37. 3. 
Achaeans Phthiote 7. 132. 3; of Pelo- 

ponnese 8. 73. 
Achaia (Phthiotis) 7. 173. 4; of Pelo- 

ponnese 7. 94, 8. 36. 
Achaemenes 7. 7. 6, 7. 97. 6. 
Acheron 8. 47. 
Acraiphia 8. 135. 
Acropolis of Athens 7. 142, 8. 41, 8. 51- 

56. 

Adverbs S. 14. 

Aeacidae 8. 64, 8. 83-84. 

Aeacus 8. 64. 

Aegaleos 8. 90. 21. 

Aegialia 7. 94. 6. 

Aegina 7. 147, 8. 41, 8. 60, 8. 64, 8. 79, 

8. 81, 8. 83, 8. 84, 8. 92, 8. 1 31-132. 
Aeginetans 7. 144-145, 7. 203, 8. 1, 8. 46, 
. 8. 74, 8. 84, 8. 86, 8. 91-93, 8. 122. 
Aeolidae 8. 35. 6. 
Aeropus: brother of Perdiccas 8. 137. 5; 

son of Philip 8. 139. 3. 
Aeschraeus 8. 11. 
Aetolians 8. 73. 
Agamemnon 7. 159. 2, 
Aglaurus 8. 53. 8, 



Agora 7. 58. 12. 

Agreement S. I. 

Ahuramazda 7. 40. 15, 7. 114. 10. 

Ajax 8. 64, 8. 121. 

Alabanda : in Caria 7. 195. 2; in Phrygia 

8. 136. 
Alcetes 8. 139. 

Alcibiades 8. 17. 5. ' 

Aleuadae 7. 6. 8, 11. 
Alexander 7. 173. 15, 8. 34, 8. 1 21, 8. 

136-137, 8. 139-144- 
Alos 7. 173. 5. 
Alpenoi 7. 176. 9, 7. 229. 5. 
Alpenos 7. 216. 5. 
Alyattes 8. 35. 
Ambraciots 8. 45, 8. 47. 
Ameinias 8. 84, 8. 93. 
Amestris 7. 1 14. 8. 
Amphiaraus 8. 134. 
Amphicaea 8. 33. 
Amphictyons 7. 200. 10. 
Amphilochus 7. 91. 10. 
Amyntas 7. 173, 8. 136, 8. 139, 8. 140. 
Anagyrus 8. 93. 
Anaphora 7. 9. a 1, 7. 18. 9, 7. 119. 4, 

8. 8. 5. 
Anaxandrides : son of Theopompus 8. 131 ; 

son of Leon 7. 148, 7. 158, 7. 204 f. 

8. 71. 
Anaxilaus: of Rhegion 7. 165. 12; 

Spartan 8. 131. 
Androdamas 8. 85. 
Andromeda 7. 61. 14. 
Andros 8,66,8. 108,8. Ill, 8. XI 2, 8. 121, 



433 



434 



HERODOTUS 



Anopaea 7. 175. 6, 7. 2i/> f. 

Antander 7. 42. 6. ' 

Anticyra 7. 198. 9; men of 7. 214, 8. 21. 

Antidorus 8. 11. 

Aorist S. 15. 3. 

Aphetae 7. 193. 13, 7. 196, 8. 4, 8. 6-8, 

8. 11-12, 8. 14. 
Aphidnae 8. 125. 
Apollo 7. 26, 8. 33, 8. 134-135- 
Appositive designation 7. 8. 11. 
Arabians 7. 69 f. 
Arcadia 7. 90. 7, 8. 26; men of 7. 170, 

7. 202, 8. 72-73. 
Archidamus 8. 131. 
Areopagus 8. 52. 
Ares 7. 76, 7. 140, 8. 77. 
Argaeus 8. 139. 

Argives, Medism of, 7. 152 (cp. 7. 73. 16). 
Argos, Persian negotiations with, 7. 148- 

152; home of Perdiccas, 8. 137-138. 
Ariabignes 7. 97. 1 ; 8. 89. 2. 
Arians 7. 62. 4, 7. 66. 
Ariaramnes 8. 90. 25. 
Ariphron 7. 33, 8. 131. 
Aristagoras 7. 8. /3 11. 
Aristides 8. 79, 8. 81, 8. 95. 
Aristodemus, at Thermopylae, 7. 229, 

7. 231. 2, 7. 232; Spartan king, 7. 204, 

8. 131. 
Aristomachus 8. 131. 
Aristophanes, parody of Hdt., 7. 14. 7. 
Arsames 7. 69. 14, 7. 70. 2. 
Artabanus 7. 10-12, 7. 15-18, 7. 46-52, 

7. 66 f., 7. 75, 7. 82, 8. 54. 2. 
Artabazus 7. 66. 6, 8. 126-129. 
Artachaees, son of Artaeus, 7. 22. 8, 

7. 117. 4; father of Artayntes, 8. 130. 
Artaeans 7. 61. 12. 
Artanes 7. 224. 10. 
Artaxerxes 7. 151. 8. 
Artayntes 8. 130. 



Artemis 7. 176, 8. 77. 

Artemisia 7. 99, 8. 68, 8. 69, 8. 87-88, 

8. 93, 8. 101, 8. 103, 8. 107. 
Artemisium 7. 175. 12, 7. 176. 4, 8. 2, 

8. 4-6, 8. 8, 8. 11, 8. 14, 8/16, 8. 21-23, 

8. 40, 8. 42-46, 8. 66, 8. 72, 8. 82. 
Article S. 8. 
Artystone 7. 69. 13. 
Asia 8. 109, 8. 1 18-9, 8. 126, 8. 136. 
Asine 8. 73. 
Asopus 7. 199. 8. 
Aspiration D. 2. 3. 
Assyrians 7. 63. 
Asyndeton 7. 50. I, 7. 162. I. 
Atarneus 7. 42. 4, 8. 106. 4. 
Athena 7. 43, 8. 37, 8. 39, 8. 55, 8. 94, 

8. 104. 
Athenians, saviors of Hellas, 7. 139; at 

Artemisium, 8. 1-5 ; at Salamis, 8. 84- 
. 86, 8. 95; in negotiations with Mar- 

donius, 8. 140-144. 
Athens, capture of, 8. 52-55. 
Athos 7. 22. 29. 
Atossa 7. 2. 7, 7. 3. 19. 
Atramytteum 7. 42. 6. 
Attraction, S. 13. 3; in vers?, 7. 145. 18. 
Augment D. 4. 1. 
Autonous 8. 39. 

Bacis 8. 20, 8. 77, 8. 96. 

Bactrians 7. 64. I, 8. 113. 

Bagaeus 7. 80, 8. 130. 

Barathrum 7. 133. 5. 

Basileides 8. 132. 

Bebina 8. 125. 

Bermium 8. 138. 

Bibliography of Herodotean Syntax, pp. 

78-81; of texts and auxiliaries, pp. 

423-424. 
Bisaltia 7. 115. 5, 8. 116, 
Boebe 7. 129. 21, 



ENGLISH INDEX 



435 



Boeotians 7. 132, 7. 202, 8. 34, 8. 38, 

8.50,8.66,8. 113. 
Boges 7. 107.3, 7. 113. 5. 
Boreas 7. 189. 3. 

Bottiaea 7. 123. 20, 7. 127. 6, 8. 127. 
Brygians 7. 70. 4. 
Bubares 7. 22. 7, 8. 136. 

Cadmus 7. 163 f. 

Caicus 7. 42. 3. 

Calliades 8. 51. 5. 

Callias 7. 151. 5. 

Calyndians 8. 87-88. 

Camarina 7. 154. 20, 7. 156. 8. 

Cambyses 7. 1. 13. 

Camicus 7. 169. 7. 

Cane 7. 42. 4. 

Caphereus 8. 7. 

Cappadocians 7. 72. 8. 

Cardamyle 8. 73. 

Carene 7. 42. 4. 

Carians 7. 93, 7. 97-98, 8. 22. 

Carneian festival 7. 206, 8. 72. 

Carthaginians 7. 165. 10. 

Carystians 8. 66, 8. 112, 8. 121. 

Casmena 7. 155. 11. 

Caspians 7. 67. 

Castalian spring 8. 39. 

Cataract 7. 26. 13. 

Ceans 8. I, 8. 46. 

Cecrops 7. 141, 8. 44. 

Celaenae 7. 26. 11. 

Ceos (near Salamis) 8. 76. 8. 

Cephenes 7. 61. 11. 

Cepheus 7. 61. 13. 

Cephisus 7. 178, 8. 33. 

Cercopes 7. 216. 6. 

Chalcidians: of Euboea, 8. 1, 8. 46; of 

Thrace, 8. 127. 
Chalcidice 7. 185, 8. 127. 
Charadra 8. 33. 



Charilaus 8. 131. 

Chersis 7. 98, 8. 11. 

Chersonese, Thracian, 7. 22, 7. 33, 7. 58, 

8. 130. 
Chians 8. 106, 8. 132. » 

Chilon 7. 235. 6. 
Chronology 8. 15. 6, 8. 51. 5, 8. 56. 7, 

8. 66. 3, 8. 107. 4, 8. 113. 1. 
Cilicians 7. 77, 7. 91, 7. 98, 8. 14, 8. 68 7, 

.8. 100. 
Cimmerians 7. 20. 7. 
Cleinias 8. 17. 
Cleodaeus 7. 204, 8. 131. 
Cleombrgtus 7. 205, 8. 71. 
Colchians 7. 79. 
Colias 8. 96. 
Colossae 7. 30. 7. 
Conditional clauses S. 18. 
Coordination of gen. and adj. 7. 25. 2, 7. 

34.3. 
Copais 8. 135. 
Corcyraeans 7. 168. 
Corinthians 8. 1, 8. 5, 8. 21, 8. 43, 8. 61, 

8. 72, 8. 79, 8. 94. 
Corpse, torn by dogs and birds, 7. 10. 013. 
Corycian cave 8. 36. 
Cranaans 8. 44. 
Crestonice 8. 116. 2. 

Cretans, refuse aid to Greeks, 7. 1 69-1 71. 
Crissaean plain 8. 32. 
Critalla 7. 26. 3. 
Critobulus 8. 127. 
Crius 8. 92. 

Croesus 7. 30, 8. 35, 8. 122. 
Crotoniats 8. 47. 
Cyme 7. 194, 8. 130. 
Cynosura 8. 76. 8. 
Cynurians 8. 73. 11. 
Cyprians 7. 90, 7. 98, 8. 68 7, 8. 100. 
Cyrus 7. 8. a 6. 
Cythnus 7. 90, 8. 46, 8. 67. 



436 



HERODOTUS 



Damasithimus, of Caria, 7. 98. 8; of 

Calyndus, 8. 87. 
Danae 7. 61. 13. 
Danaus 7. 94. 4. 
Dardanus 7. 43. 12. 
Darius 7. 1. 2, 7. 3. 19, 8. 89; (wives of) 

7. 69. 14; (mission to Athens and 
Sparta) 7. 133. 

Dative S. 4 ; after iiri (= wp6s) 7. 164. 

10 ; for gen. with comps. of Kara- 7. 

146. 7; ethical 7. 161. 12. 
Daulis 8. 35. 
Delos 8. 132, 8. 133. 
Delphi 7. in, 7. 139-140. 8. £7, 8. 35, 

8. 82, 8. 114, 8. I2i f 8. 122; men of, 8. 

3&-39- 
Delphian tripod 8. 82. 5. 
Demaratus 7. 3. 2, 7. 101-104, 7. 209, 

7. 234-237, 7. 239, 8. 65. 
Demeter 8. 65. 
Democritus 8. 46. 13. 
Demonstrative, deictic, 7. 49. 2. 
Dicaeus 8. 65. 

Dieneces 7. 227. 

Dogs, Indian, 7. 187. 5. 

Dorian pentapolis 7. 93. I. 

Dorians 7. 95, 8. 31, 8. 45, 8. 46, 8. 66, 

8. 73, 8. 141. 

Dorieus 7. 158. 7, 7. 205. 4. 
Doris 8. 31, 8. 32, 8. 43. 
Doriscus 7. 59. I, 7. 105. 4. 
Drymus 8. 33. 

Dryopis 8. 31, 8. 43; men of, 8. 43, 8. 46, 
8.73. 

Egypt 7. 4. 2; men of, 7. I, 7. 4, 7. 25, 

7. 63, 8. 17,8. 687, 8. 100. 

Eion 7. 25. 11, 7. 107. 4, 7. 113. 4, 8. 118, 

8. 120. 
Elateia 8. 33. 
Eleans 8. 72. 



Eleusis 8. 65, 8. 85. 

Elis 8. 73. 

Ellopia 8. 23. 

Epanalepsis 7. 16. a 12, 7. 39. 18, 7. 43. 

7, 7. 56. 2, 7. 60. 12, 7. 167. 10. 
Epanastrophe 7. 29. 5, 7. 41. 11, 7. 104. 

21, 7. 210. 7. 
Ephesus 8. 103, 8. 105, 8. 107. 
Epialtes 7. 213 f. 
Epidaurus 8. 46; men of, 8. I, 8. 43, 

8. 72. 

Erechtheus 7. 189, 8. 44, 8. 55. 

Eretrians 8. 1, 8. 46. 

Erineus 8. 43. 

Erochus 8. 33. 

Etesian winds 7. 168. 27. 

Ethiopians q. 69, 7. 70. 

Euboea 8. 4, 8. 6-8, 8. 13, 8. 14, 8. 20, 

8. 68 a, 8. 69, 8. 86; men of, 8. 5, 8. 19, 

8.20. 
Eumenes 8. 93. 
Eunomus 8. 131. 

Euripus 7. 173, 7. 183, 8. 7, 8. 15, 8. 66. 
Europe 8. 51, 8. 97, 8. 108, 8. 109. 
Europus 8. 133, 8. 135. 
Eurybiades 8. 2, 8. 4, 8. 5, 8. 42, 8. 49, 8. 

57-64, 8. 74, 8. 79, 8. 108, 8. 124. 
Eurycleides 8. 2, 8. 42. 
Euryphon 8. 131. 
Eurytus 7. 229. 
Euxine shores, Athen. granary, 7. 147. 12. 

Figura etymologica 7. 10. 8 9. 

Final clauses S. 21. 

Fire signals 7. 183. 2. 

Fleet, of Hellenes, first sea fight, 7. 179- 

183, 7. 188; at Artemisium, 8. I; at 

Salamis, 8. 43-48, 8. 82; Persian, 7. 

89-95, 7« l %5* 4» 8. 66. 6. 
Future S. 154; middle with passive force, 

7- 39. 15- 



ENGLISH INDEX 



437 



Gauanes 8. 137. 

Gelon 7. 145, 7. 153-166, 7. 168. 

Genitive S. 3; chorographic, 7. 22. 4, 7. 

33. 3; of designation, 7. 156. 8; part. 

in attrib. position, 7. no. 6, 7. 129. 3, 

7. 156. II. 
Geraestus 8. 7. 
Gergithians 7. 43. 13. 
Gobryas 7. 2. 7. 
Gonnus 7. 128. 8. 
Gordias 8. 138. 
Gorgo 7. 239. 22. 
Gorgus 7. 98, 8. n. 
Gyagaea 8. 136. 

Halicarnassus 7. 99, 8. 104. 

Hamilcar 7. 165. 9, 7. 166 f. 

Hegesilaus 8. 131. 

Helle 7. 58. 10. 

Hellespont: 7. 6. 25; (width) 7. 34. 4; 
(fettered) 7. 35.4; (branded) 7.35-55 
(current) 7. 35. 12; (bridge of) 7. 33- 
36; (region about) 7. 94. 9, 8. 51, 8. 
87, 8. 97, 8. 107-111, 8. 115, 8. 117, 8. 
118, 8. 120. 

Helots 7. 229. 11, 8. 25. 

Heracles: altar of, 7. 176. 17 ; and Argo, 
7. 193; consumed, 7. 198. 12; fxe\d/x- 
wvyos, 7. 216. 6, 8. 43, 8. 131. 

Hermion 8. 73; men of, 8. 43, 8. 72. 

Hermotimus 8. 104-106. 

Herodotus, son of Basileides, 8. 132. 

Hexameter (accidental) 7. 178. 9, 7. 

225. 3. 
Hierophants 7. 153. 8. 
Hipparchus 7. 6. 15. 
Hippocratides 8. 131. 
Histiaea 8. 23-25, 8. 66. 
Histiaeotis 7. 175. n, 8. 23. 
Histiaeus 7. 10. 7 8, 7. 98. 7 ; Samian, 

8.85. 



Homeric: (imitation) 7. 159. 2; (reminis- 
cence) 7. 12. 7, 7. 16. 3, 7. 28. 5. 

Hyampolis 8. 28, 8. 33, 

Hybla 7. 155. 3. 

Hydarnes 7. 83. 3, 7. 135. 4, 7. 211. 4, 
7. 215-218, 8. 113. 9, 8. 118. 4. 

Hyllus 7. 204, 8. 131. 

Hyrcanians 7. 62. 10. 

Hystaspes 7. 64. 9. 

Iacchus 8. 65. 

Iambic verse (accidental) 7. 169. 6. 
Ida 7. 42. 7. 
Illyrians 8. 137. 
Imperfect S. 15. 2. 
Inarus 7. 7. 7. 

Indefinite relative clauses S. 19. 
Indians 7. 65, 8. 113. 
Indirect discourse S. 24. 
Infinitive S. 23; absolute, 7. 3. 17, 7. 24. 1, 
7. 104, 12; for imperative, 7. 141. 20, 

7. 159. 8, 7. 209. 24. 
Ion 7. 94, 8. 44. 

Ionian dodecapolis 7. 94. 1, 7. 95. 4. 
lonians 8. 10, 8. 22, 8. 44, 8. 46, 8. 48, 

8. 73, 8. 85, 8. 90, 8. 97, 8. 132. 
Ischenous 7. 181, 8. 92. 
Ismenian Apollo 8. 134. 

Isthmus : congress at, 7. 145 ; delibera- 
tions at, 7. 175, 8. 71, 8. 123; wall 
across, 7. 139. 10, 8. 71. 9; plan of 
retiring to, 8. 49, 8. 56, 8. 60, 8. 79. 

Ithamitres 8. 130. 

Kissians 7. 62. 7. 
Kyme 7. 194. 6. 

Lacedaemonians: at Artemisium, 8. 1-3; 

at Salamis, 8. 43, 8. 85. 
Laphystian Zeus 7. 197. 3. 
Lasos 7. 0. 17. 



438 



HERODOTUS 



Laurium 7. 144. 4. 

Lebadeia 8. 134. 

Lebaea 8. 137. 

Lemnos, ship of, 8. 11, 8. 82. 

Leonidas 7. 204-208, 7. 217, 7. 219-225, 

7. 228 f., 7. 233, 7. 238 f., 8. 15, 8. 21, 

8. 71, 8. 114. 
Leontiades 7. 233. 18. 
Leotychides 8. 131. 
Leucadians 8. 45, 8. 47. 
Leuce Acte 7. 25. 9. 
Libyans 7. 71. 

Lions 7. 125 f. 

Locrians 8. 32, 8. 36; Opuntian, 7. 203, 

7. 207, 8. 1 ; Ozolian, 8. 32. 
Lycomedes 8. 11. 

Lydians 7. 74. 
Lysicles 8. 21. 
Lysimachus 8. 79, 8. 95. 
Lysistratus 8. 96. 

Macedonians 7. 73, 7. 128, 7. 185, 8. 34, 

8. 127, 8. 137, 8. 138. 
Maeonians 7. 74. 2, 7. 77. 1. 




143- 
Mardontes 7. 80, 8. 130, 
Mascames 7. 106. 
Masistes 7. 82. 6. 
Massagetae 7. 18. 10. 
Maxim 7. 152. 7. 
Medea 7. 62. 5. 
Median official dress 7. 1 1 6. 3. 
Medians 7. 62, 7. 86, 8. 89, 8. 113, 8. 

130. 



Medizing Greeks, oath against, 7. 132. 

Megabazus 7. 97. 2, 7. 108. 5. 

Megacreon: (Jbon mot) 7. 120. 1. 

Megara 8. 60; men of, 8. 1, 8. 45, 8. 74. 

Megara Hyblaea 7. 156. 10. 

Megistias 7. 219, 7. 221, 7. 228. 

Melas River 7. 58. 13. 

Menares 8. 131. 

Mesambria 7. 108. 9. 

Micythus 7. 170. 22 ft. 

Midas 8. 138. 

Minos 7. 169. 

Mnesiphilus 8. 57. 2. 

Munychia 8. 76. 

Musaeus 7. 6. 12, 8. 96. 9. 

Mygdonia 7. 123. 17, 7. 124. 9. 

Mys 8. I33-135- 

Mysia 8. 106. 

Mysians 7. 74. 

Naxians 8. 46 

Neocles 8. 110. 

Neon 8. 32-33. 

Nicander 8. 131. 

Nike 8. 77. 

Nisaean horses and plain 7. 40. 10. 

Ocytus 8. 5, 8. 59. 

Oenone 8. 46. 

Oeta 7. 176. 14. 

Olympia 7. 170, 8. 134. 

Olympic games 7. 206, 8. 26, 8. 72. 

Olympus 7. 128. 2, 7. 129. 6. 

Olynthus 7. 122. 10, 8. 127. 

Onomacritus 7. 7. 11. 

Ophryneum 7. 43. 12. 

Optative S. 17-20. 

Opuntians 7. 203, 8. 1 . 

Oracles : (to Athenians) 7. 140 ; 

(Wooden Wall) 7. 141-143; (to Ar- 

gives) 7. 148. 



ENGLISH INDEX 



439 



Orchomenus: m Arcadia, 7. 202; in 

Boeotia, 8. 34. 
Oreithyia 7. 189. 4. 
Orneae 8. 73. 
Orpheus 7. 6. 12. 
Ossa 7. 128. 2, 7. 129.4. 
Otanes 7. 61. 9, 7. 82. 5. 
Othrys 7. 129. 7. 
Ozolian Locrians 8. 32. 

Pactyans 7. 67. 8. 

Paeonians 7. 124. 6, 8. 1 15. 

Pallene 7. 123. 

Pamphylians 7. 91, 8. 68 7. 

Panaetius 8. 82. 

Pangaeus, Mount, 7. 112 f. 

Panionius 8. 105-106. 

Panopeus 8. 34-35* 

fyphlagonians 7. 72. 

Parapotamii 8. 33-34. 

Parechesis 7. 89. 7, 7. 129. 8, 7. 194. 10. 

Parians 8. 67, 8. 112. 

Parnassus 8. 27, 8. 32, 8. 35-37, 8. 39. 

Paronomasia 7. 17. 23. 

Paroreatae 8. 73. 

Participle S. 25. 

Particles S. 26-33. 

Patronymic adjectives 7. 106. 5. 

Pausanias 8. 3. 

Pedasians 8. 104-105. 

Pedieis 8. 33. 

Peisistratidae 7. 6. 9, 8. 52. 

Pelasgians 7. 94-95, 8. 44. 

Peleus and Thetis 7. 191. 

Pelion 7. 129. 4, 7. 188, 8. 8, 8. 12. 

Pella 7. 123. 22. 

Peneus 7. 128, 7. 130. 

Perdiccas 8. 137, 8. 139. 

Perfect, periphrastic, 7. 2. 5, 7. 9. 10. 

Periphrasis 7. 5. 3, 7. 99. 3, 7. 105. 2. 

Perrhaebians 7. 128. 8, 7. 132. 2. 



Perseus 7. 11. 23, 7. 61. 13. 

Persian: fleet, 7. 89. I; supreme court, 

7. 194. 9; couriers, 8. 98. 
Persians: 7. 83, 7. 84; lashed into work, 

7. 22. 5; lashed into battle, 7. 223. 14; 
at Salamis, 8. 76, 8. 85. 

Personification 7. 37. 12, 7. 59. 14. 
Phalerum 8. 66, 8. 67, 8. 91-93, 8. 107- 

108. 
Pharnaces 7. 66, 8. 126. 
Phayllus 8. 47. 8. 
Philaon 8. II. 
Philip 8. 139. 
Phlegra 7. 138. 8. 
Phliasians 8. 72. 
Phocians 7. 217 f., 8. 27-33. 
Phoenicians 7. 96. 3, 8. 85, 8. 90, 8. 100, 

8. 119. 
Phoenix 7. 200. 1. 
Phratagune 7. 224. 10. 
Phrygia 8. 136. 
Phrygians 7. 73. 
Phryxus 7. 197. 4. 

Phylacus, Delphian, 8. 39; Samian, 8. 85. 

Pieria 7. 131. I. 

Pierians 7. 112. 2. 

Pillars of Hercules 8. 132. 

Pindaricum schema 7. 34. 4. 

Pindus 7. 129. 6, 8. 43. 

Piraeus 8. 85. 

Plataeans 7. 132, 7. 233, 8. I, 8. 44, 8. 50, 
8.66. 

Pleonasm 7. 37. 10, 7. 40. 3. 

Pluperfect, periphrastic, 7. 119. 16. 

Poetical: figure of speech, 7. 162. 6; plu- 
ral, 7. 169. 6. 

Pogon 8. 42. 

Polyas 8. 21. 

Polycritus 8. 92-93. 

Polydectes 8. 131. 

Poseidon 8. 55, 8. 129. 



44° 



HERODOTUS 



Positive and negative expressions in juxta- 
position 7. 40. 4, 7. 46. 13. 

Potidaea: 7. 123. 5, 8. 127-128; men of, 
8. 126-129. 

Prepositions S. 5. 

Present S. 15, I. 

Prexaspes 7. 97. 2. 

Procles 8. 131. 

Pronaea 8. 37, 8. 39. 

Pronouns S. 9-13. 

Proverbial sayings 7. 10. c 4, 7. 1 6. a 2, 
7. 57. 6, 7. 203. 10. 

Prytanis 8. 131. 

Psilosis D. 2. 3. 

Psyttaleia 8. 76, 8. 95. 

Ptoon 8. 135. 

Pylagorae 7. 213. 7. 

Pytheas 7. 1 81, 8. 92. 

Pythia 7. 140. 4. 

Pythius 7. 27. 1, 7. 28. 8, 7. 38. 2. 

Rate of sailing 8. 13. 7. 

Red Sea 7. 80. 2, 7. 89. 8. 

Rheginians and Tarentines, slaughter of, 

7. 170. 17. 

Rhetorical questions: 7. 9. 12, 7. 21. 3; 

figures, 8. 16. 7, 8. 68. 7 5. 
Rhodope 8. 116. 
Rhoeteum 7. 43. 1 1. 
Rivers drunk dry 7. 43. 3, 7. 58. 14, 7. 

108. 11, 7. 109. 2, 7. 127. 10, 7. 196. 10. 
Royal road 7. 115. 12. 

Sacians 7. 9. 7, 7. 64, 7. 96. 2, 8. 113. 
Salamis: 7. 141. 23, 7. 142. 15, 7. 143. 7 f., 

8. 11, 8. 40-42, 8. 44, 8. 46, 8. 49, 8. 
51, 8. 56, 8. 57, 8. 60, 8. 64-65, 8. 70, 
8. 74, 8. 76, 8. 78, 8. 82, 8. 86, 8. 89, 
8. 90, 8. 94, 8. 95-97, 8. 1 21-122, 8. 
124, 8. 126, 8. 180; (Cyprian) 7. 90. 6, 
8. 1 1 ; map of, p. 365. 

Samos 8. 85, 8. 130, 8. 132. 



Samothrace 7. 59. 1 1, 8. 90. 

Sandoces 7. 194. 7. 

Sardis 7. 1. 4, 7. 11. 15, 8. 105, 8. 106, 

8. 117. 
Sciathus 7. 176, 7. 179, 7. 183, 8. 7, 8. 92. 
Scione 8. 8, 8. 128. 
Sciras 8. 94. 
Scironian way 8. 71. 
Scribes, royal, 7. 100. 5. 
Scyllias 8. 8. 
Scythes 7. 163. 9. 
Sepias 7. 183. 17, 8. 66. 
Seriphians 8. 46, 8. 48. 
Sicania y. 170. 2. 
Sicily 7. 163-168, 8. 3. 
Sicinnus 8. 75, 8. 1 10. 
Sicyonians 8. 1, 8. 43, 8. 72. 
Sidonians 7. 96. 3, 8. 67-68, 8. 92. 
Sigmatism 7. 188. 9. • 

Silenus 7. 26. 15, 8. 138. 
Simonides 7. 225. 12, 7. 228. 17. 
Siphnians 8. 46, 8. 48. 
Sirom: (Hiram) 7. 98. 3. 
Sosimenes 8. 82. 

Sousa 7. 3. 3, 7. 151. 3, 8. 54, 8. 99. 
Sparta 7. 3. 1 1, 7. 234. 9. 
Spartans 7. 104. 4, 8. 2, 8. 42, 8. 1 14, 8. 

124, 8. 125. 
Sperthias and Bulis 7. 134-137. 
Stagirus 7. 115. 7. 
Stentoris, Lake, 7. 58. 17. 
Strattis 8. 132. 
Strymon 7. 24. 8, 7. 113. 4, 7. 114. 4, 

8. 115,8. 118,8. 120. 
Styrians 8. 1, 8. 46. 
Subjunctive S. 16, 18-20. 
Sun, libations to, 7. 54. 5. 
Sunium 8. 121. 

Supposed case as fact 7. 10. 2. 
Syennesis 7. 98. 4. 
Syleus 7. 115. 6, 



ENGLISH INDEX 



441 



Talent 7. 36. 21. 

Talthybius 7. 134. 2, 7. 137. 1. 

Tegea 7. 170, 8. 124. 

Telamon 8. 64. 

Tellias 8. 27. 

Temenus 8. 137. 

Tempe 7. 128. 3, 7. 172. 9, 7. 173. 6. 

Temporal clauses S. 20. 

Tenians 8. 66, 8. 82-83. 

Tenses S. 15. 

Terillus 7. 165. 5. 

Tethronium 8. 33. 

Thasians 7. 118. 4. 

Thebans: retained at Thermopylae, 7. 
222; (desert to Persians; survivors 
are branded) 7. 233; guide Persians, 
8. 50. 

Thebe 7. 42. 5. 

Themistocles 7. 143; 2, 7. 144, 7. 173, 
8. 4, 8. 5, 8. 19, 8. 22, 8. 23, 8. 57-59, 
8. 61, 8. 63, 8. 75, 8. 79, 8. 83, 8. 85, 
8. 92, 8. 108-112, 8. 123-125. 

Theocydes 8. 65. 

Theodoras' golden plane tree 7. 27. 9. 

Theomestor 8. 85. 

Theopompus 8. 131. 

Therma 7. 121. 4, 7. 124. 5, 7. 127. 1, 
7. 183. 13. 

Thermaic gulf 7. 122. 7, 8. 127. 

Thermopylae : (pass of) 7. 176; (wall at) 
7. 176. 18, 7. 215. 7, 7. 223. 10; (region 
about) 7. 198-201 ; (muster roll of 
Greeks at) 7. 202; (preparations for 
death struggle) 7. 208 f.; (defense of 
w. entrance) 7. 210-212; (allies sent 
home) 7. 219; (Grundy's theory) 
7. 220. 7; (final conflict) 7. 223-225; 
(Simonidean epitaphs) 7. 228; (losses 
at) 8. 24-25. 

Theron 7. 165. 4. 

Thespians 7. 222, 8. 25, 8. 50, 8. 66, 8. 75. 



Thesprotians 7. 176. 20, 8. 47. 
Thessalians: medize, 7. 172; enemies of 

Phocians, 8. 27-32. 
Thessaly: (geology of) 7. 129, 7. 130; 

(rivers of) 7. 129. 
Thracians 7. 75, 8. 115, 8. 116. 
Thriasian plain 8. 65. 
Tides 7. 198. 3. 
Tigranes 7. 62. 3. 
Timodemus 8. 125. 
Timoxenus 8. 128. 
Tithorea 8. 32. 
Tmesis S. 7. 

Torone 7. 22. 15, 7. 122. 9, 8. 127. 
Trachis : (district) 7. 1 76. 6, 7. 203. 15, 8. 21, 

8. 31,8. 66; (city) 7. 199. 1, 7. 201. 7. 
Triopion 7. 153. 5. 
Tritantaechmes 8. 26. 
Triteis 8. 33. 

Troezenians 8. 1, 8. 42, 8. 43, 8. 72. 
Trophonius 8. 134. 
Tyre 8. 67. 
Tyrodiza 7. 25. 10. 

Wish, hortatory, 7. 5. 9. 

Women, characterizations of, 7. 99. 14. 

Xanthippus 7. 33, 8. 131. 

Xerxes: (claim to throne) 7. 2 f.; (gene- 
alogy) 7. 11. 8; (dreams) 7. 12-15, 7« 
19; (full dress) 7. 15. 16; (magna- 
nimity) 7. 27-29, 7. 136, 7. 146 f.; 
(entertained by Pythius) 7. 27-29; 
(punishes Hellespont) 7. 35 ; (consults 
Magi about eclipse) 7. 37; (punishes 
Pythius) 7. 38 f.; (reviews host) 7. 100; 
(talks with Demaratus) 7. 101-104; 
(army fed) 7. 118; (at Tempe) 7. 128; 
(receives earth and water) 7. 130; 
(enumeration of army) 7. 184-187; 
(total of army) 7. 185. 13; (army's 



44* 



HERODOTUS 



daily food) 7. 187. 12; (beauty and 
stature) 7. 187. 16; (in Thessaly) 7. 
196; (sends scout to observe Greeks 
at Thermopylae) 7. 208; (questions 
Demaratus) 7. 209; (views assault) 7. 
212; (hires Epialtes) 7. 213; (confers 
with Demaratus) 7. 234 f.; (takes ad- 
vice of Achaemenes) 7. 237; (mal- 
treats corpse of Leonidas) 7. 238; 
(takes Athens) 8.50-54; (holds coun- 



cil of battle) 8. 67-69; (at Sal 
8. 86, 8. 88, 8. 90; (consults 
retreat) 8. 97, 8. 100-103; ( re 
8. 1 13-120. 
Xuthus 7. 94. 4, 8. 44. 

Zeus 8. 115. 18. 
Zone 7. 59. II. 
Zopyrus 7. 82. 8. 
Zoster 8. 107.